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Vol. XLIV. No. 1. 



Office, 220 Market St. 

The Professor of 


at the State Uni- 

The bright and kindly face which adorns this page will 
be instantly recognized by many Eural readers in all 
parts of the State, and the name written beneath is the 
one which is most frequently mentioned in connection 
with California agriculture in the household and in the 
public gathering. We are glad to have the opportunity 
to connect the face with the name, for both are alike good, 
and we are sure it will be acceptable to those who have 
hitherto been able only to honor the name, to admire the 
manner of man to whom the name belongs. And the 
opportunity comes in this wise: After nearly 18 years of 
unremitting service, the Regents of the State Uni- 
versity granted Professor Hilgard one year's leave 
of absence for rest and foreign travel, and last 
week he and his family took their departure. In 
his absence, we bring to the attention of our read- 
ers certain phases of his life and Vork, which are 
not perhaps widely known here, and which, in the 
progress of his active labors among us, it did not 
seem so fitting to recall. It is not our intention to 
allude at length to the facts best known to Oalifor- 
nians; to his coming here at a time when the rela- 
tions between the agriculturists and the university 
were somewhat strained, because, perhaps, of 
mutual misunderstandings, and of his signal suc- 
cess in winning for the university new interest and 
favor, by his personal acceptability, by his earnest 
and honest zeal in the agricultural interest, and by 
the exceptional originality and ability which char- 
acterized his work. Nor is it necessary to enlarge 
upon his success in building up the agricultural 
department of the State University, and in under- 
taking agricultural experiment station work so 
early that California can claim priority in efforts 
which are now progressing in all the States and 
Territories. These facts are known to most of our 
readers, as are also the extent and variety of his 
agricultural researches, which have furnished a 
basis for many industries and a motive force in 
others. It is rather the personal history of the 
man and the features of his work which have at- 
tracted widest attention abroad, as well as in Cali- 
fornia, that we shall endeavor to present. 

Eugene W. Hilgard was born in Zweibrucken, 
Rhenish Bavaria, on January 5, 1833, of distin- 
guished parents. His father becoming dissatisfied 
with the Government, resigned the chief justice- 
ship of the court of appeals and emigrated to 
America, settling on a farm near Belleville, Ills., 
where Eugene had a thorough schooling in all 
details of agriculture, and where he received a superior 
education from his father. When 16 years old he went to 
Europe, and studied at Heidelberg, Zurich, and at the 
Academy of Mines at Freiberg, in Saxony, taking the de- 
gree of Ph. D. at Heidelberg, in 1853, at the age of 20. 
After two years in Spain and Portugal, he returned to 
America, in 1855, i.o take charge of the chemical labora- 
tory of the Smithsonian Institution, and lectured on chem- 
istry at the National Medical College. In 1858 he was 
appointed chief geologist to Mississippi, having, however, 
been connected with the geological survey of that State 
for some years previous. As State geologist his work 
was vigorously pushed forward, and in 1869 was printed 
his report on the Geology and Agriculture of Mississippi, 
though not actually published until after the war. No 
other State report contains so much original matter, pre- 
sented in such a clear and orderly manner, as this. Up to 
the time of the publication of this report, the whole sub- 
ject of the cretaceous and tertiary of the Gulf States and 
of their soils was, with the exception of the information 
contained in the two reports of Tuomey^in Alabama, prac- 

tical! in darkness. In the light of Prof. Hilgard's Missis- 
sippi report, the study of the cretaceous and tertiary forma- 
tions of the other Gulf States becomes a comparatively 
easy task. 

In 1860 Prof Hilgard made a second trip to Spain and 
married, at Madrid, the daughter of Col. Manuel Bello of 
the Spanish army. During the war. Prof. Hilgard was 
mainly assigned to the duty of preserving the collections 
of the University of Mississippi at Oxford, continuing also 
the oflSce work of the survey, so far as his connection with 
the Confederate " Nitre Bureau " permitted. He took a 
prominent part in scientific matters connected with the 
Confederate army, and at the close of the war resigned as 
State geologist to become professor of chemistry in the 



University of Mississippi. His interest in geology did not 
cease upon becoming professor of chemistry, and many of 
his most important contributions to the science of geology 
were made during the period from 1865 to 1873. We 
need mention only his papers on the Quaternary Formation 
of the Gulf Region, his Geological Reconnoissance of 
Louisiana, his articles on the Mississippi River and its 
Delta and Mudlumps, and his Geological History of the Gulf 
of Mexico, all of which are authorities on the subjects of 
which thev treat. 

In the Mississippi report, the soils of the State are for the 
first time adequately treated and this, the beginning of along 
line of study and investigation of the chemical and physical 
properties of soils, continued up to the present time and 
still in progress. Some of the results of these investiga- 
tions have been published from time to time, such £s Soil 
Analyses and their Utility, Objects and Interpretation of 
Soil Analyses, Silt Analyses of Mississippi Soils, On the 
Flocculation of Particles, etc. These titles will show the 
position of the author in regard especially to the utility of 
the chemical analysis of soils, first taken in his Mississippi 
report, has been consistently maintained through all these 

years. When the Mississippi report was published, with 
the exception of Dr. Peter of Kentucky, Prof. Hilgard was 
about the only scientific man in the United States who 
held that it was possible to form any reliable estimate of 
the fertility of a soil from its chemical analysis. In the 
works above quoted, and particularly in the great work 
done by him for the tenth census, on Cotton Culture in 
the United States, the author has demonstrated that the 
chemical and physical analysis of our virgin soils, properly 
interpreted, together with accurate observations of the 
timber growth, and other characters of these soils, in their 
natural condition, furnish the data from which it is per- 
fectly feasible to ascertain both their agricultural value 
and their proper treatment in cultivation. Hence, Prof. 
Hilgard is a warm advocate of agricultural surveys, 
for the benefit of farmers, and is constantly urging 
the general government to give proper attention 
to the bearings of geology upon agriculture, and 
the study of the soils in their natural conditions, 
while it is still possible to do so. 

One of the results of this long and laborious 
series of investigations has been to carry conviction 
to the minds of a number of the scientific men of 
the country, and at the present time Prof. Hilgard 
has a strong support both in this country and 
Europe, where his work is well known, and as mu 
appreciated there as it is here. 

An ingenious worker and expert glass blow 
he constructed, himself, much of the apparatus 
needed by him in his lectures and in his soils' in- 
vestigations. His apparatus for the mechanical 
analysis of soils is the best of its kind and appears 
to have overcome the difiiculties which previously 
made such analyses of comparatively little value. 
It is largely used in Germany, where that class of 
careful and thorough-going investigation is more 
frequently carried on than here. 

While Prof Hilgard was in charge of the chemical 
department of the University of Mississippi, lab- 
oratory work was first introduced as part of the 
course of instruction in chemistry. This course, 
though for a long time entirely optional, was taken 
by a number of students, some of whom have since 
risen to distinction, and have spread the teachings 
of Hilgard into other States. 

In 1873 Prof. Hilgard accepted the chair of geol- 
ogy and natural history in the University of Mich- 
igan; but the climate proving too severe for his 
health, he accepted the professorship of agricultural 
chemistry in the University of California; and in 
the spring of 1875, moved with his family to Berke- 
ley, Cal., where be has since resided. 
Prof. Hilgard has been a frequent contributor to the 
scientific and agricultural press. As may be inferred, he 
is a man of the people as well as of science, and is an in- 
defatigable worker. His writings are characterized by 
great force, and clearness of expression, and sprightliness 
of style that make them all pleasant reading. In conver- 
sation he is bright, animated and sympathetic. 

Prof. Hilgard is a member of the National Academy of 
Sciences and of other scientific bodies. He has three 
times received the degree of LL. D., first by the Univer- 
sity of Mississippi, next from Columbia College on the 
occasion of the celebration of the centennial anniversary 
of that institution, in 1887, and subsequently, in the same 
year, the same honor was conferred upon him by the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, at the celebration of its semicenten- 
nial anniversary. 

In behalf of our readers who know so well the value of 
his life and work we express a sincere hope that his so- 
journ abroad will give him rest and recreation, and that 
he will return to us a year hence refreshed and eager for 
another score of years of California life and effort both of 
which are heartily enjoyed by him. 



Jdlt 2, 1802 


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ALrBED HOI.M AN Oenaral Manager 

Saturday, July 2, 1892. 


FDITORIALS.— The Professor of Agriculture at the State Univereity, 1. 

' 1 he Week- What can Produeerg Uo. Individually? Favorable Outlook 
for Wheat.' 2. Krom an Independent Stand|>oint, S. 
ILLUSTRATION.— Prof. E. W. Hilgard of the state University, 1. 
EVTOMOLOGIOAL.— A New Ladybird from Australia. 4. 
f'ORRESPONDESCE.— The " Poor Man's Dollar;" Crop Reports from 

' Fresno. T ilare and Merced Counties. 4. 

POULTRY VARU. -Organizing a Poultry Ranch, 5. , „ , 

HORTICTLTURE.— Peach Orowing in Georgia; Protection for £arly 

Cuoiimbers. B. . , ,. 

FRUIT PRESERVATION.— About Pickling Olives. 6. 
FRUIT MARKETING.— Woman's Canning and Preserving Company; 

The Peninsula Peach Crop, 6; Arizona Apricots In New York. 7. 
THE FIELD.— The Sugar Beet in California; Flax and Hemp. 7. 
THE HOME CIRCLE.— The Watches of the Night; The Emblematic 

Eagle- Doubtful Compliments, S; Old Franz' Song of the AngelB, 9. 
young' FOLKS' COLUMN. -My Trip to Bogus Settlement, 9. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Sundry Recipes, 9. . ^ ^ ,„ 

FLORIST AND GARDENER— California Pampas Plumes in Demand, 10. 
A'^RICULTURAL NOTES.— From Various Counties of California, 12. 
GOuD HEALTH— Influenza and the Eyes; Treatmentot Rheumatism, 14. 



Bolster Springs— Deere Implement Co. 

Fruit Trees, Grape Vines, Etc.— E. C. Clowes, Stockton. 

Eureka Fence— California Fence Co. 

Ral.sin Machinery— Fresno Agricultural Works, Fresno. 

Riveted Sieel Pipe— Abendroth & Root Manufacturing Co. 

Insurance— Home Mutual Insurance < o 

Dividend Notice— German Savings and Loan Society. 

Loan Wanted— John F. Byxbee. 

Shorthorn Bulls— Robert Ashburner, Baden. 

Improved Egg Food— B. F. Wellington. 

Sheep— C. H. Dwinelle, Fulton. 

See Advertiting Column). 

The Week. 

The weeks are falling to the dead level of midsummer, 
but it is a monotony of activity, not of idleness. The 
fruit is pouring from the orchards in three steady streams; 
to the overland trains, to the canneries and to the drying 
grounds. For weeks and weeks to come, these courses 
will run, and, during a similar period, in the fruit regions 
of the interior, the sun will rise, glare and decline with 
scarcely a cloud to obscure it. 

Even on the coast there will be long stretches of sun- 
shine. Compilations made by the Weather Bureau last 
week show that during the last 15 years the greatest 
precipitation in July at Sacramento was a " sprinkle " and 
in S»n Francisco during 21 years it was less than one- 
quarter of an inch. And even these were rare exceptions. 
July in California has always been practically rainless. 

The full tide of travel to the Sierra resorts, to the Yo- 
semite and to Alaska has set in. The last of the schools, 
the two great universities have closed for the summer. 
Society in large towns and cities is at a standstill. Even 
politics will be handled lazily. Galifornians are either 
too busy or too lazy to do otherwise at present. 

What Can Producers Do, Individually? 

Is it possible that, as a result of all the honorable and 
commendable effort which is now being put forth to secure 
cooperative action among producers in the preparation 
and marketing of their products, an idea may prevail that 
individual effort and enterprise cannot succeed; that no 
man or woman can hope to develop a successful business 
by individual enterprise and exertion ? If this notion 
should be too widely propagated, it would be unfortunate. 

Although it is undoubtedly wise to promote concerted, 
harmonious and cooperative action among producers, and 
to secure for producers the commanding position which 
proceeds from control of ample capital and of a large 
product, it does not follow that the individual is relieved 
from doing any enterprising thing in his own behalf which 
his ability, energy and the character of his product make 
possible. No matter how great may be the amount and 
value of produce which may be handled by producers' co- 
operative associations, there will still remain the oppor- 
tunity for the development of all the individual, produc- 
tive and commercial enterprises which we have means 
and brains to carry forward. These enterprises, too, will 
add immensely to the wealth and comfort of our people. 

Any man or woman who can produce something of distinc- 
tive excellence, and can give it characteristic style which 
commands consumers, should not relax a single effort be- 
cause of the agitation about cooperation. 

There will always be gilt- edged products by those who 
have especial talent and zeal in production and marketing, 
which will minister to a special and remunerative demand. 
These will usually issue from establishments which enjoy 
locations near to good and capacious markets, which give 
opportunity for the exercise of the personal factors of 
brain, devotion and enterprise, which would fail of reward 
in unfavorable location and environment. What need 
have the producers of butter, eggs or bacon, who sell by 
yearly contract to clubs or wealthy families, for the 
creamery or the egg producers' association or the packing 
establishment? Evidently none; although it can be shown 
that it is to the advantage of extra choice products that 
prices of all goods in the same line be well sustained. We 
have no doubt a similar state ot affairs prevails in our 
fruit products to a certain extent, although possibly not 
yet so fully developed. 

These reflections are suggested by the reading of an ex- 
cellent letter by Prof. W. A. Henry in the Brtederi Gazette, 
in which he argues that, although the tendency is toward 
the multiplication and extension of great meat-packing 
concerns, there is still room for a great number of small 
concerns developed by individual skill and enterprise. We 
quote a few of his illustrations: 

Near a small city In Wisconsin, lives a farmer who started a 
few years ago with but a few dollars capitaK Beginning in the 
fall and nntil spring he prepares sausage, which finds ready 
sale in his commnnitv. This man is thrifty and making 
money. I am acquainted with a farmer near another city who 
each year cures several tons of salt pork, bacon and bams, and 
has no difiBculty whatever in disposing of it to city customers 
at good prices to the satisfaction of both parties. In a still 
larger way all have heard of Deerfoot sausage, ham and bacon. 
Years ago Mr. Edward Burnett one fall prepared the meat of 
eight hogs raised on his Deerfoot Farm, which hesold to friends 
in Boston. The meat was so satisfactory that the demand 
grew rapidly until now some 3000 hogs are each winter cured 
into products which find a ready sale at high prices all over the 
country. At times Deerfoot bacon is for sale in Madison, Wis- 
consin, and I have eaten Deerfoot sausage at Chatcanooea, Ten- 
nessee. 'These products are also for sale in the city of Chicago. 
Think of Massachusetts sending pork products to Chicago! Yet 
such is the fact. 

At Oconomowoc in Wisconsin, is located a small packing 
house which makes a specialty of small hams, bacon, etc. For 
this purpose young hogs not too fat are required, and I am in- 
formed that farmers are paid a fair advance over Chicago prices 
for all they can turn in. Only to-day a leading grocer of this 
city told me the following: He had handled Chicago hams for 
years and his trade in them had graduallv diminished until not 
over ten haras were sold per month. Changing a few months 
ago to the Oconomowoc hams he has from that time been sell- 
ing about fifty a month, with satisfaction to his customers and 
an increase in his profits. 

Prof. Henry's mind naturally ran upon meat products, 
for he was writing with special reference to small enter- 
prises as contrasted with great packing combines which 
are so powerful in the Central West. We seem also to 
be moving toward great concerns in the animal line, 
which shall lead to a great extension of our live stock pro- 
duction. If we attain these, there will still be opportunity 
for hundreds of small productive enterprises, which shall 
send out materials bearing the distinctive excellence which 
is only attainable by individual intelligence, devotion and 
energv. No matter how great the army, or how heavy 
the infantry firing, there is still the telling work of the 
sharpshooter as a factor of success. It is the same in 
general and special lines of production. 

And what is true of meat products is applicable also to 
the higher arts of dairy, poultry, orchard, vineyard and 
other farm products. Individual high-class production is 
not likely to be overdone, because its requirements are 
great. It takes insight to discern what are the character- 
istics of an ideal product, and what means and materials 
give the nearest approach to it. 

It takes business sagacity to lay the foundations of a 
trade and extend it, and without a degree of artistic sense 
and taste, an acceptable product in some lines cannot be 
secured. None of these and other essentials to success in 
the higher productive arts can be attained without more 
intense personal application to the subject, and often 
greater personal labor, than need be given to the outturn 
of the ordinary good commercial product. Any one hav- 
ing these requirements and the will to make use of them 
need not fear to embark upon the development of an indi- 
vidual line of production. His intelligence will insure 
style and quality, his business sense will prevent ventures 
for which there is no field, and his will to labor — why, we 
have, since classic times, had surety that it is irresistible. 

Naturally, individual efforts begin upon small scale en- 
terprises, and wisely so, because points have to be learned 
by current experience. The higher price which is usually 
attained for such products is but the fair reward for the 
greater thought and labor put upon them, and at first this 
is a great help to the producer with small resources, be- 
cause it is earnings of the producer himself and his family, 
and turns to value time which might otherwise be unre- 
munerative. Such efforts are possibly not Californian in 
' spirit, for the Californian prefers an extension-bit, even if 

a gimlet would answer better. And yet, while we are 
working hard and zealously for our great enterprises, and 
may their shadow never decrease, let us not lose sight of 
the importance of individual effort, or gain the idea that 
cooperation relaxes individual responsibility among co- 
operators, or precludes special and incisive effort in one's 
own behalf. 

Favorable Outlook for Wheat. 

In cereals the market partakes of the usual mi-lsummer 
holiday character, when all buying is for near by require- 
ments. Wheat probably has been the most inactive. The 
slow market in wheat is said to be due largely to fears 
of operators that the antioption bill now pending in Con- 
gress will be passed by the Senate. This bill has been 
strenuously opposed by dealers in futures, and as strongly 
supported by organized farmers and persons opposed to 
anything like gambling. There are many who believe 
that dealers in options have brought strong bear influ- 
ences to bear on the markets in this country and also 
abroad, so as to discourage the passing of the bill. If this 
opinion is well grounded, then, soon after the fate of the 
bill is known, more active times can be reasonably looked 
for, and the markets on this coast assume a bullish tone in 
conformity to the favorable condition of the money mar- 
ket in old financial centers, as well as to the favorable 
statistical position of the cereal. 

Never within the commercial and financial history ot 
the civilized world has money been in such large supply 
in leading financial centers with the rates of interest 
ranging so low as the present time. Loans have been 
made over night in London at the rate of one-quarter of 
one per^cent per annum, while for three month loans as 
low as five-eights of one per cent per annum has been 
accepted. In France and Germany, while the rates of 
interest are not so low as they are in England, they range 
lower than at any time within the history of those two 
countries. At the money centers in the Eastern States 
the rate of interest ranges very low. With cheap money 
there should not be any difficulty in promoting a specula- 
tion in wheat with the statistical position favoring a 
supply of the latter barely equal to the world's require- 
ments for the next twelve months. 

The old season goes out on comparatively light supplies 
of wheat in the demand and supply countries. But light 
as are the supplies they are not felt materially, owing to 
an absence of speculation. With active speculative trad- 
ing there is a hoarding of supplies and with a free with- 
drawal of grain from market an artificial scarcity is cre- 
ated, which soon causes the markets to respond. 

While the leading centers for handling grain may possi- 
bly have fully as much wheat on hand on July Ist, 1892, 
as there was the corresponding date in 1891, yet the fact 
must not be ignored that high average prices in 1891 drew 
supplies from all available sources, and consequently the 
visible and invisible supplies will not now equal the corre- 
sponding supplies at this time last year. But admitting 
that the supplies are about the same, even then the situa- 
tion is favorable for an advance in prices for wheat before 
nine months pass. In India, Great Britain, Australasia 
and the United States the crop is considerably less this 
year than it was in 1891. The large shortage in the above 
countries is very considerably greater than is the increase 
in other countries of the crop this year compared with the 
crop in 1891. Not only does wheat show a falling off, take 
all countries as a whole, but corn will be very materially 
less. In the United States the crop under the most favor- 
able weather conditions will not be within 400,000,000 
bushels of the yield in 1891. In Russia and other corn- 
growing countries the crop will not aggregate any more 
than it did in last year. The rye crop in Germany prom- 
ises to be larger this year than it was in 1891, but even 
then it is not expected to be an average of the root crops 
outside of the United States. We are not so well advised, 
but the tenor of advices does not warrant the belief that 
the yield will be much more than it was in last year. la 
this country there will most certainly be a considerable 
falling off, particularly in potatoes. In speculating on the 
wheat supply the wheat crop is no mean factor and cannot 
be ignored, for potatoes and other root vegetables enter 
largely as articles of food and when the supply is short 
and prices are high wheat is eaten more extensively. With 
a certainty of shortage, when compared with the crops in 
1891, in the world's crop of wheat and also in the crop of 
corn, and a probably lessened yield of root vegetables, the 
outlook for good renumenative prices for wheat is of the 
most encouraging character. 

Competition. — It is is a mean sort of competition, but 
perhaps the Southern Pacific will respect it. It is reported 
that 10-ton wagons are being built in Stockton for freight 
hauling to and from Fresno, in opposition to the railway. 
What kind of a railway must it be to be beaten by a mule 

July 3, 1892 

pAClFie I^URAlo f RESS. 


From An Independent Standpoint. 

The telegraph dispatches announce that the presidential 
campaign was fairly started in the Senate on Tuesday of 
this week by a resolution offered by Mr. Hale of Maine, 
stating the fact that " at no time has so large a portion of 
the American people been employed at so high wages and 
purchasing the necessities of life at so low prices as in 
1892; and whereas these conditions exist and are largely 
due to the Republican policy of protection, the Committee 
on Finance is directed to inquire into the policy of tariff 
for revenue only upon the labor and industries of the 
United States, and to report the same." This, of course, 
was throwing down the gauntlet to the Democrats, and 
Mr. Vest, in their behalf, accepted the challenge and had 
much to say as to the McKinley Act increasing the cost of 
dry goods and hardware, reducing wages and causing 
strikes and labor troubles, referring particularly to the 
troubles at Carnegie's works. He also commented upon 
the choice of the new chairman of the Republican national 
committee, being in line with the policy of encouraging 
monopolies. There was more talk, back and forth, be- 
tween the two sides of the House, but, strangely enough, 
there was no man in the Senate of the United States 
who had the manliness and the sense of decent propriety 
to stand up and say that the Senate chamber of the nation 
was no place to inaugurate a political campaign, or in 
which to air partisan eloquence. It is a shame, indeed, if 
there are not slumps enough in this country for the poli- 
ticians, without turning the chief hall of national legisla- 
tion into a campaign wrangling place. 

The immediate interest in politics, as ia usual after na- 
tional conventions is the attitude of the disappointed. No 
party can, or at least no party has the courage to depend 
wholly upon its better elements, and so, even when casting 
out its devils, it looks out so far as it can that they do 
not abandon it altogether. There is just now serious con- 
cern in the Democratic camp as to the policy of the New 
York Tammany Society in the coming campaign. Open 
hostility is not feared, for honoraVle frankness in any line 
of policy is never expected from Tammany, but apathy 
would practically be as bad as opposition. The active in- 
terest of Tammany is the essential condition of Demo- 
cratic success in New York, and this accounts for the fact 
that the men who were manfully fighting the " tiger " at 
Chicago last week, and who succeeded in overciming him, 
are now trying to coax him into good humor. The out- 
come is uncertain. Tammany is not exempt from that 
caddish sentiment of hatred to the country at large which 
is characteristic of New York, and nothing short of sub- 
stantial considerations will induce him to forego bis re- 
venge. Tammany's price will be the Government patron 
age in New York, and it remains to be seen if Mr. Whit 
ney, who is managing Mr. Cleveland's campaign, will be 
weak enough to give it. We believe that Mr. Cleveland 
is an honest man, who would rather be beaten than to 
make the concession. All the other opponents of Cleve- 
land at Chicago — Watterson, Brice, Carlisle, and even 
Gorman — are marching gaily enough to the party music, 
and will give their efforts this year, as usual, to the party 
cause. The chairmanship of the Democratic national 
committee has not yet been arranged, but Mr. Brice will 
probably retire, leaving the place to Mr. Whitney or to 
somebody who will carry out his policies and move as he 
directs. The disappointed Republicans have been more 
prompt to announce their continued allegience. All have 
volunteered the assurance that they will " stand in " for 
the campaign, so there now remains on the Republican 
side no malcontents, save the silver advocates of Colorado, 
Nevada, Idaho and Montana. Mr. Clarkson spent some 
hours with the President on Saturday, and it was reported 
that he had been invited to continue in the chairmanship 
of the national committee, but at the meeting of the com- 
mittee on Monday, he denied the story, declining to stand 
for the chairmanship on the express ground that Mr. Har- 
rison preferred somebody else. Mr. W. J. Campbell of 
Ills., a new man in national politics, was then chosen in 
his place, and he it is who will command the forces in the 
coming fight. Mr. Campbell, it is reported, was the 
choice of Mr. Harrison, the committee having invited him 
to name its chairman; indeed, the whole temper of its 
meeting on Monday was that of complaisance to Mr. Har 
riaon, who seems to have inspired the proceedings from 
beginning to end. It strikes us that, on the whole, it 
would be in better taste if Mr. Harrison would permit the 
party to select its own chairman and make its own cam 
paign, resting content himself to perform his duties as 
President. The Chief Magistrate of the country has 
no time to spare in the promotion of partisan politics, 
even when his personal interests are at stake, and he would 
do better to leave it alone. 

Mr. Clarkson made a speech at the committee meeting 
above referred to, which the telegraph reports as follows: 

Referring to the campaign of 1888, and the work of Quay and 
Dudley, he said he hoped that there was no Republican in this 
land who would ever cease to render due honor to those two 
honorable men who went into the hottest fire for the Republi- 
can party, and emerged victorious and without detraction. He 
had known many men and had a large friendship in the coun- 
try, and he wanted to say that upon his dying bed he could not 
name two men more to be loved and honored than Quay and 
Dudley. He warned the committee against the growing ten- 
dency in the Republican party, under the hypocrisy of the 
times, not to defend its party leaders. Quay and Dudley were 
attacked by a party whose success was derived from the use of 
the linife in the South, and the assassination of character in the 
North. They were attacked, not because they were guilty of 
anything wrong in the campaign, but because they had won 
victory for the Republican party, and had restored the Govern- 
ment to an honest basis. 

In this there is the virtue of friendship and the courage 
of conviction, illustrating the difference between Mr. 
Clarkson as a man and Mr. Clarkson as a public man. It 
is this difference which makes him, and those who stand 
with him, dangerous to the interests of the country. Per- 
sonally of fair character,'they seem willing to do in politics, 
without scruple, what in ordinary affairs they would scorn 
as pale, cold villainy. Mr. Ciarkson or his friends 
Quay and Dudley are no doubt to be trusted implicitly in 
the ordinary affairs of life, but in politics they are utterly 
without morah, have no regard for principles, follow only 
the devious ways of expediency, and seek only selfish ends. 
Such men are a curse to their party and their country. 
The surprise is to find in them the virtues and the courage 
of private manhood. But interesting as it is to know how 
these spoilsmen love each other, it was not the motive of 
our quotation from Mr. Clarkson's speech; it was to show 
the character in which the practical politician views him- 
self. Mr. Clarkson's warning is against the growing ten- 
dency of the parties not to defend their leaders. Party 
leaders 1 Indeed ! Here is the sublimation of conceit. The 
leaders of the American parties are not made of such stuff 
as Messrs. Clarkson, Dudley and Quay. Who goes to 
these men for ideas ? Who seeks to know what their opin- 
ions may be upon questions of public policy, not to men- 
tion the more serious questions of Government? Who is 
foolish enough to imagine that they have any ideas or 
opinions not subordinated to the contingencies of imme- 
diate partisan success? The political leaders of this 
country are men like Mr. Blaine, Mr. Cleveland, Mr. 
Harrison, Mr. Carlisle, Mr. McKinley and Mr. Mills — men 
who, no matter what their political associations or an- 
tagonisms may be, nevertheless busy themselves with the 
principles and philosophies of things, and who furnish the 
country with ideas and arguments. For such men there is 
no lack of loyalty; the people do not have to be urged to 
their defense. It was not supposed until now that men of 
the Clarkson sort imagined themselves to be the leaders 
of the politics of the country. They have indeed about the 
same right to call themselves leaders that the sutlers of 
an army have to call themselves commanders. 

The most striking fact concerning the Republican and 
Democratic platforms is their close likeness to each other. 
There is, in fact, something akin to parallelism in the 
satisfaction with which each views the continuing integrity 
of American institutions, and the anxious regard which 
each expresses for the pensioner, the settler upon unsur- 
veyed lands, the long-enduring Irish, much-abused Jew^ 
and in view of the evils threatened by indiscriminate 
emigration, but the climax of correspondence is found in 
the planks which relate to the currency, and for which both 
parties adopted the sense and something like the phrase 
of President Harrison in declaring that every dollar must 
be the equal of every other dollar. The only radical dif- 
ference between the two platforms concerns the policy of 
dealing with election frauds in the South, and with the 
protective tariff. Here, indeed, is something like manly 
frankness — but here only. As to all else there is evasion, 
subterfuge and double meaning. The voter who would 
decide fairly between the two parties must study, not their 
official declarations of principle, but their character and 
tendencies as illustrated by their history. This is the only 
way to judge of parlies. It is easy for a political party 
" in convention assembled" to declare itself illustrious in 
career, pure in character, noble in purpose and wise 
in judgment, but the discreet voter will not hearken to its 
own acclaim, but will study into its past — consider the prin- 
ciples and conditions in which it was founded, view the 
course of its relations to public affairs, and inspect, not 
only the men it presents for public office, but by whom 
the party policy is framed, and by whom its affairs are 
mustered and directed. 

So the situation is not especially flattering to the silvc 
men; for the present their fight is lost, and however un- 
pleasant the fact may be, there will be no advantage in 
trying to avoid or misconstrue it. Of all forms of decep - 
tion, self-deception ia the worst, and it is a folly which 
the ailver men will do well to avoid. The discussion of 
the past six months has been clearly to the disadvantage 
of silver. The gold standardists have succeeded, if not in 
convincing the country, at least in alarming it. They 
have marshalled in force against the free silver proposi- 
tion, and their lists have been found to include the finan- 
cial doctrinaires, the capitalists and bankers, the chief 
political thinkers and leaders and the vast hosts of the 
timid. Against such a uaion of powerful ele- 
ments, it has been impossible to make head- 
way. It has been the misfortune of the silver 
cause to have few advocates save those who directly 
represent the mining interests involved and the politi- 
cal interests associated with them. Since there is no evil 
80 ruinous as a deranged and depreciated currency, the con- 
servative position of the country is, on the whole, a thing 
not to be regretted. The country cannot afford to make a 
mistake as to silver, and we believe its best course is to 
hold fast to the present until the nations of the earth, 
acting together, can come to an agreement as to ailver 
that will warrant its use hero to the fullest extent with- 
out hazardous experiment. This is the only safe, and as 
we look at it, the only possible solution of the silver ques- 
tion; and it is a solution to which the nations are being 
forced by the irresistible logic of facts. The mines pro- 
duce less and less gold while the demand for currency 
steadily grows. The value of gold naturally goes up and 
as it goes up, the value of everything else goes down. It 
is not surprising that the debtor and producing classes 
feel the pinch and that they cry out for relief. Relief 
must come, however, from united action; no one country — 
not even the United States— is strong enough to carry the 
reform alone. 

Sd far as the two parties are concerned, there is 
a truce as to silver. Both Harrison and Cleveland 
are positively committed against free coinage, and 
either may be depended upon to veto any meas- 
ure which the silver advocates might be able to get 
through Congress. One or the other of these men will 
occupy the White House for nearly five years to come. I 

The advocates of free silver have assumed too much in 
reckoning their strength. They have talked broadly, and 
still talk of " The West " as united and urgent for their 
demands, and have indulged in the assumption that the 
question would develop, or had already developed, into a 
sectional one, with the West on one side and the East on 
other. The truth ia, in the West there is the same division 
of aentiment, and the same preponderance of judgment 
against free coinage that there ia in the East. The Pacific 
States, for example, are invariably scheduled for free coin- 
age, while they are, in fact, three to five against it. In 
California there happena to be two leading newspapers 
who favor free coinage, but they have made no serious im- 
pression upon the sentiment of the country, which stands 
favorably by a large majority to the gold standard. We 
have recently seen how impossible it was to get a straight 
free coinage plank in either of the Democratic or Republi- 
can State conventiona. In Oregon there ia no public 
journal which favora free coinage. Both political par- 
ties have declared against it within the paat three months, 
and the Oregon representatives in both the Minneapolis 
and Chicago conventiona were active partiaana of the gold 
standard. In Washington the situation is precisely the 
same. The leading newspapers, Democratic and Republi- 
can, are against free coinage, and neither of the political 
parties in their recent State conventions supported the 
ailver propoaition. The aix Senators from California, 
Washington and Oregon are solid for gold and 
against the claims of silver. Nevada and Idaho, it is 
true, are silver States, and so afe Colorado and Montana, 
but ' these are all. This question should be con- 
sidered only with a view to the policy of the country 
as to its currency. We cannot afford to monkey 
with the currency to please even the favorite interest of 
four important States. If free coinage of ailver is a good 
thing for the country, then let us have it and let ua rejoice 
that it will be a good thing also for the four ailver Stalea; 
but if it will be a bad thing for the country, let us reject 
it without any regard for private or local interests. Delay 
at this time is the only fair policy. 

The Democrats had a fine opportunity for fair advantage 
over the Republicans in nominating a candidate for the 
Vice-Preaidency. There was no propriety in Mr. Reid's 
nomination, for he represented nothing save a general 
personal respectability and the money interests of New 
York City. There was no more propriety in nominating 
him than any other fairly intelligent man of good char- 
acter with a financial " pull." If the Democrats had been 
wise, they would have named as hia opponent some such 
man as Boies of Iowa, Gray of Indiana or Campbell of 
Ohio. It would have given their ticket a strength in the 
West, and would no doubt have captured a great many 
moderate Republican voters who resent the nomination of 
Mr. Reid. This advantage was utterly lost by the nom- 


f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 

Jdlt 2 1892 

ination of Mr. Stevenson. It is probable that not one out 
of every ten thousand voters in the laud had ever heard of 
Mr, Stevenson. His sole recommendation seems to be 
that he was born in the South and that he lives in the 
West. While his general respectability of character is 
unquestioned, he is distinguished for nothing, and such 
reputation as he has is based upon a single term in Con- 
gress as the representative of the Greenback party. The 
nomination was unfit and unwise, quite as unfit and un- 
wise as that of Mr. Raid. It would be a humiliation to 
the country if, through any chance, either of these men 
should come to the Presidency that would go far toward 
cheapening the great office of Chief Magistrate. 

On Wednesday, as we write, the Prohibition Convention 
is meeting at Cincinnati, and there is the promise of a very 
interesting session. Mr. St. John has succeeded, as he 
desired, in getting himself entirely out of way of the nom- 
ination, and it is believed that the chances at present lie be- 
tween General Bidwell of California and Mr. Demorest of 
New York. The principal point urged in favor of Mr. 
Demorest is that he will subscribe liberally to the campaign 
fund, but the leaders want a man who will take well as a 
speaker, and therefore they will be solid for the Califor- 
nian. Miss Frances E. Willard, who is a prominent figure, 
announces that she will use every endeavor to have the 
convention adopt a resolution pledging the party to with- 
draw the presidential candidate if the People's Party 
Convention at Omaha will put up a man satisfactory to 
the National Prohibition Committee, and to have the com- 
mittee rested with discretionary power in the matter. 
She will also ask to have the name of the Prohibition 
Party changed to the Home Protection Party. On the 
other hand, there is strong opposition to fusion, some of 
the opponents going so far ad to call Miss Willard a " Pro- 
hibition mugwump." 

The leading men in the People's Party, soon to meet at 
Omaha, are looking about for a strong Presidential candi- 
date. They succeeded last week in practical agreement 
upon Judge Gresham of Indiana. It was first understood 
that he would accept and make the campaign if the plat- 
form was sufliciently moderate to correspond with his 
views, but later it was understood that he absolutely de- 
clines, and will not, under any circumstances, accept the 
nomination. It is to the credit of Mr. Weaver and others 
that they are perfectly willing to stand aside and permit 
the nomination to go to who ever will give strength to the 
party, waiving entirely any personal claims they may 
have to party honors. Of course the nomination of a man 
like Judge Gresham upon a reasonably moderate platform 
would put the People's party in an entirely new position 
before the country. Snch a nomination, it is safe to say, 
would immediately treble the strength of the party, but 
political wisdom is the last virtue of reformers, and it is 
not to be expected that it will be exercised in the present 
instance. They will probably insist upon the extreme 
tenets of reform, and General Weaver will probably be 
the candidate. 

Whether or not Mr. Depew was offered the Secretary- 
ship of State will probably never be known, at least not 
until this campaign is over. At all events, he Will not be 
appointed, and it is reported this morning (Wednesday) 
that General Tracy of the Navy Department will take the 
vacant place in the State Department, and that Governor 
Cheney of New Hampshire will succeed as Secretary of 
the Navy. This information was given to the newspaper 
correspondents at Washington last night, by a member of 
the National Committee who professed to have the news 
directly from the White House, but there is as yet no au- 
thoritative announcement. During the week gossip has 
connected a good many names with the position, including 
Col. John Hay of Ohio, General J. W. Foster of Indiana, 
Congressman Hitt of Illinois, Henry Cabot Lodge and ex- 
(Jovernor Long of Massachusetts. There seems to be an 
abundance of available material. It is probable that the 
formal announcement of the appointment will be made on 

Some one has said that if farmers were as careful to get 
rid of their poor horses as they are to rid their land 
of weeds, the scrub would soon be a horse of the past. 
From our observation, we believe the man who works most 
diligently to keep down the weeds on his farm is the man 
who drives a respectable team, and the scrub and weeds 
go hand in band. 

The tallest horse in the world standing 22 hands high and 
weighing 2800 pounds, owned by T. E. Ridgeway of Fort 
Worth, Texas, died May 5th. This horse has been on ex- 
hibition in various States, and it was contemplated sending 
him to the World's Fair. Now that he is dead, his carcass 
will be stuffed and prepared for exhibition in Chicago next 

Free Grain. — The Czar sanctions in Russia the uncon- 
ditional exportation of wheat, oata, barley and other ce- 
reals excepting rye. 


A New Ladybird from Australia. 

By B. M. Lklong, State Board of Horticulture, and Chief Horticul- 
tural Officer. 

On April 14, 1892, we received three very small and in- 
significant looking insects, that prey on the cottony cushion 
scale, from Albert Koebele, now in Australia collecting 
beneficial insects. Mr. Koebele discovered this insect in 
Australia and it was named in honor of our distinguished 
friend by Sidney Olliff, Government Entomologist of New 
South Wales. 

As soon as ihese insects were received they were turned 
over to our entomologist, Alexander Craw, who placed 
them in a small glass jar in which branches infected with 
cottony cushion scale had been previously placed for them 
to feed on. Subsequently one of these insects died, leaving 
but two, which on April 26, changed to the pupa or chrysalis 
state, and on May ist the perfect beetles emerged, and, 
fortunately were male and female. On May 4th the female 
deposited eggs, which hatched May 9th. The young larvae 
were carefully reared and after passing through three 
moUs, changed into the pupa slate, and on June 3d, 55 
perfect beetles came out, thus occupying just 31 days from 
the egg to the beetle stage. When liberated on trees they 
will, no doubt, pass through their transformation in much 
less time. In about a month we shall have thousands of 
these beetles for distribution. 

The successful colonization of this insect was most for- 
tunate, and, while we already have a cottony cushion scale 
exterminator in the Vedalia, an insect formerly introduced, 
yet this one adds another chapter to the annals of economic 
entomology hitherto unprecedented. 

In previous articles the beneficial insects discovered by 
Mr. Koebele were reported to show what is being done by 
way of their introduction, with the hope that they would 
accomplish the same results here as in their native country, 
if once they became established. While this investigation 
was still in progress, statements appeared in the p-iblic 
press, advising that what was then said be taken with a 
great deal of allowance, and one in particular read, " It 
will be many years yet, perhaps centuries, but most likely 
never, before we succeed in introducing beneficial insects 
that will free our fruit trees of all the insect pests that at- 
tack them. The work that the Vedalia accomplished is 
without precedent in the entire annals of economic ento- 
mology, and, therefore, we can scarcely hope for a repeti- 
tion of it in the case of the recently imported species." 
Thus a damper was thrust upon the objects in view, but 
fortunately. Nature triumphs over the unwarranted deduc- 
tions of theorists. The discovery of this valuable insect, 
whose functions equal, if not surpass, the Vedalia cardi- 
nalis, ought to silence those who, on theory, condemn as 
impossible what is easily accomplished in the field of ex- 

Experiments will soon be made to determine upon what 
other species this insect will also work, and the results will 
be given to the public from time to time. 


NBW AUSTRALIAN LADYBI KD— .\uiii"< A'(i«(.ciei.-Ol,i« 

Description. — Beetle slightly smaller than Vedalia cardi- 
nalis, averaging one eighth of an inch in length. The 
elytra are cardinal red when the perfect beetle issues from 
the pupa case, afterward changing to deep blood red. The 
male has a black line down the center of the back from the 
thorax to the point of the abdomen where it widens, ex- 
tending forward along the lower edge of the elytra to near 
the center, where it terminates in a small blotch. Head 
and thorax dark, and together with the elytra are densely 
covered with microscopic light or yellowish hairs. The 
legs are black with the exception of the tarsi, which are 
buff colored. 

The female can readily be distinguished from the male 
in having the central black line extend only half way down 
the back; the balance of the wing covers are blood red, 
with the exception of two faint spots, one slightly under the 
cenier of each wing cover, but in some specimens this is 
not discernible. 

^■SS^- — These measure .03 of an inch in length by .01 of 
of an inch wide, and are deep blood red in color. The fe- 
male deposits them upon or near the scale so that when 
the larva hatch they will conveniently find their food. The 
eggs are laid singly or in small patches upon their sides 
instead of being attached at the end to the leaf or twig, as 
is the case with the twice-stabbed and some other species 
of ladybirds. In five days they hatch into small, six-legged 
larva very much resembling the young of the Icerya upon 
which they feed. In confinement they pass through three 
molts and the chrysalis state into perfect beetles within 31 
days, but in the warm orchards and sunshine this time will 
probably be reduced ten days. 

I^nut. — When full grown, measure about .18 of an inch 
and are thickly covered with white powder or fine cotton, 
but generally leaving the segments well defined. When 
newly molted, they are brownish-red or chocolate colored. 
Down each side ot the back are what appear like two black 
lines; but when examined with a good lens or microscope, 
will be seen to be a double row of dots or short lines upon 
each segment, and between the segments are large black 

spots forming a central row to the other markings. Upon 
each segment along the sides protrude small warts, from 
each of which are four fine hairs. The first two segments 
from the head each have two extra, smaller warts with a 
single hair upon each. 

Pupti. — When full grown, the larva seeks a suitable loca- 
tion to go through the chrysalis stage. This is generally 
upon the branch or a dry leaf, where it attaches itself, head 
downward, by a gummy matter exuded from the abdomen. 
In this position it remains a few days, when the back of 
the chrysalis splits longitudinally, exposing the pupa which 
later changes into the perfect beetle. 

Crop Reports from Fresno, Tulare and Merced 


Tbe situation remains unchanged for the raisin industry. A care- 
ful canvass of this district made during tbe past week by experts, 
shows that in vineyards less than three years old, 75 per cent of them 
have lost their first crop entirely. The remaining 35 per cent have 
lost fully 75 per cent of the first crop. In vineyards over four years 
old, the loss varies from 35 to 60 per cent of the first crop. The 
smaller losses are due to careful and persistent cultivation. The clus- 
ters remaining on the vines will Ije fine, but the total crop of " Lon- 
don Layers" will be fully 50 per cent short of the 1891 crup. It is too 
early to suggest anything as to ihe second crop, except that at this 
date, everything looks favorable. The weather conditions for the 
past week have been good for all crops. Harvesting is going ahead 
in good shape, and results better than anticipated in all districts. 
Apricots are coming in, in vast quantities, and other fruits never 
looked better. 

Easton District. — The weather has been good for all crops. 
Apricot harvest is well advanced. The peach crop will be large. 
The vineyards which dropped the first crop will have a fair second 
crop, but it will \x late. Old vineyards that retained their first crop 
will have little or no second crop. 

Oleander District. — Harvesting in progress, with good yield. 
Raisin crop will be short, as the first crop has nearly all dropped off, 
and the leading growers of this district have made a compact to sell 
their second crop to the distillers as it will be of inferior grade, owing 
to lack of sugar and probability of being soaked by the fall rains. 
This move will take more than 1000 tons 01 raisins out of the market, 
from this district alone, and will probably be followed by other dis- 

Tulare County — Visalia District— Weather not warm until 
27th. Fruit ripening slowly ; orchard men wish a few warmer days. 

Hanford District. — First crop raisin grapes below average. 
Apricots and peaches average well. Weather good for all fruit crops. 

PiXLEY District.— Harvesting in full swing. Will average two 
sacks to acre on unirrigated, and ten sacks on irrigated land. 

Merced County— Merced District— Harvesting progressing 
rapidly. Yield better than anticipated. Quality generally good. 
Occasional crop shrunken somewhat. 

J. R. Williams, Observer. 

The "Poor Man's Dollar." 

Carmel Garden, June 27th, 1892. 

To the Editor: — Some two years ago I pointed ont the folly 
of farmers echoing the cuckoo cry of the silver ring, that the 
'■ silver dollar was the poor man's dollar." We are on the eve 
of another election and each party has taken up an eminently 
respectable and dignified position on the fence. Meauiugless 
platitudes on the currency question appear in either platform. 
Does the farmer realize the situation ? Does he know that 
420 millions of silver dollars are already stowed away in U.S. 
Treasury vaults? Does that look as th. ugh the country were 
very anxious to use more silver coin? Does that show a need 
for coining $4,500,000 more every month? Does it foreshadow 
any probable benefit to the citizen at large if the U. S. mints 
should be directed to coin all the silver offered them, provided 
it is " American silver"? By the way, how do they earmark 
^mffrican silver? Is it understood how nnavailing our efiTorta 
to keep up the price of silver have been ? So unavailing that 
while silver sold for 120 cents per ounce only two years ago it 
now barely fetches 87 cents per ounce. 

Is it not obvious to us that by an artificial demand silver 
production has been over stimulated and the supply has far 
exceeded market wants? What eminent services have our 
'•Silver Kings" rendered the people at large that their 
product should be the one selected to be " bulled " by the 
Government at the expense of the people ? 

Have we forgotten that only a few years ago silver was at 
five or six per cent discount, and San Francisco merchants all 
made special contracts that iAeir bills were payable in " U. S. 
gold coin" only? Have we all beard that Canadian banks 
already r<K;eive American silver dollars at five per cent dis- 
count? If this is a Government of silver miners, for silver 
miners and by silver miners, its action in this silver question 
is quite intelligible. If not, it behoves us to remember the 
tnithful remark that fell some time since from President Harri- 
son's lips, that if, unfortunately, one dollar gets to be of less 
worth than another the hands of the toiler are the first to receive 
the depreciated dollar. 

Silver miners know what they want and why th<'y want it. 
When farmers know what they want and why they want it, it 
is possible they will get it. But they must not ask for the 
moon, or more than their share of the earth. They must also 
know what they don't want. And I know one farmer who 
some years ago (not very many) had to take his pay very 
largely in silver, and then to pay his bills in San Francisco 
very rari;ely in gold at a premium of about six per cent. Of 
course that can never happen again ! O nol but that farmer 
knows that what has been, may be. Hence this squeal in 

Then, in the sweet by and by, when the crash comes — when 
the cute American people discover that buying silver at 120 
cents and holding it till it is worth 70 cents is not the most 
lucrative of all businesses — what then? When Uncle Sam 
thinks it's time to sell out, even at a great sacrifice, who's to 
shoulder the loss? Will it be the politicians? The silver 
ring? Not much. The burden will be saddled on that ever- 
patient ass, the farmer. 

Farmers, you have been nipped in the past in this same old 
silver vice, don't stick in your fingers and turn that screw 
again. Murder! don't! it hurts. Edw. Berwick. 

Freights via. Mojave. — It is announced that in 
order to properly handle the large amount of canned 
goods and dried fruit shipments during the coming season 
the Atlantic and Pacific railway (Santa Fe route) will in- 
augurate a daily fast special freight line service from 
Mojave, Cal,, to Chicago and New York. The schedule 
time from San Francisco, San Jose and Northern Califor- 
nia points to Chicago via. this line will be eight days and 
to New York eleven days. Arrangements have also been 
made to have all carload shipments go through to their 
destination without transfer, thereby saving any delay or 
damage to the fruit while in transit. 

Jolt 2 1892. 

f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 


Organizing a Poultry Ranch. 

LoDi, Sak Joaquin Co. June 25. 

To THE Editor:— Having in a former article said 
something of wl'at constitutes proper care of poultry and 
promised to say more, perhaps I had better give a little 
of my experience in organizing a poultry ranch. Experi- 
ence is always better than theory, or rather the result of 
actual practical experiment is better than mere theorizing, 
for one may be done without much actual knowledge of 
the subject, but for the other there is absolute certainty 
where the experimenting has been thoroughly and intelli- 
gently done and the results carefully noted. The teachings 
of experience cannot however, be applied to all cases and 
all localities perhaps, without modifications or possible 
alterations in some particulars, but with a solid ground- 
work on which to build, such modifications and such altera- 
tions readily suggest themselves to the intelligent mind, so 
that in the commencement of any new enterprise it is al 
ways desirable to be able to avail ourselves of the " ex- 
perience " of those who have bf en successful in the line 
we desire to follow. 

Knowledge in any line of business is not to be acquired 
without some cost and the way for a beginner in poultry to 
leai-n the proper method in keeping them to ensure success 
at the least cost, is I think, not to attempt to jump at once 
into a full-fledged poul ry raiser, but to commence in a 
comparatively small way, learning to take care of a small 
number properly and to enlarge the number as one ac- 
quires knowledge and ability in the pursuit. In this way 
one gradually and easily finds oneself capable of con- 
ducting an extensive business if he so desires, with ease 
and certainty of success and without having been subjected 
to any very considerable and discouraging losses. 

I bought 250 hens with which to commence my poultry 
business, having what I thought a suitable place in which 
to keep as many hens as I desired to keep, having placed 
my limit at ten thousand laying hens. To accomodate my 
hens suitably I built four houses, each one 8x12 feet in 
in size with gable roofs and six feet high at the eaves 
They were built of ixio boards placed upright and battened 
to exclude draughts and having the gables filled in with 
lattice instead of solidly with board. For summer use I 
had lattice doors to ensure plenty of fresh air for the fowls, 
and having close doors for winter u'^e. 

The inside of the houses was arranged and furnished 
with a trough for water and one for feed. There was a 
coop built along the back end of each house inside, in 
which to confine broody hens until they would agree to go 
to laying again. The roosts were four in number of 2x4 
stuff with rounded top edges and running lengthwise o. 
the building, two on each side of the doorway and at a 
height of about two feet from the ground flior of the house; 
the doors being in the ends of the buildings. The feed and 
water troughs were very ingeniously arranged, I thought, 
being so arranged as to slide in and out of the doorway, 
one on each side, and sliding into a box of equal length 
with the trough, the box having its sides of laths placed 
upright and sufficiently near each other to admit the head 
and neck of the fowl, but not the body. In this manner I 
kept the food and water clean and readily accessible for 
them when desiring to eat or drink. 

I placed my houses along one side of my ranch and at a 
distance from each other of about 30 yards and well out 
from the fence, and I divided my fowls among the four 
houses equally, the houses being supposed to be capable 
of accommodating, well and comfortably, one hundred fowls. 
Each morning and evening I took them food, having for 
the purpose a small hand-cart, and each noon fresh water 
was taken in a barrel or tank which could be placed in the 
cart and then filled. 

For their morning feed I gave them a sort of vegetable 
mixture, being composed of vegetables of some kind, or 
carrot or beet tops, cabbage leaves and meat scraps, cooked 
together the night before, thickened with bran and properly 
seasoned, and left in the boiler with a chunk under it to 
keep warm all night, and give to the fowls warm in the 
morning as soon as they were ready to leave the roost. At 
ni jht I gave a liberal feed of dry grain, principally of wheat, 
but sometimes of barley, corn, or Egyptian corn. Through 
the day the fowls ranged as far as they wished on all sides, 
finding an abundance of insects, gravel, etc. 

One would certainly think that being so comfortably and 
even luxuriously fixed, that each hen would certainly lay at 
least one egg a day, but they didn't, even though they had 
nice nests placed for them, as secluded and inviting looking 
as a reasonable hen could desire. The nests consist of a 
box running along one side of the house, outside, and on 
the ground, divided into nests 12 by 16 inches and one foot 
high, each nest having an opening into the house, and a 
board so placed as to form a sort of ha'lway or runway, 
making the nests seem hidden away, as fowls seem to like 
them. But this was all to no purpose; they didn't seem to 
want to lay, anyhow. The nests were covered on the out- 
side with a board hinged to the side of the house, and how 
a hen could help wanting to creep in through the hallway, 
open at each end, and select one of the inviting-looking 
nests, each filled with nice, clean-looking, chopped straw, 
and forthwith enter on the discharge of her duties as a con- 
scientious and well-behaved hen should, is more than I 
could understand. But they went no farther than walking 
^long by them, looking inquiringly into each one and mak- 
ing remarks to each other which I didn't fully understand 
at the time, but have since concluded to have been to the 
effect that they were very nice, but didn't fully suit them. 

Then, desiring to suit them, if possible, I took coal oil 
cans and cutting them in two, crosswise, made of each a 
nice nest, which I fastened to the side of the house, inside, 
and at varying height from the floor, none of them more 
than two feet. These I filled wi.h chopped straw, and for 
a time they seemed to like those better and would fly up on 
them and even scratch the straw out, but, after all, didn't 

seem any more inclined to lay than they had with the 
other nests. The upshot of the whole matter was that the 
perverse things, if they could find an old box or an old tin 
can anywhere, no matter how disreputable looking it was, 
they would lay in them what few eggs they did lay, to the 
utter disregard of the nice, artistically made and arranged 
nests which I had, with so much care and trouble, made 
for them. So th^y have continued to the present time, and 
all 1 have to do is to put a box in some place a little re- 
tired, as though it was thrown there to be out of the way, 
and they forthwith appropriate it and go to laying in it. 

One may gather from all thi?, that there is something for 
each one to learn for himself in spite of and outside of all 
rules laid down in treatises on fowl-keeping, and so every 
beginner will find it; and, in fact, however experienced one 
may be, there is continually something to learn, and to be 
successful as a pou'try keeper, one must study the nature 
of the fowls in all its dififsrent aspects, become familiarized 
with their habits and requirements, to know what they need 
and when they need it. 

All localities are not alike, and the treatment and rare 
requisite in one place would perhaps be altogether unsuit- 
able in another. As a general rule, watch your fowls 
closely from day to day, and if they are not brisk and 
bright looking, they are then lacking something which you 
must try to supply them, or have been fed, perhaps, too 
much of something which must be discontinued, or iheir 
treatment in some way changed. Medicines and prepar- 
ations of various kinds for the keeping of fowls healthy and 
preventing disease are, in my opinion, to be avoided just as 
much as " dosing " is in the human family. Scrupulous 
cleanliness in all may be said to bs the main requisite in 
their care — fully as necessary as food and waiter where 
fowls are kept in numbers, and without it no one can have 
healthy or productive fowls. T. B. Geffroy. 


Peach-Growing In Georgia. 

Our readers will be interested in an acccuTt of the plan; 
and progress of peach growers in Georgia, who propose to 
contest with us the peach supply of the Eastern States. 
We find the following over the signature of Mr. Mortimer 
Whitehead in the American Florist: 

It would make a long story to tell of all there is of inter- 
est to be seen in and around Fort Valley, Houston county, 
Georgia It seems to well deserve its title, " The Peach 
Paradise of the United States." The attractive little city 
has 2500 inhabitants, near the center of the State, on a 
high, level pUteau 700 feet above the Gulf of Mexico, and 
when frosts kill the fruit blossoms on the lower levels, 
many miles farther south, here they bloom and reward the 
grower with bounteous crops that can be placed in the 
great cities of the North in from 4? to 70 hours; and 
while it is now only the very eirliest davs of June, hundreds 
of crates of beautiful peaches — Alexanders — beautifully 
ripened and colored by the southern sun are being shipped 
daily from several points in the county. Upward of i,ooo,- 
000 peach trees are already planted in great orchards and 
thousands of acres more that have for years been ruled and 
abused by '■ king cotton" are preparing to grow one of 
Pomona's choicest gifts, and pears, apples, plums and 
grapes as well. 

Several large tracts of orchard p'anting areo^'nedand 
managed by stock companies, among which may be men- 
tioned the Ohio Fruit Land Co., with 1250 acres, and 
$25,000 capital stock; the Albaugh Georgia Co., with 11 70 
acres, $50,000 capital stock, and 80,000 peach trees planted. 
One orchard of 100 acres and 10,000 Kieffer pear trees is 
another sample. One of the p'aces visited, so far the best 
developed, is that of E. M. Rumph, near Marshallville, on 
which, from one orchard of peaches covering 200 acres, 
$50,000 is said to have been made in 1889 

The Hale orchard is planted upon an old cotton planta- 
tion, the former owner of which seemed to have some con- 
science and heart in soil culture, and was therefore not 
quite so much of a land destroyer as many others, and the 
portion of mother earth which he held in trust was there- 
fore not as badly " run " as the average. But all who know 
the Hales know that even this condition was not foundation 
enough for them, and so several thousand dollars worth of 
fertilizers were usfd at the start, mostly cotton hull ashes, 
cotton seed meal and rock phosphate. It is less than seven 
months since the work of building this great peach farm 
commenced, and yet to-day on that 900-acre farm are 
growing in the most thrifty manner 101,000 peach trees, 
planted 13 feet each way, in rows one and a half miles 
long, besides hundreds of thousands more of young trees in 
nursery rows; two and one-half million Marianna plums to 
be used as stocks for budding more peach trees; a large 
variety of small fruits, including 60 varieties of strawber- 
ries, being tested in this soil and rlimate. One hundred 
acres of what is universally admitted to be the finest piece 
of corn in the county — and we saw nothing finer in all the 
trip from Washington to Georgia — is a sight to behold. 
Among the trees are growing hundreds of acres of cow 
peas, to be pi jwed under as a fertilizer, and to be immedi- 
ately followed by scarlet clover, which grows here all 
winter and can be turned under when two feet high next 
spring. The Hale farm is a beautiful, level plain, smooth 
as a prairie, and from the house every acre of it can be 
seen. In cultivation all the improved implements are used, 
and modern, wide-awake, " in'ensive " culture on an " ex- 
tensive " plan is the rule. Before planting, the farm was 
all carefully surveyed, being laid out in blocks 500 by 1000 
feet and divided by avenues and streets. The avenues run 
north and south, the streets east and west. Very appro- 
priately the avenues are named for the peach-growing 
States, with Connecticut in the well-earned center, with 
Georgia on one side and California on the other; then 
Delaware, Michigan, New Jersey, Missouri and Maryland. 

The streets are named for well known horticulturists, living 
and dead, Wilder, Augur, Berckmans, Barry and Earle. 

The favorite peach of all this region is the Elberta, a 
native of this county, one of a lot of 1200 seedlings raised 
by Mr. Rumph, before spoken of, and judging by the grand 
crop we saw upon tens of thousands of bearing trees dur- 
ing the days of our visit, it may well be said that it " is 
chief of twelve thousand and altogether lovely." The 
cultivator who can produce such a new fruit is indeed a 
benefactor of mankind. The Hales show their faith in it 
also, as out of their 101,000 trees already planted, 60,000 
are Elberta. Their other varieties are as follows: 10,000 
Mountain Rose, 9000 Crosby, 6000 Stump the World, 5000 
Lady Ingold, 4000 Tillotson, 4000 Thurber, 3000 Late 

A nice piece of alfalfa, together with experimental plots 
of milo maize, sorghum, and various grasses, are being 
grown to determine their value as soiling and fodder crops. 

The whole of this enterprise, developed in so short a 
time and already so full of promise, was a surprise to the 
visitors and to others who were in the long procession of 
carriages furnished by citizens, who were glad of an oppor- 
tunity to show the advantages of their pleasant land, and 
who drove over this grand farm on this round of sight-seeing. 

And all this has been done with the native colored help, 
the darky and the mule (but the Hales have some good 
horses as well), under the direction of a bright New Eng- 
land young man, Mr. J. J. Molumphy, one of the boys 
that the Hales trained on their Connecticut farm, who, 
down here, far from friends and home, has, in the absence 
of the proprietors, worked for months, learned to use and 
control the labor, and to present on June i an orchard 
farm, well planted and cultivated, clear of weeds and a 
model in every way. If those who saw it with eastern, 
northern and western eyes were delighted with such thrift 
and management we may well believe it did " surprise the 
natives." But the spirit of enterprise is abroad and in the 
most pl°asant relations possible, those from afar and those 
to the manner born are working out one of the grand enter- 
prises of the " New South," and all tending to the glory of 
our favored land. 

California must look well to her laurels, for nowhere out- 
side of the Golden State have we ever seen such great 
orchards, such model growth of trees and vines, such per- 
fect tillage, and all the conditions of soil and climate so 
nearly ideal. And this is nearer by 2000 miles to the mar- 
kets in which competition will each year become closer. A 
young giant is awakening in middle Georgia; strong and 
liealthy in his early youth he has entered for the race, and 
those who would hold their own with him must be up and 
doing. Mortimer Whitehead. 

Protection for Early Cucumbers. 

Californians who are striving for the dollar which comes 
with the first cucumber to reach the San Francisco market, 
will be interested in reading of the arrangements which 
successful Florida producers employ to secure heat and 
protection for their vines. John Aspinwall of Eau Gallic 
gives the Indian River Advocate the following detailed de- 
scription of his cheese-cloth " cuke " house: 

My present cuke house has simply four walls of siding, 
seven feet eight inches high. The siding is nailed on a 2x4 
frame, made by laying down a 2x4 on the ground and 
standing uprights on this sill, with another 2x4 for the 
plate; siding is simply nailed on without cutting to size; 
ends are squared or let butt where they will. There are 
benches two feet wide running all around the house next to 
the wall. In the central space are seven more benches, 
two feet wide, and of such length as to give a path across 
the ends. These benches are supported on 2x4 legs and 
under each bench is a trough in which artesian water, at 77 
deg., can be run on cold nights. Between the benches are 
walks of four-inch flooring, with spaces between the pieces. 
The benches are made of two eight-inch boards on each 
side and the bottom of 1x3, with spaces. The bottom of 
the bench is about one foot above the level of the walk; 
running lengthwise on each bench, and above the centre of 
it, runs a three-foot "chicken wire," standing upright, the 
bottom of it being about ten inches above the earth in the 
bench. Over the whole of this structure is a layer of cheese 
cloth, tacked on 1x3 frame work, supported by 1x3 up- 
rights. The secret of what success I have had in this 
house is due to this flimsy layer of material. Twenty- 
four hundred feet of cheese cloth covers this building. 

The benches are filled as follows: First, on the bottom 
was put a layer of trash, such as dry weeds and grass; next, 
three inches of earth with cotton-seed meal; then a layer of 
cow manure, and, above all, a three-inch layer of sand (sur- 
face soil), making, when done, about eight to ten inches of 
material in each bench. White spine seed was planted 
about January loth. I may add that a single strip of cheap 
cotton goods, one yard wide, was placed over each bench, 
drawn down at an angle each side, so as to shed the rain 
that precedes our "northers." 

This is my cheese cloth cuke house; and now comes the 
question, does it pay At the present stage in the experi- 
ment, I cannot say that it does. I am shipping about 500 
cukes per week, and the returns, so far, show them to have 
sold, on an average (fancy, choice and culls), at about four 
cents each. My first shipment was made April 1st, and it 
has increased each week, and, at this writing, the vines are 
in better condition than at any time since they started to 

Of course, it is understood that the vines climb on the 
upright wire, and the cukes hang down each side. It takes 
one man one-half day, each day, to fertilize the blossoms, 
pinch back the vines and train them up. 

The fruit is oi a dark green color, and from four and 
one-half to eight inches long. I am packing in the six- 
basket carrier, and one dozen fancy cukes just nicely fill 
each basket. 

Several th'ngs, theoretically correct, have proved practi- 
cal mistakes. For instance, with a house in as exposed a 


f ACIFie f^URAb f RESS. 

JoiT 2 1893 

situation as mine, cheese clo'h is too flimsy to stand the 
blows we have. I shall search for some more suitable 
material for next year's use. Again, the fl )w of artesian 
water under the benches in a cheese-cloth house seems to 
have little effect upon the temperature. We have had a 
severe winter to try this experiment in, and though we are 
getting now a good crop, it is doubtful if we can carry our 
vines through the latter part of December and first part of 
January, so as to begin shipping in February or early part 
of March. Another year's experiment will be required to 
establish this point. 

I omitted to mention that several applications of com 
mercial fertilizer were made to surface soil after the plants 
were up. 

To show the va'ue of the cheese-cloth covering, I would 
say that on the same day I tran-pUnted 50 plants— half in- 
to one of the benches and the other half out doors. Both 
lots were given the same treatment and care. Those in 
the house, under the cheese cloth, are now (April 25th) 
luxuriant vines, producing fine fruit and having leaves 
nearly a foot across, while those outside are practically 
d?ad and have orly produced a few " nubbins." 

Trained ''Cukes" Under Glass. 

We add the methods of another Florida grower. T. H. 
Hastings of St. Augustine, as described for the Country 
Gentleman by Stephen Powers. Mr. Hastings built a 
house 165 feet long by 22 feet wide, roofed with 3000 panes. 
12 by 16, double strength French glass, 136 sashes, 4 feet 6 
inches by 5 feet 10 inches— cost about $1400. He could 
build it now for about $ I too or $1200. To furnish water 
lor general purposes, and for the irrigation of his out-door 
crops, he dug an artesian well 23Q feet deep, 4 inches in 
diameter, costing about $450. This furnishes water suffici- 
ent to irrigate, as Mr. Hastings estimates, 80 or 100 acres, 
throwing a stream about 30 feet high, with about three 
horse power. The temperature of this water is uniformly 
about 79 degrees, and it occurred to him to utilize it for 
supplying bottom heat for his forcing-house, as the well is 
close at hand. He accordingly led it through the house in 
ditches, directly beneath the benches, which are about three 
feet above the ground. 

Anticipating here a little, I miy say that he has satisfied 
himself by two seasons' experience that the warmth of this 
water is not sufficient. It excluded frost from the house, 
of course, and even prevented frost from fall ng on his 
strawberries and other p'ants out doors, securing the ten- 
derest of them complete exemp:ion from injury when the 
temperature away from the irrigated beds was 28 degrees. 
But still it does not keep the heat high enough to secure 
the best results with such tender vines as cucumbers. On 
two or three of the coldest nights the fruits became so 
chilled that they rotted and fell off. The vines, however, 
were not affected, though their growth was checked a little, 
and their prolificacy was not impaired. But the prices are 
so fascinating early in the season, during the holidays, that 
he is not satisfied with the slow results of water heat and 
will put in a furnace, though with the water still running, 
he may not need it a half dozen times during the winter on 
frosty nights. 

For his beds he used rotten cow dung and fine straw, or 
leaf mold and porous sod in lumps well beaten out for the bot- 
toms of the benches, and commercial fertilizer as a food to 
be applied after the plants are started. Hills about two 
feet apart; one strong vine to the hill, trained upward within 
15 inches of the shaded roof, " cukes " hang down. The 
two side benches are three feet wide, one row to a bench; 
the two middle ones are five feet wide, two rows to a bench. 
Under these benches, shut in dark and clo-e, are beds in 
which he is experimenting with mushrooms, the white, 
mold-like stems just appearing above the ground. 

Mr. H. tried the American or white spine variety the first 
year, but discarded it as it would bring only $2 or $3 a 
dozen, while the English varieties sold at $4 to $6. The 
varieties he has tested and approved are the Cuthill Black 
Spine, the Telegraph and the Sion Honse Improve^. No 
cultivation is needed beyond pulling out the few weeds; 
the cucumber roots run so near the surface that the lightest 
scratching disturbs them. But it takes about all of one 
man's time to train the vines up the wires, tie them, pollen- 
ize the blossoms and clip of! the ends of over- rank vines 
and tendrils. The male flower is plucked off and the petals 
removed, then the body of it is inverted into the female 
flower and pushed down a little so that it will fertilize it. A 
solitary bumble bee was seen buzzing about the flowers, but 
the English gardener whom Mr. H. employs prefers not to 
have bees in the house, as they are apt to mix the varieties 
and do not perlorm the work as systematically as he does 

As we moved along the long narrow aisles there were 
cucumbers by hundreds hanging down — they had not been 
cut for several days — so that we had to keep ducking our 
heads in order not to knock them about, and most of them 
were 10 to 12 inches long, m^ny 15 to 18. Notwithstand- 
ing the de icious crispness of their flesh, which causes them 
to bring such high prices, Mr. H. finds them no more diffi- 
cult to ship, when packed tight, than ordinary field grown 
" cukes." 

The fruits, which are of a uniform diameter throughout, 
are practically seedless, with rudiments here and there; 
but there are others with long, spindling necks and bulging 
ends, somewhat gourd-shaped, which are pollenized with 
sptcial care and allowed to ripen for seed. Even these de- 
velop so few seeds that they bring a high price, and will be 
a source of no small profit. The seed cost in England 7s. 
6d. for a quarter of an ounce, which would be about $121 a 
pound, with the freight and tariff to be added. 

In Febiuary, 13 dozen were shipped, and in March 126 
dozen, all of which sold at $6 a dozen in St. Augustine. I 
visited the house April 8. The tourist season was then 
drawing toward its close. Since the St. Augustine hotels 
closed, Mr. H. has been shipping to the North, but I have 
not learned the results. A few days ago I saw the last 
picking of the season in Jacksonville, where they sold at 
$1.25 a dozen. Mr. H. expected to make enough this sea- 
son to pay for his house. 

About Pickling Olives. 

State University, Berkeley, June 20, 1892. 
To THE Editor :— Permit me a few comments on some 
points brought oat in the di-cussions on the pick'ing ol 
olives at the Farmers' Institute lately h'ld at Pomona. 

There seems to be a mistaken idei afloat that all flives 
may be treated alike in pickling. This is not at all the 
case, for it makes a wide difference whether the (ruit is 
ripe or unripe, laree or small, he ivily charged with the 
astringent matters or not. A small olive requires less 
time for extraction, and is damaged by the same lye that 
may properly be used for large ones, if applied for the 
same length of time. A ripe olive requ res less time for 
ex'raction than the same when unripe. 

I have had no difficulty whatever in kee p'ng olives even 
when pickled very ripe (the condition in wnich they are 
best for htm-; con^umptio ), provided ^"ey had been 
properly pi ked over so as to exclude all i j'lred or other- 
wise undesirable fruit, and were at all times kept fully sub- 
?ner(;ed under the lye or brine. A very shor; exposure on 
the surface wi.l irremediably injure both the looks and the 
keeping quality and taste iif the pickled; it wi.l be- 
come sofc, mushy and vapid-tasted, if not rancid, and of a 
sickly whitish tint; and any such o'ive w.ll infect a hundred 
others around it. The same will be sure to happen if 
bruised or wounded fruit is mixed with the sound; it will 
happen in any case if the water u'ed is impure, so as to 
become tainted if left to itself. If this condition exists or 
is suspected, the water should be boiled before using. 

As regards the lye treatment, I have found it very unde- 
sirable to use it stronger than a pound to 4K or 5 gillons 
of water; the action is slower than when the lye is 
stronger, but the fruit is not so'tened and the outside re- 
mains bright instead o( dull. I see no object in using a 
larger bulk of the liquid than will just stand over the fruit 
at any one time, and sticcessive extractions with weak lye 
leave the olives in better shape than one treatment with strong 
lye, for the latter will be sure to sof en the outside portion 
ot the fruit, besides rendering it unsightly. 

After the lye has acted; the quicker it is taken out of the 
fruit the better; and all excess over what is required to ex- 
tract the bitterness, accord ng to the actual experience in 
each case, should be avoided. I find that in treating ripj 
olives, one leaching with clean water after the lye is about 
all that should be allowed ; all subsequent wash waters should 
have some salt added, as it favors the removal of the lye 
and prevents so tening. In the case of very ripe fruit espe- 
cially it is desirable to harden it by the use of pretty strong 
brine so soon as the lye is off; of course this makes the 
fruit shrink somewhat in s'ze, but also makes it perfectly 
safe for keeping. The appirent waste of the salt in these 
brines used for washing are amply repaid by the staunchly 
keeping product. 

It the above points have been attended to, a pound of 
salt to two gallons is all that is necessary to make the fruit 
keep; but as in this country the taste of customers runs 
rather in the direction of high saltiness, more miy be used; 
the olives are easily freshened if desired. 

Green olives of course keep much more readily than 
those which are nearly or quite ripe; but the consumer 
will eat a good deal more, and oftener, of the riper fruit, 
so that it is in the interest of the producer, although not so 
agreeable to the restaurant keeper, to have his pickled 
fruit as >ipe as is compatible with good conservation. In 
this point, also, different varieties of olives differ; in gen- 
eral the oil-making varieties, if used for picklinj, cannot 
be allowed to ripen as far as the more pulpy kinds that are 
specially adapted to pickling, and will not become mushy 
even when quite mature. 

In olive-pickling as in other horticultural operations the 
producer must not rest satisfied with blindly following the 
precepts of others, that from differences in variety, soil and 
climate may be far from being the best for his particular 
case. Close observation and systematic trials, year after 
year, will put each one on the track of the best practice for 
his individual case. E. W. Hilgard. 


Woman's Canning & Preserving Company. 

Sacrame.nto, 6ioJ I Street, June 25, 1892. 

To the Editor: Will you pardon my long silence, and 
permit me to sketch for your columns a brief history of an 
enterprise which has but lately come under my notice, 
which seems destined to prove itself no inconsiderable fac- 
tor in the industrial world 

The Woman's Canning & Preserving Company, whose 
main office is now in Chicago, has been in existence scarcely 
a year and a half; but in that brief time has demonstrated 
not only the practicability of the inventions of a woman, but 
also the ability of women to manage successfully business 
affairs as well. 

Every canner of fruits or other products knows from ex- 
perience the objections to ordinary processes, and the vari- 
ous attempts to perfect them. Some even calling into 
requisition chemicals which are more or less harmful, which 
destroy the natural flavors, and the use of which has done 
much to bring the industry into ill repute, and to lessen 
materially the sales of canned goods. 

Twenty years ago a woman already well-known in the 
literary world, abandoned what promised to be a brilliant 
literary career, and has given herself to study and experiment 
on lines which have culminated in the inventions now 
owned by the Woman's Canning & Preserving Company 
for canning cooked goods by the vacuum process, at a very 
low temperature and without the use of chemicals; and also 

for canning uncocked products without the use of chemicals, 
which latter process is desirable for de'icate 
fruit-: thus solving the prob'em which has disturbed manu- 
facturers and scientists lor 35 or 40 years. 

First brought prominently to public notice by the Illinois 
Woman's Press Association, a stock company to utilize the 
inventions was formed in .'\ugust, 1890, under the name of 
the American Woman's Canning Company; among its in- 
corporators beirg such women as Miss Helen L. Hoed, 
secretary of the Central Women's Christian Temperance 
Union of Ch'cago, M ss Mary Allen West, editor of the 
Union Signal, and secretary of the Board of Directors ot 
the Women's Temperance Publishi-'g Association, and 
Eliza W. Bowman, matron of the Chicago Newsboys' 

In December, 1890, by legal ad\ice, the crmpany re- 
organized under increased capitalizition, and with the pres- 
ent corporation name. Practical work was begun in Feb- 
ruary, 1891, and during last year their specialties won suc- 
cess equalling their highest expectation?, the best known 
who'esale dealers of New York, Chicago, St. Louis, Minne- 
apolis and other places honoring the new company with 
their orders. 

Already a branch fruit fa'"tory of large capacity has been 
started in Montello, W.sconsin; and a second, to work on 
vegetables and small fruits, at Aurora, Illinois, is probably 
by this time ready for operations. 

The specialties on which the success of the past year 
were based, were " New Process Lunch Tongues," and 
apple, peach, and apricot tapioca puddings, English plun:^ 
pudding and Indian fru t pudding. As there is practically 
no limit to the possibilities, the company proposes to extend 
the variety and amount of its manufacture with all possible 
speed consistent with good business management and the 
best interests of all concerned. 

Among other advantages possessed by this company may 
be mentioned the following: 

1. There is absolutely nothing which can be canned at 
all that cannot be successfully canned by the Jones pro- 

2. These processes as far excel those now in use as the 
telephone does the Morse telegraph for local business pur- 
pose?, and are based upon the one and only p r ect method 
of food preservation, i. e., canning in a vacuum. 

3 The numb'r of cans of any product obtainable under 
the Jnnes processes from a given quantity of raw material, 
is fully eq jal to, and generally gieater than the number of 
cans obtainable under any other process now in use. 

4. The comparative number of cans per day by each 
operative, attainible under the Jones process, is equal to 
that of any process now used, and superior to most of 

5. The market for canned goods is almost universal, 
and the stockholders practically control the market d-.- 
mand for the products of this company, while the manage- 
ment of the company is in the hands of persons of unques- 
tioned integrity and business experience, whose aim and 
object it is to do the maximum amount of business at the 
minimum expense. 

Among the stockholders and commissioners are Mrs. M. 
Louise Thomas, president of the Sorosis Club, New York 
Ci'y: Mme. E. Jennings Demorest, publisher of Demoresfs 
Magazine, New York; Dr. Cora M. Bland, Washington, 
D. C. ; Isabella Beecher Hooker, Hartford, Conn ; Mrs. 
Clara B Colby, editor Woman's Tribune. Washington, 
D. C. Beatrice, Neb., and Mrs. Augusta M. Dolph, wife 
of Senator Dolph, Washington, D. C. 

A peculiarity of the company's constitution is that stock- 
holders are restricted to women, and the low price of the 
stock, $25 per share, places it wi:hin the reach of many 
women who could not invest were it held at extravagant 

Under all these considerations it would seem that the 
company's scheme offers a promising field for inves ment, 
and also insures immense commercial and financial success. 

Mrs. M. B. Smith. 

The Peninsula Peach Crop. 

Reports of the Delaware and Maryland peach crops in- 
dicate a small product this year. We find in the N. Y. 
Fruit Trade Journal o{ 18 some matters which are 
of much interest to those who have peaches to sell this 

Congressman John W. Causey, who was in Philadelphia 
recently, explained the condition of affairs regarding the 
peach crop of Delaware. Mr. Causey is one of the largest 
growers in the Peninsula, and with his two brothers, owns 
some of the finest orchards in Delaware. He faid: 

" There is great disappointment among the growers all 
over the State at the outcome of the crop. The orchards 
in the early part of the year never looked better, and every- 
body was leeling very much encouraged at the cutlook. 
The ctop of last year was by no means a profitable one, 
and many hopes were building upon the money that would 
come this year. Now we have had a chance to look over 
the field, and the result is by no means encouraging. 
There will not be at the outside over one-eighth of a crop. 

" The fruit has taken a queer freak. It is usually the 
first varieties that are hurt the most, but this year they are 
all right and so are those coming at the end of the 
season. The failure in the crop is in the fruit 
which comes in the middle of the season. This 
will have the effect of leaving us without any peaches 
for quite a while. Just what is the cause of this I cannot 
tell. Around Milford, where I live, this same complaint is 
general. There is, I understand, considerable fruit in 
Maryland, and down in Sussex county there will be a good 
and profitable yield of several of the Jate varieties. 

"The vellows hive caused considerable damage, particu- 
larly in Kent county, while there is scarcely any fruit in 
Newcastle county. It seems strange there is nothing to 
cure the yellows. 

"Around Smyrna, which formerly was the center of the 

Jolt 2, 1892 

f AC! Fie I^URAb PRESS. 

peach district, there is scarcely any fruit. The large 
orchards owned by the various members of the Cummins 
family have very few peaches in them; this is equally true 
of the other large orchards. The yellows have done the 
work here and for several seasons the crop has been a 
failure in this section. The ravages of the disease, which 
first made its appearance above Middletown a few years 
ago, have gradually extended southward, until now it has 
reached below Wyomine. Very little hope is expressed of 
this section ever again being productive. Many of the old 
growers believe that before many years Delaware peaches 
will be a thing of the past. Thousands of trees have been 
torn out of the ground and now the lands are used to grow 
wheat and corn." 

A Baltimore correspondent writes to say that after mak- 
ing a tour of the peninsula he is of the opinion 
that the peach crop will be light. He claims that 
his statement is not made for speculative purposes, but that 
there is in fact only a small percentage of the ordinary 
crop. Some few of the early varieties show good bearing 
but by no means a fair crop. The bearing is divided into 
three parts — the early, the middle and the late crop. Of 
these three the middle crop is the lightest. 

The late crop is doing better, but here also there is a 
great shortage. Taken all in all the total crop will be, it 
is estimated by conservative judges, not more than a quar- 
ter of the crop of last year. This will be about two-thirds 
of an average crop, as last year was an oversupply. 

The "June dropping" is yet to be undergone. The first 
peaches get to market about the middle of Julv and are 
most plentiful about the middle of August. During the 
month of June the first fruit that is not hardy or is under- 
sized is liable to be blown from the trees. From this 
source a ten per cent loss is expected this year. This, in 
addition to the already short crop, will put prices very high. 
It is too early at this time to estimate what the price may 
be, but it is thought that the first quotations will be fully 
20 per cent over the closing prices of last year. 

This will bring out the speculative holdings. Last year, 
out of a crop of about 2,000,000 crates from the Maryland 
orchards, about 100,000 cases of canned peaches were 
packed and carried through the winter. This fruit will be 
unloaded upon the market in small lots, as soon as it is 
found that the crop this year is short and big prices will be 

Arizona Apricots m New York. 

The Fruit Trade Journal of June i8th has the following: 
On Monday the first car of apricots from Arizona reached 
this city and was sold at auction on the Erie pier. The 
fruit landed from this car utterly ruined, and only averaged 
about 10 cents per half crate. Some of it sold as low as 
three cents per half crate, and its condition may be judged 
from the fact that the Board of Health seized 250 crates 
and had them carted to the dump. This car was rejected 
by the consignees, Messrs. Sgobel & Day, and was sold 
"for account of whom it may concern." Yesterday morn- 
ing the second car, containing 1086 half crates royal apri- 
cots, arrived and was sold at auction by the above firm 
from 90 cents to $1.40 per half crate. The fruit was of 
very handsome quality, larger than that coming from Cali- 
fornia and well packed, but it was dead ripe, otherwise it 
would have brought much higher figures. This latter 
came in a different kind of a refrigerator car, which had 
been properly iced on the way, and therefore brought its 
contents in good condition. The fruit is fine and if packed 
a little greener, and the cars are properly iced on the way, 
there is no doubt but that it can be brought through here in 
good condition. 

(She ]E{iEbD. 

The Sugar Beet in California. 

At the Pomona Farmers' Institute, Mr. Richard Gird, 
the well-known sugar beet grower of Chino, San Bernar- 
dino county, gave a lecture on the sugar beet in California. 
The following are paragraphs selected from Mr. Gird's 

Some five years ago I commenced experimenting; I 
planted as many as 60 experimental patches, running over 
an area of 20,000 acres, and as soon as the beets got to be 
large enough I commenced analyzing. I learned to analyze 
for myself, and got the whole thing into my own hands, so 
that I didn't have to depend on any outside chemist. The 
result was I became perfectly familiar with what the soils 
in different places would produce and the kind of seed 
adapted to those soils, by the following up of which I could 
expect to make a success of beet culture. I then cast about 
to find the capital to put up a factory with. The erection 
of a factory is a very expensive matter, and has to be done 
by practical sugar men. In the first place, it costs from 
$500,000 to $600,000 to put up a good factory, and in the 
second place, years of experience to run one. Well, I 
found the capital, and the result is I now have 4000 acres, 
an area of one mile long and six wide, in sugar beets, 
growing as nicely as any one could wish, and there is going 
to be a great crop on the Chino ranch this year. All this 
we have had to cultivate as carefully as an onion bed — 
every weed and everything being taken out of the ground. 
I now have over 400 men and boys on my pay roll. Two 
years ago there were not, perhaps, a dozen houses on the 
place, but at the last school census, just made, there were 
310 children, which, according to the usual calculations, 
would make a population from 1300 to 1400 people. 

Beet culture is especially adapted for families; children 
are better at thinning beets than grown people. I have 40 
or 50 boys in a gang (boys about 15), with a man looking 
after them, thinning beets. A boy's fingers are more nim- 
ble than a man's, and they can get a better hold of a beet. 
As an illustration; A nian came in this spring and took 20 

acres, and his family have done all the thinning and hoeing, 
and his beets are in as nice a shape as could be found. 

As a diversity of product and an employer of labor, 
there is nothing equal to sugar beet culture; it takes at 
least one person to each ten acres after a patch is planted. 
You sow the seed very thick:, as the beet has many enemies 
and comes up so weakly tha.t it is necessary to put plenty 
of seed in the ground. I generally plant from 12 to 15 
pounds to the acre, according to circumstances. After com- 
ing up the beets have to be thinned and weeded. I have 
now, probably 200 men and boys thinning and weeding, 
and am toward the end of the crop, having say two or three 
weeks more thinning. After this we have to cultivate, and 
for this we have special machinery, all of which I have 
made myself; in fact, everything I use of a special kind, I 
have made myself. I should therefore advise anybody or 
any community as the first thing to do, if they wish to go 
into sugar beet culture, to experiment with their soils and 
get about ten varieties of the best seed that has been tested, 
both in Europe and California, plant in different patches 
around in their fields until they understand the capabilities 
of their soil for beet culture. I want to say right here that 
this is something the Agricultural University should take 
in hand; they ought to send an expert beet culturist 
throughout the State to titach farmers how to raise the 
sugar beet. Special business needs special training. 

Now, I tell you, gentlemen, that the sugar beet is going 
to be our great staple industry in California; our country 
being so well adapted, both in soil and climate, to its suc- 
cessful culture. 

The seed of the sugar beet for many wears to come will 
have to be brought from Europe, although I have planted 
some to make a start with. It takes so much practical 
knowledge and requires so much care that I don't believe 
we will be able to take the matter up and realize a success 
until after a number of years. 

The improved Klein Wanzlebener is adapted to shallow 
and clayey soils. 

As a further illustration of suiting the different classes of 
beets to the various soils, I tried the beet they grow in 
Alvarado, but it would not d(j at all in Chino. I got four 
per cent more sugar with these beets than with the 
Alvarado beet. 

The rule laid down by Viltnorin, who has been for many 
years a great beet seed raiser in Europe, is that the per- 
centage of sugar is inverse to the weight of the beet. I can 
grow a beet as large as my finger so sweet that it will be 
just like a stick of candy. I had whole loads of beets on 
the Chino ranch last year that went 20 per cent crystalliz- 
able sugar. 

The proper weight to woric for is li to 2\ pounds; a beet 
over 3 pounds is too large t'O carry a profitable per cent of 
sugar. I want to illustrate to you the proportions of a 
sugar beet. A beet should be equalized so that the area of 
the leaf surface is in proportion to the root — sufficient to 
secrete the carbohydrate from the air and deposit it in the 
root. That is why we look for large tops and small roots. 
We produce a richer beet than they raise in Europe or the 
other States of this country, because we have more sun- 

The amount of seed that should be sown to the acre is 
about 15 pounds. You cannot transplant the sugar beet. 
The trouble is, that in pulling a beet up, the point, which 
is very fine and easily broken, breaks off and sprouts, when 
the beet grows out of shape and is worthless. The worms 
this year cut off the points and destroyed a large number 
of my beets. In thinning, you should space according to 
the soils. I thin from 6 to 12 inches — heavy, damp soils, 
about 6 inches; light soils, i<3 to 12 inches, as the case may 
be. I give my orders for each field as to the distance to be 
left between the plants. It costs me $1.50 per day per 
man, including board. The cost per acre is from $14 to 
$28. It comes higher in other places, but I think, on ac- 
count of our dry climate, we get along cheaper, as we have 
less weeding and cultivating than elsewhere. The ground 
for all beets should be rolled. First plow, then roll. In 
moist land that has an underdrainage of not more than 5 to 
6 feet, you cannot plant early in the year. 

The product should be about 15 tons to the acre and the 
price $4.50 to $5 per ton. Supposing they only get $4 per 
I ton, that would be $60 per acre, and say it costs $30 per 
acre, we have left a profit of $30 per acre, and if your fami- 
lies do the work, most of this can be saved. Say a man 
has 10 acres. . Without counting what he can save by his 
own and his families' work, his profit would be $300. I 
rent people land that will raise them enough hay for their 
horses, so they can take care of their stock. A great many 
of the people, after doing their own work, will make quite 
a little money working around among others. 

The plowing and putting in of the the beets takes two 
months, and thinning and cultivating two months; that is, 
four months in the year. I am plowing now to put in beets 
where I have taken off this year 2} tons of barley hay to 
the acre, and on this same land I shall raise $60 worth of 
beets to the acre. We generally calculate to leave the 
stubble on the land; still, last year I turned the land over 
again and put in beets. The calculation is to plow the 
stubble in as a fertilizer. 

Too much stress cannot be laid upon the benefit that 
the sugar beet culture is to the land in improving it for 
other crops. I have seen land that has been cultivated for 
16 years, and the last crop was better in sugar than the 

I feed the pulp to cattle and it makes splendid feed. My 
plan this year is to run it into silos and let it lie there about 
six months, and I calculate to feed it to my cattle during 
the winter months. 

I expect to have 40,000 tons of sugar beets this year. 

In plowing the land for beets, the calculation is to plow 
from 10 to 12 inches deep. New land must not be plowed 
too deep; I found last year I turned up too much cold 
ground. You can till new land eight inches, next year 10, 
and the following year 12 inches. 

I have not touched upon the immense benefit the sugar 
business is to the whole countiy. We import $100,000,000 
of sugar into the United States every year. The Pacific | 

Coast alone uses 90,000 tons of sugar a year, you can esti- 
mate what that costs us. We can raise that ourselves just 
as well as not. Now, there is Germany, an old, worn out 
country, thickly settled, that ships 200,000 tons of sugar 
into the United States each year. These are figures we 
ought to think about. The drawing out of our country of 
this enormous amount for sugar is more than we can afford. 
There is a general complaint among commercial men and 
farmers about their being too little money and too little 
currency. The reason is we send too much of it abroad. 
If we can grow these things in the United States, we should 
do so, and thereby keep our money here and give thous- 
ands of our own countrymen employment. I think the 
State ought to encourage this industry by eiiving a small 
bounty to farmers. They are offering it in Nebraska, Kan- 
sas and Iowa and all those Western States, and I think it 
would be proper to do so here. With such land as there is 
around Pomona you can raise beets yourselves. Land 
that will grow good grain will grow good beets. I want 
you to understand that up on the mountain slopes and 
clayey soils will not grow beets successfully; the soil hard- 
ens too much and the roots will not penetrate. It will take 
700 factories the size of the one we have at Chino to supply 
the United States with sugar; therefore there is no trouble 
to be apprehended on the score of competition; the more 
competition we have the better. 

In California we have a great advantage in the seasons 
for raising beets. 

On the dry land you can commence planting in Febru- 
ary and March and the beet will go down deep, and is then 
in a position to stand almost any extent of drought. One 
trouble with this upland is that if you have a gravelly sub- 
soil the beet won't thrive. 

California is a country where the planting season is long 
and the harvest season as well. I commence in February 
and continue planting till the end of May. I expect to 
commence harvesting in the middle of July and keep on 
till December, whereas in Europe they only have two 
weeks for planting, and about 60 or 70 days for harvesting. 

Flax and Hemp. 

The census bulletin relating to the production of flax and 
hemp in the United States has been prepared by Mr. John 
Hyde, special agent in charge of the statistics of agricul- 
ture. It shows the total area of land devoted to the culti- 
vation of flax in 1889 to have been 1,318,698 acres, the pro- 
duction of flaxseed 10.250,410 bushels, the production of 
fibre 241,389 pounds, the amount of flax straw sold or so 
utilized as to have a determinable value 207,757 tons, and 
the total value of all flax products $10,436,228. While flax- 
seed is reported from 31 States, Minnesota, Iowa, South 
Dakota and Nebraska produce 80.06 per cent of the total 
amount, or 1,035,613 bushels in excess of the entire produc- 
tion of the United States at the census of 1880. South 
Dakota had the largest acreage devoted to flax and Minne- 
sota the largest production of seed. Of the States contain- 
ing 1000 acres or upward in flax, Wisconsin had the 
highest average yield of flaxseed per acre, 11.42 bushels, 
and the highest average value per acre of all flax products, 
5i3-39- The average yield for the entire country was 7.77 
bushels per acre. Throughout the greater portion of the 
flaxseed-producing region flax straw is of little or no value, 
and much of the so-called fiber is only an inferior quality of 
tow, used chiefly for upholstering purposes. There are in- 
dications, however, of the revival in the United States of 
a linen industry that will afford a market for fine flax fiber 
of domestic production, and revive a branch of agriculture 
that has for many years been almost extinct. The total 
area of land devoted to the cultivation of hemp in 1889 was 
25,054 acres, and the production of fibre 11,511 tons, valued 
at $1,102,602 to the producers. This branch of agricultural 
industry is confined almost exclusively to the State of Ken- 
tucky, which produced 9377 per cent of the total hemp 
crop of the country. The average yield per acre for the 
United States is 1029 pounds, and the average value per 
acre $44.01 or $95 .79 per ton. 

A New Grain Taken From a Wild Goose. — G. W, 
Coplen ol Lalah is this year tenderly nursing a couple ol 
stalks of wheat which have a curious history, says the Puget 
Sound Mail. In tne fall of 1890 a wild goose killed on 
one of the islands near the straits of Fuca was found to 
contain seeds resembling wheat. These were planted and 
grew profusely, Mr. Coplen securing two sample grains 
where it had grown at Nelson, B. C. The grains are 
nearly twice the length of ordinary wheat, shaped some- 
thing like a grain of rye, but much thicker. The two 
grains germinated quickly, sent up thrifty blades and are 
growing well. It is hoped this will prove a valuable variety. 
It would seem that the bird from which the original grains 
were taken must have found the plant in the remote north, 
and if no grain is found now cultivated in the known world 
like this, still further color will be given to the supposition 
that there is a polar sea with vegetable life on its shore. 

The grooming of horses is only secondary in importance 
to that of diet. Health is secured by keeping the skin 
pores open, and this only can be obtained by the curry- 
comb and the brush, removing the dead epidermis thrown 
off in form of pellicles. He is a bad groom that employs 
the comb roughly and the brush lazily. Not only comb the 
mane and tail from time to time, but occasionally wash the 
latter with soap and water. It is a bad practice to cover 
saddle and carriage horses with rugs when in the stable, 
with the view to preserving them from catching colds, keep- 
ing the skin cleaner and the coat shining. The best service 
to render such a horse is to accustom it to cold, to harden 
it. A rug ought only to be thrown across a horse when, 
being warm, it enters a cold stable, and only allowed to re- 
main on the animal till the normal temperature of the body 
sets in. Horses with short tails may be covered with a 
light linen, in order to ke^p off the flies when in the stable 
during the summer, 


Jolt 2, 1892 

JIJhe iZ^OJvIE OlRebE. 


The Watches of the Night. 

Ob, the waiting in the watches of the night ! 
In the darkness, desolation, and, contrition, and 

The awful hush that holds us shut away from 

The ever weary fancy that forever weary goes 
Recounting ever over every aching loss it 

The ever weary eyelids gasping ever for repose- 
In the dreary weary watches of the night ! 

I)4rk— stifling dark— the watches of the night ! 
With tingling nerves at tension, how the blackness 
flashes white 

With spectral visitations smitten past the inner 
sight I— 

What shuddering sense of wrongs we ve wrought 

that may not be redrtased— 
Of tears we did not brush away— of lips we lelt 


And hands that we let fall, with all their loyalty 


Ah ! the empty, empty watches of the night. 

What solace in the watches of the night ? 

What frailest staff of hope to stay-what faintest 

shaft of light? 
Do we dream and dire believe it, that by never 
weight of right 
Of our own poor weak deservings, we shall win 

the dawn at last — 
Our famished souls find freedom from this 

penance for the past, 
la the faith that leaps and lightens from the 
gloom that flees aghast— 
Shall we survive the watches of the night ? 

One leads us through the watches of the night— 
By the ceaseless intercession of our loved ones lost 
to sight. 

He is with us through all trials, in His mercy and 

His might — 
With our mothers there about Him, all our 

sorrow disappears. 
Till the silence of our sobbing is the prayer our 

Master hears, 
And His hand is laid upon us with the tenderness 

of tears 

In the waning of the watches of the night. 

—James Whitcomb Riley. 

The Emblematic Eagle. 

A Fourth of July Study. 
Written for the RubaL Pmss by L. )I. 8. 

The emblematic eagle is not, as one 'might 
suppose, an original of our young western 
republic. The honor and praise which we 
lavish upon it is in fact, its rightful inherit- 
ance from the sons of men. The eagle, it 
seems, developed very early in the world's 
history the ability to get itself elected to 
places of public honor and preferment, and 
succeeded in placing itself before the world 
even in the fabulous ages, as a fitting 
emblem of many of the valiant qualities 
which the multitudes look up to and revere. 

The Book of Job, supposed to be a rep- 
resentation of the patriarchal age about the 
time of Moses, but written presumably in 
the days of Solomon, gives a word picture 
of the eagle, which is not paralleled any 
where in literature for its vigor and power 
of realistic description. 

Doth the eagle mount up at thy command and 
make her nest on high ? 

She dwelleth and abideth on the rock, upon the 
crag of the rock, and the strong place, from 
whence she seeketh the prey and her eyes bshold 
afar off. Her young ones also suck up blood, and 
where the slain are, there is she. 

The eagle first introduced himself to the 
world in visible engraved or molten form, as 
an object to admire and adore, as Nisroch, 
the eagle-headed idol of the Ninevites. As 
Nineveh was founded about 2200 B. C. by 
Nimrod, known in the Bible as the "Mighty 
Hunter before the Lord," we may trace the 
connection of the fierce-eyed bird with the 
human family almost back to the time when 
the world was recovering from the great 
flood. From the analysis of the Rabbinical 
expositor, Rashi the commentator gravely 
explains Nisroch as a beam or plank of 
Noah's ark. Genesius suggests however, 
that the word is of Shemitic origin, and de- 
rived from the Hebrew ncsher, which is 
in Arabic iiisr^ an eagle, with the termina- 
tion och or Ach, so that Nisroch would imply 
" the great eagle." 

Mr. Layard adopts this explanation: 

Nisroch, the eagle-headed human figure, is 
one of the most prominent figures on the 
earliest Assyrian monuments; the same 
figure appears in the bas-reliefs in em- 
broideries, and as ornaments of vessels. 

The bas-reliefs always represent some 
conflict in war or encounter of the chase. A 
Nisroch is always represented as contending 
with and conquering the lion or the bull. 

So this domineering bird has not 
changed its prominent characteristics in the 
past thirty-nine hundred years, for it has 
twice in our own times made successful 
warfare against the British lion. 

Nisroch, as is shown in the Bible narra- 
tive, gave no protection to the overbearing 

monarch Sennacherib, who knelt in the 
shadow of the idol in its temple and was 
there slain by his own sons. Sennacherib 
had just returned from an ineflfectual siege 
of Jerusalem, where he " came down like a 
wolf on the fold," and an " angel of the Lord 
smote in one night a hundred and four 
score and five thousand of the Assyrians." 
The ill-starred conqueror returned to die at 
the feet of the eagle-headed god, wheofiered 
neither comfort nor aid to the tryant. 

About one hundred years after the de- 
struction of Nineveh, the Assyrian capital 
having been removed to Babylon, a Chal- 
dean captive, a Judean priest, Ezekiel, saw 
m Babylon a vision by the river Chebar, a 
likeness of four living human creatures; 
they had wings joined together, and each 
figure had four faces, the face of a man, a 
lion, an ox and the face of an eagle. 

The Babylonian kingdom was overcome 
by the Persians, and the eagle still seemed 
to go with the march of supremacy across the 
world. It was carried by the Persians as a 
standard of war and was probably the 
power referred to by the Judean priest in his 

Isaiah, also, prophesies of the coming of 
the Persian dominion, which was to super- 
sede that of Babylon, as the coming of a 
ravenous /^/W from the east, from a far 
country to execute the purposes of God." 

The typical eagle of that time was proba- 
bly the same as the Bald eagle of to-day, 
for the prophet Micah, speaks also about 
this time of the " baldness of the eagle" as a 
sign of mourning. 

The eagle as a Falconidae is also referred 
to by Christ as a symbol of inevitable 
power and natural consequence. 

The eagle is also used as a beautiful sym- 
bol of strength and protaction in the nine- 
teenth chapter of Exodus, where the Lord 
reminds Moses : " How I bare you on 
eagle's wings and brought you unto myself.'' 
In mythology, the eagle generally repre- 
sents the sun. The great mythical eagle of 
India, the Garuda, is the bearer of the God 
Vishnu — victorious by his brightness over 
all demons. 

In the Scandinavian mythology, the eagle 
is a gloomy figure assumed by demons of 
darkness, concealed in gloomy night or in 
wind swept cloud. The storm giant Kras- 
welgr sits in the form of an eagle at the ex- 
tremity of heaven and blows blasts of wind 
over all peoples. And on the great tree 
Yggdrasil sits an eagle observing everything 
that happens. 

When Zeus was preparing for his strug- 
gle with the Titans, the eagle brought him a 
thunderbolt, whereupon the god took the 
bird for his emblem He holds the bolts of 
Zeus in his talons, inspires heroes with 
courage and carries out the tyrannous be- 
hests of Zeus. 

As an emblem of the immortal gods, he 
also became a symbol of abstract im- 
mortality and of the soul ascending after 

From the analogy of the heavenly power 
of Zeus, the eagle also became the symbol 
of earthly power. 

Ptolemy Soter made it the emblem of the 
Egyptian kingdom. 

•In the Roman story, an eagle was the 
herald to Tarquinius of his royal power, and 
it became one of the most important in- 
signia of the republic. It was also assumed 
by emperors and adopted into medieval 
heraldry after the time of Charlemagne. 

In the apothesis of the Roman emperors, 
an eagle ascending from a funeral pyre 
symbolized their reception among the gods. 
Even in Christian symbolism the eagle has 
preserved to the present day its significance 
as the symbol of St. John the Evangelist in 
the lecterns of churches. 

As a standard of war, the eagle seems first 
to have been used by the Persians, and the 
Romans adopted the eagle as a standard of 
war in the year 104 B. C. 

The most famous eagles of antiquity were 
those that so often carried the Romans on 
to victory. They were made of silver or 
brorize with outstretched wings and were 
carried before the legions upon long poles, 
just as the great armies of Napoleon, after 
1804, carried gilded eagles with outstretched 
wings in place of banners. 

The German imperal eagle was originally 
one-headed, and was first adopted by 
Charlemagne as a symbol of his empire 
after his coronation at Rome in 800, and it 
appears on the imperial banner at the time 
of Emperor Otto II. 

The eagle is occasionally figured as two- 
headed toward the end of the 13th century, 
and is represented on the coins of Ludwig 
the Bavarian in 1325. The double-headed 
eagle may have symbolized either the east- 
ern and western divisions of the Roman Em- 
pire or the union nf the imperial and the 
kingly dignity. 

The eagle continued to be the arms of the 
Holy Roman Empire to its close in 1500. 

It was first crowned in the 15th century; 
later, the sword and scepter appeared in its 
claws, and on the breast of the eagle were 
the personal arms of the Emperor. 

On the arms of the present German Em- 
pire, an eagle sustains on its breast a shield 
containing the arms of Prussia, also an 
eagle charged in turn with the arms of the 
Hohenzollern family. The Prussian eagle, 
being the original imperial eagle, was granted 
as a special mark of favor to the Teutonic 
knights by the Emperor Frederick II. 

Austria has preserved the double-headed 
eagle of the earlier German Empire. 

Russia assumed the double-headed eagle 
under Ivan III, to signify that the Czar 
sprung from the Greek Emperors, who had 
borne it as a symbol since the partition of 
the Roman Empire. 

Poland has for a shield a white crowned 
eagle in a red shield. 

In France, the eagle was assumed as his 
imperial symbol by Napoleon I. was set 
aside at his fall, restored by Napoleon III 
in 1852, but was once more abolished by the 
French republic in 1870. 

The eagle was adopted by the United 
States of America as an emblem in 1785. 
It was imported from ancient Rome, just as 
the word " Senate " was. " The young re- 
public," says Edmund Randolph, " boasted 
that they were treading upon the republican 
ground of Greece and Rome." 

An eagle crest is found on a seal of 
Washington in the British Museum, on a 
letter written in 1758, and resembles one 
since discovered on the will, dated 1751, of 
Lawrence Washington, brother of General 
Washington. The eagle was the normal 
crest of the Yorkshire line of Washingtons, 
and the same use of the eagle is traced from 
Robert Washington of Brington to George 
Washington in Virginia. 

The American eagle is dark brown with 
outspread wings, having in one of its talons 
a bundle of arrows, in the other an olive 
branch, bearing on its breast a shield whose 
upper part is blue and under part silver 
crossed by six red vertical bars. In its 
beak it holds a band with the inscription 
" E pluribiis unum," surrounded by thirteen 

In Tames G. Percival's grand epic on 
"The Eagle " occur the following beautiful 
lines on the bird as the American emblem: 

" But then came a bold and hardy few. 

And they breasted the unknown wave; 
I saw from far the wandering crew. 

And I knew they were high and brave. 
I whecl'd around the welcome bark. 

As it sought the desolate shore, 
And up to heaven like a joyful lark 

My quivering pinions bore. 

" And now that bold and hardy few 

Are a nation wide and strong; 
Danger and doubt I have led them through. 

And they worshiped me in song; 
And over their bright and glancing arms, 

On field and lake and sea, 
With an eye that fires and a spell that charms, 

I guide them to victory." 

True eagles inhabit all regions of the 
world, of which seven or eight species at 
least are found in Europe, the Sea eagle of 
the east of Asia being the finest and largest. 
The Golden eagle is widely distributed in 
Europe, Asia and America, of which the 
Imperial eagle is a closely allied species. 

The white-headed or Bald eagle is the 
chosen emblem of the United States of 
America, and is by some considered a dis- 
tinct species. 

The genus Aquila of the Falconidsc family 
is characterized by hooked beaks and sharp, 
powerful claws. They have great powers of 
flight and vision, and are solitary in their 
habits. Large specimens measure 3J feet in 
length and nine feet expanded wings. They 
breed in mountains or forests. They are 
all monogamous, and it is said that a pair 
will live together in perfect harmony till 
death. They are thoroughly attached to 
their young, and will not forsake them even 
if the tree on which they rest be enveloped 
in flames. Their tenure of life, it is sup- 
posed, will extend to one hundred years. 

The Bald eagle is so called on account of 
its white head, neck and tail. It uses the 
same nest year after year. 

The eagle is domesticated and used by 
the Kirghis Tartars, who call it Bergut, for 
the capture of antelopes, wolves and foxes. 
It is carried hooded on horseback, or on a 
perch between two men, and released when 
the quarry is in sight. Such a bird, when 
well trained, is valued, says Pallas, at the 
price of two camels. It is quite possible 
that more than one kind of eagle is thus 
used, and the services of Aie^le heliaca, the 
supposed Imperial eagle, may be also em- 
ployed. However, it is uncertain just what 
species of eagle may have been the Alls 
Jovis, the traditional emblem of Roman 
power. We only know that no Bald, or 
American, eagle has ever been enticed from 
his eyrie home against the azure blue, to 
be domesticated to base uses. 

Donbtful Compliments. 

Written for the Rural I'rki.s by KlJiiK ANog. 
How many people there are who honestly 
wish to be agreeable to others, but fail in 
the attempt ! They are continually giving 
oflFense, when, in reality, they are desirous of 
expressing their admiration for or their ap- 
preciation of the persons they address. Have 
we not heard them deplore having been 
misunderstood in such language as the fol- 
lowing : 

" I wonder why Miss Brown treats me so 
coolly. I always try to be pleasant with 
her, but she seems to resent everything I 

" I cannot understand why Mr. Jay is »o 
reserved. He was very friendly when I 
first met him a year ago, but now he seems 
like a stranger." 

Now, the coolness of the lady and gentle- 
man is doubtless owing to the want of tact 
on the part of the person desiring their 
friendship. For instance, the latter meets 
Miss Brown and tells her how charming she 
looks. Miss Brown is pleased, when Miss 
Rasp continues : 

" I came very near passing you. 1 could 
scarcely believe it was you. That hat makes 
you look so young and pretty. It changes 
your appearance entirely." 

Is Miss Brown to be complimented be- 
cause she is told she is looking unlike her- 

Mr. Jay spends an evening at Miss 
Rasp's. He loves music and sings at her 
request. Miss Rasp is delighted, so is Mr. 
Jay. He beams back his thanks, when 
Miss Rasp electrifies him by saying : 

" Your singing is a surprise tome, Mr. 
Jay. I thought you could not sing a note. 
Your voice is so weak and thin in conversa- 
tion, I was afraid you were consumptive " 

Miss Rasp thinks that she impresses him 
as being kind and sympathetic. She docs 
not know that her skill as a musician nerves 
him to make a second call. This time he 
learns that she has thought him ten years 
older than he is because she has discerned 
a thin spot on the crown of his head that 
he hoped no one knew of but himself. But 
"music hath charms," and he ventures a 
third time, never to return. What man of 
five feet four inches could, after learning 
that he had been considered fully three 
inches shorter than he is ! 

Miss Rasp met an acquaintance she had 
known from girlhood. 

" I want you to tell me by what secret 
you retain your youth," she said. "You 
look exactly as you did when you went to 
school fifteen years ago." 

The person addressed was a sensible 
woman, and rejoined laughingly that she 
would be sorry if she looked as old at sixtean 
as she did then. 

"0 1" said Miss Rasp. " You were not a 
young looking girl. You were so tall and 
sedate. 1 thought you were dreadfully old." 

When they parted, the lady was glad that 
her meetings with Miss Rasp were few and 
far between. 

Again, a bright, sprightly woman on the 
sunny side of middle life was entertaining 
some friends, when Miss Rasp exclaimed : 
•' Mrs. Smith has learned the art of growing 
old gracefully." 

The remark was ignored, and any one 
would think that Miss Rasp would be more 
cautious of her words afterward; but she 
said later at supper : 

" Mrs. Smith, the highest praise I can 
pay this coffee is that it tastes just as my 
mother's did when I was a child." 

Another guest tactfully changed the sub- 
ject. It was evident to every one but Miss 
Rasp that she was making a mistake in 
classin;; Mrs. Smith among elderly women. 
And Miss Rasp cannot understand why she 
is no longer invited to Mrs. Smith's parties. 

If people were more studious of the ex- 
pressions they use, there would be fewer of 
these doubtful compliments which are so 
productive of vexation and annoyance. I 
have a friend who resents any one speaking 
of her " smiling face " as an impertinence. 
This is what she says: "There is nothing 
exasperates me like having any one say that 
he saw my smiling face here or there. It 
isn't pleasant to have people speak as though 
I am always grinning like a monkey or an 
idiot. If they must allude to my expression, 
why cannot they say it is bright or cheerful 
or pleasant instead of harping continually 
upon that threadbare word 'smiling?'" 
She has, in consequence, cultivated a cold, 
haughty bearing which is far from being as 
attractive as her former vivaciousness was. 

Other words which usually excite resent- 
ment are " good-natured " and " clever " 
when they are used in the same sense. A 
lady was spoken to in this manner: " Yes, 
Mr. Blank often speaks of you. He says he 

JULT 2 ig92 


likes you because you are so good-natured." 

Instantly, that adjective rankled like a 
thorn in the flesh. Could not Mr. Blank 
have said that she was kind or genial or 
even-tempered ? There were so many 
pleasing words that he could have chosen 
from; then why select one that was so an- 
noying in its effect ? Then she wondered if 
she were not over-sensitive in regard to the 
matter. She resolved to put it to a test. 
So in calling upon a relative, she said: " By 
the way, Jennie, I have a compliment for 
you. Mr. Blank says he likes you because 
you are so good-natured." 

Jennie's eyes flashed, and she replied in- 
dignantly: " I don't appreciate a compli- 
ment that you can pay a pig or a fool ! '' 

Another very usual way of giving offense 
is that of complimenting young people upon 
their youthfulness, thereby inferring that 
they appear younger than they are. A 
blooming mother or a young wife will be 
told that she is young-looking, when she is 
really but a girl in years. 

A man noted for his gallantry thus ac- 
costed a young married woman: " Mrs. 
Adams, I must compliment you upon your 
appearance. I mistook you for a young 
lady." " I am not old enough to appreciate 
that compliment, Major Grey," she an- 
swered. And his look of discomfiture 
showed that he had learned a lesson he was 
not likely to forget. 

Then, too, many people spoil their com- 
pliments by saying too much. They make 
a good beginning, but a disastrous ending, 
as a young man did who approached a lady 
and congratulated her upon the success of 
some work she bad undertaken. " I am 
charmed and delighted,'' he said. 

The lady thanked him for his apprecia- 
tion. Then he continued: " I cannot tell 
you how astonished I am to find you so 
witty and possessed of such ability. I bad 
an entirely different opinion of you." Yet 
that young man thought he was extremely 
complimentary ! 

Another man told a girl that she had the 
most beautiful eyes he ever saw, and then 
went on to tell her how faulty her other 
features were. If he had stopped at her 
eyes, he would probably have won her friend- 
ship; but she never liked him, while he de- 
plored the icy reserve on the part of the 
charming Miss Lovely toward himself. It 
was simply owing to his want of tact, which, 
after all, is the cause of many doubtful com- 

Old Franz' Song of the Angels. 

Written for the Rural Press by Alice Kingbury 


In a quaint garret in Paris lived an old 
musician. He had been second violinist in 
a minor theatre till, shielding a child from 
death in a terrible fire, he was badly in- 
jured. The parents were profuse in their 
thanks, and then — he was forgotten; so neg- 
lected, he became a paralytic and lost his 
place in the orchestra. He would have 
starved but for his one friend, the little dan- 
cer, who, besides helping, encouraged him 
to write music with his left hand. 

One day, Fifine noticed Franz' happy look 
and said: 

" What so pleases monsieur, to-day ? " 

" Aha! did you notice it, ma petite ? The 
angels sang to me such melody, and to day 
I wrote it, but I shall never play it, the beau- 
ti)ul soul that is here " — he tenderly touched 
his violin, " Franz can never summon again; 
one-half of him is dead, dead." His head 
drooped lower and lower till it rested on his 
loved instrument, and soon Fifine saw a little 
stream trickle down its side and sparkle in 
the sunlight. 

" O, don't weep, dear monsieur! Take a 
beautiful walk instead." She, coaxing, put 
on his hat and they started. 

" I would like to hear my Song of the 
Angels before I die," he said, " but that can 
never be; old Franz can never play again." 

" Why does not monsieur let the orchestra 
play his beautiful piece " 

" Ahl would they, Fifine, would they 

"Why does not monsieur try?" So it 
was all arranged what to do, as they drank 
their sugared water in a little "garden." 

At last the " Song of the Angels " was to 
be played. Franz, tremulous with joy and 
fear, sat with Fifine close to the orchestra. 
Soon the notes of the " Song " began. Franz 
looked troubled, then angry, then horrified. 

"Ah! the violin," he muttered; then with 
a sudden motion he snatched the instrument 
from the leader's grasp, and, drawing the 
bow with a master's hand, poured forth such 
a flood of melody that the orchestra, amazed, 
ceased playing, and the audience listened 
spell-bound. As the "Song" ended, the 
violin fell from Franz' nerveless hands and 
he sank to the floor. 

" I have heard it, Fifine; the soul came 
back at Franz' call. Did not the angels 

sing, Fifine?" The supreme effort breaking 
the paralysis, had also snapped the silver 
cord. Old Franz died with a seraphic smile 
upon his lips. 


My Trip to Bogus Settlement. 

Written for the Rural Press by Duane Morley. 

In the year 1842, my father kept a supply 
store in the wilds of Michigan, bought furs 
of the hunters and friendly Indians, and in 
return sold them their supplies of food and 
ammunition. At the time I speak of, I was 
a strong boy seventeen years old, and al- 
ways, when not assisting at the store, com- 
missioned to do some errand or other in 
the settlement where my father's store was 
situated. Sometimes, though not often, I 
was sent miles away into the forest to carry 
some special article of merchandise to some 
hunter's camp, or, in its stead, deliver some 
message of consequence. 

Prior to the date I mention, a gang of 
counterfeiters had built and occupied upon 
the banks of Pine river, and at a point 30 
miles north of our place, a long, low, two- 
roomed house. Ostensibly, it was for hunt- 
ing and fishing purposes, being not only upon 
the banks of Pine river, but near Pine lake 

The settlements about that time becoming 
flooded with spurious currency, these fellows 
fell under suspicion, their camp was raided 
by the authorities, some of their number be- 
ing captured along with the implements of 
their unlawful trade. At the time I speak 
of now, and for months before, the house 
was the residence of a man by the name of 
Goodleigh, his wife and daughter. He was 
the partner of a man by the name of Walker; 
the latter engaged in general trade at Pon- 
tiac, and the two together managing a trading 
post at this point in the old two-roomed 
house. To this place I was sent in the early 
spring of '42 to perform a responsible mis- 
sion. My father had bargained to deliver 
for Walker to Goodleigh the sum of seven 
hundred dollars, paper money, and as he 
could not go, the task of delivering it fell 
upon me to perform. To make the trip was 
a pleasing and novel idea to me, as I had 
never penetrated quite that far into the 
northern wilds. I was rigged out for the 
trip with a horse and saddle, a small sleep- 
ing tent and some provisions. Then, 
mounted, with a small rifle in my possession, 
out I started. 

The money was carefully placed in be- 
tween the outer fabric of my pantaloons and 
the strong inner lining, and I was told to 
place it in Goodleigh's hands, and his only. 
Except from prowling wolves, there was no 
cause for fear, for the Indians were friendly, 
and among them all my father was held in 
high esteem. Over three-quarters of the 
way I made excellent time, nothing of note 
happening, and but little game making it- 
self visible. 

The ground was fast thawing out, and 
along a strip of marshes which I had finally 
to cross, by a tongue of hard upland, the 
path was very spongy and troublesome to 
the horse. I was anxious to get over ere 
nightfall and camp somewhere in the clumps 
of undergrowth on the other side. And, as 
I had luckily shot a brace of partridges on 
the near side of the marshes, I was, while 
slowly picking my way along the tongue of 
hard, or upland, revolving about in my mind 
how I would pitch my tent, prepare my fire 
and toast my birds in its blaze. All at once 
from out the thick brush, I was confronted 
by two desperate-looking fellows, both of 
whom were armed with rocks. One of them 
demanded my gun, but, instead of yielding 
it, I tried to bring it to bear upon them, 
realizing that the fellows were nothing short 
of desperadoes. 

Before I could bring my gun to bear, I 
was hit by the rocks, one of them striking 
me upon the head and rendering me uncon- 
scious. When I came to myself again I was 
in an Indian's wigwam. It belonged to 
Canobway, an old chieftain, a man of good 
heart and great native intelligence. Above 
me, as I lay upon a bed of soft furs, bent 
the form of Kisco, niece of Canobway, a 
half-breed, born in lawful wedlock. Kisco 
quietly told how Canobway had found me 
insensible, my clothing torn and my face 
and head still bleeding. Evidently my as- 
sailants had left me for dead. After bring- 
ing me to his wigwam, Canobway had re- 
turned to investigate the trail for traces of 
the robbers. A nourishing broth of venison 
was served me, and after a little sleep I was 
nearly myself again. By daylight again, 
Canobway had returned and was in full 
preparation for a thorough pursuit of the 
robbers, who had despoiled me of my horse, 
gun, pocketbook and the little change in the 
same. The Goodleigh money was yet safe 

where it had been sewed into my pantaloons. 

Kisco understood English, and my ac- 
count of how I had been waylaid was plain 
to her. When Canobway heard it, he 
stretched himself up to his highest in the 
centre of the tent, swung his tomahawk over 
his head and exclaimed, " Heap bad pale 
faces! Canobway catch 'em, sure." We left 
the camp in the possession of Canobway's 
squaw — Canobway leading, Kisco following 
next, and myself last. Frequently the old 
chief would motion us to halt while he 
pushed forward alone. At the cry of a bird, 
or the imitation of it, which Kisco well un- 
derstood, we would take up our march 
again. Coming up to an open space in the 
forest, near some marshes, Canobway held a 
short conference with Kisco, and then left 
us again. He was gone nearly an hour, re- 
turning to cautiously lead us forward along 
a circuitous way. 

Then it was nightfall, and suddenly we 
came upon what appeared to be an illu- 
minated haystack, a light shining from within 
it through an open doorway and through the 
interstices of the structure itself. It was a 
rude affair of poles covered loosely with 
coarse marsh grass, and standing in a thicket 
of pines. Confusion reigned within it, and 
whmnys of a horse and rude oaths of a man 
issued from it. The old chief gave a low 
grunt of satisfaction, laid his hand lightly on 
Kisco's shoulder and motioned us to remain 
behind. Then he ran swiftly forward and 
peered within the building. Then he 
fiercely swung his hatchet in a circle and 
flung it withm, quickly clubbing his rifle and 
following after it. As Kisco and I reached 
the building Canobway came forth, drag- 
ging an insensible man. With our help he 
soon had the fellow gagged and bound to a 

The horse was my own and my rifle stood 
in a corner of the structure. Seizing the 
gun and extinguishing the light, we pushed 
rapidly forward. We were near Bogus set- 
tlement, its exact location being 20 yards up 
from the river on a rising bit of ground. One 
part of the two-roomed house was devoted 
to merchandizing, the other to domestic uses. 
Coming up to it, the family part we found 
in darkness, while bright light gleamed out 
from trie store part. Peering in through 
the unchinked logs, we beheld Gaodleigh 
bound to a post and two burly, wicked look- 
ing fellows going through the goods. Draw- 
ing back into the shadows, we talked a bit. 
Then Canobway reconnoitered an under- 
ground passageway which led from the back 
of the building to the river. Soon return- 
ing, he stationed me at an angle of the house 
and in its shadow. The plan of attack was 
as follows : Kisco was to attract attention 
at the front, and, under the ruse of having 
a pony mired, secure help of one of the 
men, and as soon as he should come forth 
I was to rush out and attack him, while at 
the same moment Canobway was to force an 
entrance from the rear. The plan was suc- 
cessful, for both of the plunderers were taken 
by surprise and easily captured. In the 
pockets of one of them was found my old 
purse and jacknite. Goodleigh we speedily 
released from his bonds and his family from 
the dark room where we found them con- 
fined. In their stead we chained up the 
robbers, including the one found at the 
marsh-grass stable. Making a search of the 
surroundings, we found in and about the 
stable base metal and some counterfeit coin. 

Delivering the seven hundred dollars over 
to Goodleigh and leaving him and Canob- 
way to hold the fort, I took Kisco up behind 
me on the horse, and by way of the wigwam 
rode back to my father's store to notify the 
authorities of our capture and put in our 
claims for the reward, there being a stand- 
ing reward of two hundred dollars for each 
counterfeiter apprehended. It was quite a 
plum for us, and it was the last of the 
counterfeiting and plundering in those parts. 

At another time, I made a trip to Bogus 
settlement, but as Goodleigh's daughter was 
the magnet drawing me, I'll not relate it 

The right faith of man is not intended to 
give him repose, but to enable him to do 
his work. It is not intended that he should 
look away from the place he lives in now, 
and cheer himself with thoughts of the 
place he is to live in next, but that he should 
look stoutly ioto this world, in faith that, if 
he does his work well here, some good to 
others or himself will come of it hereafter. 
— Ruskin. 

And how shall the higher life be won? 
And again we must answer as we answered 
before, by personal allegiance. No other 
power is large enough and flexible enough 
to make it. Loving obedience is the only 
atmosphere in which the vision of the gen- 
eral purpose and the faithfulness in special 
work grow in their true proportion and rela- 
tion to each other. — Bishop Brooks, 

I)0jViESTie €[eOJ^OMY. 

Strawberry and Raspberry Shrub. 
Strawberry and raspberry shrub are made 
as follows: On four quarts of berries pour 
white vinegar enough barely to cover them. 
Let them stand for 48 hours. Then drain 
off the vinegar, squeezing the juice out of 
all the fruit with the vinegar. If straw- 
berries are used, the vinegar must be poured 
over a second supply of the fruit before it 
will attain the proper flavor; but one supply 
of raspberries is sufficient. Measure out the 
liquor when it is ready, and to every pint 
allow a pound of sugar. Put it in a porce- 
lain-lined kettle with the sugar and let it boil 
for ten minutes, then bottle it and set it 
away in a cold place. A cupful of this syrup 
is sufficient to flavor one quart of ice water. 
Either kind of shrub is very ornamental 
served in lemonade glasses with little han- 
dles, and is a pleasant, refreshing drink. 

Chicken Fritters.— One cup chicken 
stock, one heaping tablespoon flour, one 
tablespoon butter, one-half teaspoon salt, 
one saltspoon celery salt, one cup cold 
chicken. Mix the flour sn:oothly in the hot 
butter, add the boiling stock gradually, and, 
when smooth, add the seasoning. The 
sauce should be quite thick. Pour half of 
the sauce into a small, shallow dish (but- 
tered). Chop the chicken fine, and when 
the sauce has crusted over a little, spread 
the chicken evenly over the top. Then 
cover with the remainder of the sauce. Place 
on ice, and when cold and hard, cut into 
inch by two-inch pieces. Dip them quickly 
in fritter batter, and fry in hot, deep fat. 

Vegetable Soup.— One bunch of celery, 
one pint of stewed tomatoes, one onion, three 
carrots, four turnips, a little salt. Chop all 
the vegetables, except the tomatoes, very 
fine, and place them in the pot over the 
fire, with about three quarts and one pint of 
hot water. Let them cook slowly about an 
hour, then stir in the tomatoes, and boil 
about half an hour longer. Remove from 
the fire, and rub the mixture through a 
colander, then return the soup to the fire. 
Now stir in a tablespoonful of butter and 
half a cup of milk, with a little cornstarch or 
flour mixed with it. Let the soup boil up 
once, and it will be ready for the table. 

Cream of Rice. — To one quart of con- 
somme add a pint of rice prepared as fol- 
lows: Boil the rice in three pints of milk 
until tender; rub it through a sieve and add 
the milk to it. Beat the yolks of two eggs 
and whisk them into the rice. When the 
consomme is slightly warmed, whisk the pre- 
pared rice into it, alter which do not let it 
boil, but gradually bring to very near boil- 
ing point, and serve with toasted bread dice. 

Asparagus.— Cut off as much of the stalk • 
as will leave the asparagus five or six inches 
long; scrape the remaining white part very 
clean; tie them in small even bundles; put 
them into boiling water and let them boil 
till tender, but not soft. Take them out 
with a skimmer and place neatly upon a thin 
toast laid on a dish, and serve immediately 
with butter sauce or cream sauce. 

Drawn Butter Sauce.— One-half cup 
of butter, one pint of hot water, one-half cup 
of sugar, one-half teaspoonful of vanilla or 
the juice of one lemon, one tablespoonful of 
flour or cornstarch made to a smooth paste. 
Turn into the rest and let it boil five min- 
utes; add a little grated nutmeg. 

Absolutely Pure. 

A cream of tartar baking powder. High- 
est of all in leavening strength. — Latest U, 
S, Government Food Report. 


f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 

Jolt 2, lS9a 

California Pampas Plumes In Demand. 

It seems that the demand for California 
plumes did not depend upon the political 
fate of the " plumed knight, ' as we antici- 
pated in a recent issue, for the Los Angeles 
Herald says that pampas plumes from 
Southern California will form a feature of 
the political campaign this year in both par- 
ties. The Democrats have adopted as an 
emblem three white plumes mounted on a 
red standard, with a blue ribbon depending. 
An order has been given to Mrs. Strong of 
VVhittier for 20,000 of them for use at the 
Chicago convention. 

The Republicans have adopted a fan 
shaped design of red, white and blue plumes 
on a fan shape. The following article from 
the New York Evenins; Post is of interest in 
this connection: 

" In the early days of last September, dur- 
ing a visit to Southern California, I chanced, 
while walking down Spring street, Los An- 
geles, to see in a show window, where artis- 
tic furniture and mantels were displayed, 
standing before a plate-glass mirror, a vase 
holding what seemed to be three beautiful 
white feathers, tall and fairly-like. A closer 
inspection showed a depth no ostrich plume 
can boast, for in its heart of heart was a 
soft salmon tone of great richness. I could 
not help exclaiming 'Grand! I must know 
something of the new beauty.' 

" Upon inquiring I learned that the ob- 
jects which attracted my attention were pam- 
pas plumes, the product of the ' King of 
Grasses,' which is cultivated quite extensive- 
ly for the European market. This grass is 
a native of South America, growing on the 
famous pampas or plains, where the cattle 
feed upon it, which pampas give name to 
the cultivated article now grown and cured 
in great perfection in California, producing 
the artistic effect referred to, that is as sur- 
prising as it is beautiful. 

" Feeling greatly interested in an industry 
so little known, I visited one of the largest 
plantations in Los Angeles county, Ranchito 
de Fuerte, fortunately during the harvest 
season, thus witnessing the entire process. 

"The plants or clusters, bush-like in form, 
are from 10 to 12 feet high, about the same 
in diameter and stand in rows 16 feet apart. 
Very little care is given the plants (they are 
evergreen) until the irrigation season, which 
lasts from early May until the middle of 
August. Water is used every 14 days. The 
harvest begins about August 26th, and con- 
tinues 17 days. Before the husks open the 
long spikes are cut by laborers, their faces 
protected by masks and their hands by 
gloves, with gauntlets, as the edge of the 
grass is sharp as a knife. From the place 
of growth to the shade of trees, the plumes 
are taken in wagons. Shuckers sit under 
the pepper and orange trees stripping off the 
casing of green covering the plumes. Those 
who have practiced for a few years can 
shuck from three to four thousand a day. 
As this work is paid for by the thousand, 
long days are made. 

" Next come boys who lay the fresh silky 
plumes — soft green in color — upon the 
smooth earth, prepared by rolling to receive 
them. About three hours are required at 
this stage to make them white and fluffy. 
They are gathered up and carried by arm 
fuls into the curing-house; here expert ma- 
nipulation develops tone and a silk-floss fin- 
ish that gives them their chief beauty. In 
the process they are handled sixteen times. 
No labor-saving machines can be used. A 
certain nicety in handling, a quick eye and 
ready hand, makes it an industry where wo- 
men and girls can be employed. About 
sixty haads were required in the harvest of 
which I write. Plumes left upon the plants 
to open naturally are of no value, except as 
ornaments to the grounds. 

" Great improvements have been made in 
the curing process during the past two years. 
The old method produced a beautiful plume, 
but very brittle. The best grades measure 
30 to 36 inches in length, and are shipped to 
Europe. Germany, Russia and Italy are 
the largest consumers. England is latest to 
appreciate their beauty, and no doubt the 
eastern cities will, ere long, follow in their 

The plumes that sometimes are seen for 
sale on the streets here are used by florists 
to " fill in" with, but the finest go to Europe, 
where there is an appreciative market. 

" Thf regulation 'three plumes' in a sin- 
gle vase were no doubt suggested by the 
Prince of Wale's coat-of arms, as there are 
large quan)ities sent to London, where they 
are quite 'he fad. About half a million 
plumes were sent to England for the recent 
holiday season. The question. What can 
Europe do with a million and a half plumes 
year after year ? can only be answered by 

the appreciation of a thing of beauty that is 
a joy for ever." 

New uses for these plumes; or new meth- 
ods of using, are developed every season. 
The artistic sense finds expression in endless 
designs that grace receptions, balls, church 
weddings and private houses on every fes- 
tive occasion. As fabric for decorative pur- 
poses, none other produce their fairy- like 
appearance. It is essentially a wall decora- 
tion. Friezes, dadoes, etc., are made of 
wire, in art designs, and covered by the 
pampas stripped from the stem ; while 
fringes for bordering mantels and book 
shelves, mats and rugs, and also tapestry 
hangings for the walls can all be produced 
by skilled hands. They are used in connec- 
tion with draperies and soft India silk scarfs 
in colors to suit the apartments to be deco- 
rated and the taste of the hostess. They 
are also dyed, as silk or cotton can be col- 
ored , a favorite use is to adorn each room 
in a different color. 

" For ceilings, festoons are made as we 
see '■ greens" fastened to wires or ropes, or 
the Childean or other square effect can be 
outlined by a soft feathery beading. A 
house so decorated becomes a fairy palace, 
unique and artistic. 

" In California, the home of floral decora- 
tions, these plumes are used in combination 
with bamboo rods, are employed in fran e 
work, that is then covered. A favorite de- 
sign is the Japanese sea garden — a row down 
each side of a banquet hall hung with lan- 
terns and decorated with bright colored 
scarfs, making charming booths in which to 
sip a cup of bullion. 

One advantage in using these decorations 
is that they may be made extremely expen- 
sive or otherwise. The labor put upon the 
designs may cover several thousand dollars 
on a single entertainment. 

This fabric bears the same relation to the 
art decoration that the thread does to the 
point lace of which it is made. Artistic 
grouping of the plumes is always in favor, 
and the " three plumes," on a single vase, 
before a plate glass mirror, be they Prince of 
Wales " Ich Dien'' or not, will ever be to me 
the most graceful bit of mantel decoration, 
just as I saw them in the show window last 
September, 3000 miles away in sight of the 



rate of interest on approved security In Farming Landa 
A. SCHULLER, Kuom 8, 420 California Street, San 

Unitarian Literature 

Sent free by the Cuannino Auxiliakt of the First Unita- 
rian Church, cor. Oeary and Fianlilln Sta., Sao Frao- 
Ino. Addreta Mia, B. F. Olddlnca ai above. 


On flrat class country real estate, in sums of |5000 and 
over. Give full particulars. Address 

464 Ninth Street, - Uakland, Cal. 


nia Street, corner Webb; Branch. 1700 Market Street, 
corner Pulk.— For the hall year endine; with 30th Juno, 
1892, a dividend bas been declared at the rate of live and 
one- fifth (5 !•&) per cent, per annum on 'term Deposits, 
and four and one-third (4J) per cent, per aunum on 
Ordinary Deposits, free of taxes, payable on and after 
FRIDAY. iBt July, 1892. T/)VKU. WHITK. Casliier. 


The Serman Sayings antl Loan Society, 

526 California Street, 

dividend has I>een declared at iho late of five and 
one-lenth (5 1-10) per cent, per annum em Term Dupositi, 
and four and one-quarter (41) per cent, per aonum on 
Ordinary Deposits, pajablc on and after FRIDAY, July 
1, 1892. GEO. TOURNY, Secretary. 


10, 12 and 14 ft. 

Cheaper than any 
First-Class Mill in 
ihe market. 

Every On* 

No bearings, no 
springrs, no wheels 
to get out of order. 
The simi^iest mill In 
the world. 

Agents Wanted 


TRDMiH. HOOKER & CO., San Francisco or Fresno 



Notary Public. 



No. SSO Oalifornia Street, 
Telephoae 5o. 1748. 8AN rRAHOISOO, OAI.. 






SWKET PEA SEED FREE— We will mail, free, a packet cf Mixel Pea Seed 
(our own Krowini;) to each person who will send us tie names and addresses of ten peo- 
ple who have gardens and are interested in flowers. 

CALLA LILT BULBS WANTED.— Write us stating Quantity 
and Price, 

Have you a Plant or Fern in your home ? 

If not, send for some. We have choice 


FOX*. vcQ-xrsrss -vc.A.'rxm x7S7-on.i$:s. 
Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc., all sizes. 

Iron cut, punched and formed, for making pipe on ground where required. All kinds of Tools supplied for 
making Pipe Eatin ates given when required. Are prepared fjr coating all 
slMS of Pipes with a eompoeltlon of Coal Tar and Asphaltura. 

The Earliest Yellow Freestone Known. 



The Best Peach Know a for Early Ship- 
ment East. 

Reasonable prices to dealers and canvaasers. For 
particulars apply to 

W. W. RMITH, VkcaTllle, 
A. T. FOSTER, Dixon, 
Or, I. H. THOMAS & SON, Vlsalls. 





SEASON 1892-3. 

Warranted free from all disease, true to name, and 
home grown. 

Nurseries at Napa, near R. R. Depot Residence of 
proprietor at Sausal Fruit Farm, it miles north of Napa. 





Incorporated April, 18T4. 

Mvrobolan or Peach, 100, 3-B ft., 820; e-7 ft., »26. 
Bartlett Pear on Pear, 3-7 ft., ?». This stock is grown 
on finest soil, id warranted AKf»OHJTEL.T FK11.E 
from Insects of any kind. ORDER NOW to secure 
hett stock. Liberal discount on large lots. We import, 
as uaual. Nursery Stock from Europe, Australia and 
Jap^n. Send for Catalogue. Mention it in trade. Ad- 
dress H- H. BKROER & CO., Nineteenth and 
Foleoin Sts., Han VrHncisco. Esttbllshed 1878. 





"Greenbank" 98 degrees POWDERED CAUSTIC 
SODA (teste 99 S-IO per cent) recommended bj the 
highest authorities In the State. Also Common Caastlc 
S<^ and Potash, etc., for sale by 

T. W. JAOKBON ei OO., 
Hanufactorera' Agents, 
104 Markat St. and 8 Oallfomla St.. S. F. 

OAI ICnDMIA" vou want to know about Califor- 
IjnLi rUn W M nli ana the pacific 8tateB.8.-nd for the 

the beet Illustrated end Leading Farming and Horticultural 
Weekly of the Far West. Trial. 5Pc for 3 mos. Twu sample 
copies, luc. EstabUshed 1S7U. DEWEY PUBLISBINU OO. 
3« Market St., B. F. 

Aathorlaed Capital $1,000,000 

Capital paid ap and Reierre Fund 800,000 
DlTldends paid to Stockholders... 780,000 


A. D. LOGAN PrMident 

I. C. STEELE Vloe-Prestdeot 

ALBERT HONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK Mcmullen secretary 

Oeneral Banklne. Deposits received, Oold and Silver- 
Bills of Exchange boufcht and sold. Loans on wheat and 
country produce a specialty. 

Jannarv 1 1892 A UONTPKLLTRR. Manager. 

Protect Tour Trees from Sanborn, Borers 
Rabbits, Etc., by Using 


(Patent applied (or) 

It Is the only Perfect Tree Protector, 
and Is being used by many of the 
Largest Growers in the United States. 
Waterproof, adjustable and convenient. 
Saves time and trouble and expense. 

Write for samples of above; also for I 
samples and cataicgue 


Easy to apply— juit the thing for Houses, Barns, Ice 
Bouses and Outbuildings— Durable and Cheap. 


SO and 88 Flrat street, San Francisco, Cal. 

The Excelsior Frnit Tree Protector 

Manufactured by 


Paper Dealers, 

401403 Sassoie St. 

San Piusciaoo. 
Send for Samples. 

July 2 1892. 

f ACIFie f^URAlo PRESS. 


The members of the Kern CouDty Land Company 
have a national reputation for wealth, business and 
financial ability. These facts set the matter of reli- 
ability at rest. The company's capital stock is 

They have 400,000 acres of arable, irrigable lands 
upon which the sun shines almost constantly; and 
their enormous irrigation system renders them in- 
dependent of the annual rainfall. 

A clear title; rotation, variety and certainty of crops; 
easy terms; availability to persons in moderate 
circumstances; ground ready for the plow — no stones 
nor thistles; good society; schools; churches, etc., are 
a few notable attractions of this region of country. 

Kern is the largest county in the San Joaquin 
Valley. It has the finest climate for curing and 
drying fruits, etc.; 

The 400,000-acre territory of the Kern County 
Land Company is the pick of the county. 

Its area is 5,184,000 acres. 

Has the largest irrigation system in America. 

The home of the peach, French prune, pear and 
raisin grape. 

» * 

For further particulars address 

Planting and harvesting can be carried on" every 
month in the year. 

No rocks, hills or stumps on the land. 

A failure of crops is unknown on irrigated lands. 

Kern county fruits take the first prize at the State 

Land can be made to pay for itself in less than three 

Grows more alfalfa than any other county in Cali- 

The advantages of good soil and plenty of sun, 
which occur in the Kern Valley, would have been " 
of little avail but for the third and all-important 
one of an abundance of water from never-failing 

Through 300 miles of main canals, and 1,100 miles 
of laterals, the great Kern river furnishes enough 
moisture to slake the thirst of the 400,000 acres al- 
ready referred to. 

Drought is out of the question. 

The system has been constructed in the most care- 
ful and scientific manner. Some of the canals are 
125 feet wide and six feet deep. 


S. W. PERQUSSON, Agent, 




Will keep Milk and Cream sweet and fresh 
even In the warmest and mug^giest weather. 
Hotter and Cheese kept fresh in their origi- 
nal condition lor many months. 

A Simple Experimental Test. 

Send for eample, which we mail free, and talking 
two separate quarts o( new milli; into one put i of 
a teaspoontul of Preservaline; put nothing Into the 
other, and set them side by Bide so that the temperati'Te 
of the milk may be the same. See which Iteeps sweet 
the longer and which raises the more cream. 

Preservaline is the only genuine preservative that has 
ever been discovered. It is the cheapest, because it is 
not only the BEST, but because, at the same time, it is 
Harmless, Tastelesa, Odorless, Simple, Economical, and, 
above all, absolutely ICffective. 

Send for circular giving full directions, also prices. 


3 & 5 Front St., San Francisco, Cal. 

141 Front St., Portland. Or. 

846 N. Main St., L.oa Angeles, Gal. 



(Sneoeesors to THOMSON KVANS), 

110 and 119 Beale Streat, 8. F. 

Steam Pumps, Steam Engines 

and aU tdnds o( MACHINERY. 




Mining, Ditchfng, Pump» 
Ing, WindASteamMach'y. Encyclopedia 2So, 

The American WeH Works, Aurora.llL 

ll-t3 S.Canal St.,CH1CAGO,ILL 

S. f 



Warebonse and Wharf at Port Oosta. 


Money advanced on Qraln In Store at lowest possible rates of interest. 
Full Oargoes of Wbeat famlsbed Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agriealtnral Implementi, Wagoni. Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited, 

B. VAN BVERY, Manaser. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manaeer. 





Machinery and Information 
for Irrigating Plants 
of All Sizes. 


Address woriis, First '& SteveosoD Sts,, 


Send for book{8bowiiig cheap Irrigation, mailed 

Mann's Green Bone Cutter 


Patented June 16, 1886; August 20, 1889. Canada Patent, June 12, 1890. 

WB WARRANT this machine to cut Dry or Oreen Bones, meat, gristle and 
all, by Hand Power, without clog or difficulty, or MONEY REFUNDED. 

will make them 25 per cent more fertile, and increase the vigor of the whole flock. 

These Gutters are endoraed by all the leading California poultrymen. Send for a 
Catalogue describing all sizes of Cutters and eontaUilng vaulable information In relation 
to feeding green out bones. 


Paclflc Ooast A(;ents. 



Send for No. 16 Illustrated Oatalogue. 

TRDMAH, HOOKER & CO., San Francisco. 


DEWEY & CO. { 

Slsvator. 19 Front 


Is' one of the most complete inventions for drying 
Raising and Praneg by steam in 24 hours — other 
fruits less time. No sulphur or potash used. Retains 
all syrup, Juice and flavor in original purity. Capacity, 
driea from 76 lbs green fruit to 20 tons. Send for circu- 
St M'F'O CO., 347} 3. Spring St., Los Angeles, Oal. 

Golden Ital- 
ian Queens. 
Tested, $3.00 


each; tmtested, $1.00 each. L Hives, $1.90 each. Root's V 
groove sectioos, $5.00 per 1000. Dadant's comb foimdatlon, 
68o and eSoa Dound. Smokers, $1.00 each. Globe veils, $1.00 
eaob, tto. WH. STYAIT k HON. Ban Hateo, Oal. 


f ACIFie f^URAlo PRESS. 



Some Webdpatch Crops —Bskersfield EcJio: 
An Echo reporter, in company with Under- 
Sheriff Valentine, took a brief trip over the 
Weedpatch one day last week and saw some 
grain that opened his eyes. At Verdier's place, 
in the Caliente overflow, was wheat and barley 
already harvested, and the stubble was again 
green with the second growth. This land is ir- 
rigated once or twice each year by the waters 
that rush down Caliente creek. The rest is a 
striking illustration of what can and will be ac- 
complished in that part of the country as soon 
as the "78" canal is completed. A single irri- 
gation on that land will insure a big crop of 
grain. Just what could be accomplished with 
the waters of Caliente creek if they were stored 
up next to the foothills and distributed through 
ditches, it is hard to tell. But it is safe to say 
that the present acreage irrigated would be in- 
creased many fold. But the most surprising 
thing to be seen out there is the splendid fields 
of grain grown by Messrs. Maschraeyer. Fowler 
and Knight. Along the foothills, near the 
"Rock Pile," are about 1500 acres of as fine 
wheat and barley as one could wi«k to see. 
Thet« is not a weed to be seen in the whol« 
field, and the grain is of uniform height and 
has large, well-filled heads. One hundred and 
sixty acres of barley just headed and th'-eshed 
yielded 2490 sacks of grain that averaged about 
125 pounds. The wheat is making from 10 to 
12 sacks per acre, and is very plump and heavy. 
Another illustration of what can be done along 
the base ot the mountainB is seen at J. G. 
Stahl's place, near Rose's station. During the 
past week he has brought us samples of volun- 
teer and seeded wheat and barley that are al- 
most perfect. This grain siauds about four feet 
high, "the heads are of unusual length and are. 
perfect in filling. Some of it made over two 
tons of hay to the acre. Mr. Stahl believes 
that by summer-fallowing that land, big crops 
could safely be expected every year. It has 
been observed for years that many showers of 
rain swing around next to the foothills when 
there is no precipitation at all on the plains, 
generally. This accounts for the extra fine 
crops near the mountains. 

A ITovKL Farm Windmill. — Cor. Bakersfield 
Echo: Cumming's valley not only produces the 
best grain and hay in California, but it also is 
the home of genius. Mr. Denton Baisley has 
invented a wind motor which will propel a six 
gang plow, a mowing machine, or may be used 
as a delightful mode of conveyance. It is 
nothing more nor less than a windmill on 
wheels, which sails at great speed right in the 
face of th« wind, but can be reversed by a lever 
accommodating itself to the wind from any 
quarter, and can be run by compressed air 
pumps without any wind at all. This novel 
machine was spoken ot a year ago in a facetious 
manner in the Summit Sun. The invention 
was then in embryo. Since then a trial trip 
has been made on the ranch of Elijah Stowell 
with the most pronounced success. 


OcEANviEw Mesa Odtloox. — Cor. Santa Ana 
Blade: While visiting Ocean view mesa recently 
1 was very much surprised to find such a 
large area in grain — something like 2500 acres 
are in barley, the most of which will be cut for 
grain. The average yield per acre is estimated 
to be eight sacks, which is considered very good 
for this season. In harvesting this crop six 12- 
foot headers are used, which require 25 men 
and 50 horses to handle them. The rope net- 
ting is used for unloading and stacking the 
grain. Threshing begins in about two weeks. 
Among the gentlemen who have large acreages 
are Messrs. Thompson, Pankey, Mills, Cope- 
land, Matthews, Prothore, Lamo and Soles. It 
is a real pity that this beautiful spot of Orange 
county is not occupied by lovely farm homes 
instead of being occupied by a few nomads in 
the summer and as a sheep ranch in winter 


Barnhabt's Landino.— Cor. Dixon THbune: 
The grain is again accumulating in both our 
upper and lower yards, and schooners have al- 
ready commenced to move it toward tide 
water. As we look north and east from the 
landing for miles there is one vast ocean of 
wheat and barley, and there are thousands of 
tons of grain on' land that was never cultivated 
before; 0. Mohring a'.one having from one to 
two thousand tons. 

Northern Solano's Futdrb. Tribune: 
Northern Solano is destined to become the 
greatest fruit country on earth. Its develop- 
ment in the past ten years has been something 
marvelous and there are yet vast possibilities 
before the industiious orchardist. The vast 
wheat fields of a decade ago have given way to 
thrifty orchards, dotted at frequent intervals 
with happy homes set in gardens of rarest 
flowers. One may ride from Dixon through 
the Vaca and Pleasant valleys and home by 
way of Putah creek, and his road for the great- 
er part of the way leads through a continuous 
and unbroken line of orchards. The next ten 
years will witness the filling of the few gaps 
with trees and vines. By that time many of 
the largest tracts will be divided and set to 
fruit The population will begin to increase 
instead of diminishing as under the era of 
cereals, and the general prosperity will increase 
in proportion. Northern Solano has always 
been considered a prosperous community, but 
from all appearances the future contains "many 
more blessings for this favored section. 

Productive Young Orchards. — Marysville 
Democrat: Ferdinand Hauss, proprietor of the 
large orchard on the river road about three 
niiles south of Yuba City, has contracted to fur- 

nish 200 tons of peaches to the Marysville and 
Yuba City canneries, from his orchard. One 
hundred tons are freestone and the remainder 
clings. White, Cooley&Cutts have also contract- 
ed to furnish 300 tons of peaches from their 
young orchard near Live Oak. to be equally di- 
vided between the two canneries. Of this lot 200 
tons are clings and 100 tons freestones. Mr. Hauss 
has also contracted to furnish 60 tons to the 
Sacramento cannery. Here is an illustration 
of what can be done in a few years on land in 
this vicinity, which only a short time ago was 
in the condition of thousands of acres more, 
common, plain lands or sheep ranges. There is 
less than 400 acres in these two orchards, but 
they are equal in value now to 1600 acres of 
wheat land of same quality. These places pro- 
duce great quantities of other fruit as well as 
peaches, and there are several more like them 
near this city. 


Harvest Notes Around Watebfobd. — Cor. 
Modesto Herald: Harvesting is going on in full 
blast. No idle men, except a few cronies, can 
be found around here. Fred Reynolds ran his 
harvester through what he thought was a poor 
piece of barley, and it turned out 350 sacks the 
first day. At Bishop's one can see as pretty a 
wheat field as one can find anywhere- 800 acres 
as thick as it can stand, level as a table, and ex- 
pected to yield 35 bushels to the acre. Thp 
probabilities are that it will yield more, as that 
club wheat generally goes far beyond all expec- 


Poor Kbturns fob Raisins' — Hanford Senti- 
nel: Last season our esteemed townsman, E. 
P. Irwin, shipped through a firm that handled 
raisins in Hanford last year, 26,000 pounds of 
raisin?. He did not get returns from his goods 
until recently and then at the close ot a lengthy 
correspondence. But the returns finally came, 
and he tells us that his 26,000 pounds netted 
him 12 cents per pound. Is it any wonder that 
in the face of such results that our farmers are 
taking matters into their own hands and are 
organizing in self-defence? 

New Process fob Dbvino Apbicots. — Senthtel: 
Chas. King is packing what he calls " Chas. 
King's New Process Evaporated Apricots." 
The pack at present will consist of a ton of 
dried goods pat up in ten-pound boxes simply 
as a test. The fruit is from the orchard of W. 
G. Nicholson and dried whole, the pits being 
taken out through a small incision in the stem 
end. A sample box shown us is a handsome 
affair and very tempting. 

The Experiment Station. — Tulare City OUi- 
ten: At the last meeting of Tulare Grange, con- 
siderable interest was taken in the discussion of 
the merits of various crops of grain and fruit 
experimented with at the Government Experi- 
ment Station near this ciiy. Jules Forrar, who 
has charge of this station, in response to vari- 
ous questions, gave the result of experiments 
with a large variety of grain and fruits. He 
stated that several different varieties of wheat 
had given better results than the Sonora, so 
universally raised by the farmers of this valley; 
some of which had produced 46 pounds from 
six ounces of seed, planted in four drills, each 
145 feet long. There is no doubt but the 
farmers and fruit growers of this valley could 
have saved heretofore a large amount of money 
and labor had they received the benefits of the 
practical experience and tests given to some 
varieties of fruits and grains heretofore boomed 
by nurserymen and others who were intrested 
in selling to the over-credulous farmer. Fre- 
quently, purchases of such varieties have been 
made that would have been a large saving to 
the purchaser had the money been thrown 
away. Parties who stock up with a new vari- 
ety with high-sounding names have frequently 
been enabled by starting a boom, which gath- 
ered force and proportions as it traveled, to un- 
load at exorbitant prices, accumulating for- 
tune at the expense of the masses, who lost 
m&nf timw more than the price of the worth- 
less seeds, 


A Canning Establishment at Phcknix. — P, 
B. L., in Tucson OUtMen : One of the most use- 
ful, and what should prove the most profitable 
enterprise inauguratea this year, is the packing 
factory operating under the corporate name of 
the Phoenix Packing Company. The gentlet^ 
men composing the organisation are late of 
Minneapolis. 'Their outlay for the construction 
of a necessary building and for plant amounts 
to $20,000. Their process is of popular adop- 
tion throughout California, and only merits 
special notice from the fact that it is the first 
establishment of the kind in the Territory. A 
few years hence such institutions will be so 
numerous that their existence may fail to ex- 
cite comment. This company is a pioneer, and 
deserving of every encouragement and the spe- 
cial patronage of the people generally through- 
out the Territory. I am assured that the com- 
pany is ready to compete with any on the coast. 
Operations began June 1st, and they are ex- 
pected to continue throughout the season. The 
estimated probable output will be 50,000 cans of 
apricots, 500 gallons of jelly and 2000 cans of 
jam. The aggregate amount will be about half 
a million cans of various fruits and vegetables. 
E. Hidden, the manager, told me that 76 men, 
women and girls combined are on the pay- 
roll at present The employment of many 
more may be found necessary later. Among 
the many orchardists in the vicinity is the 
practical horticulturist, R. E. Farrington. His 
fruit orchard, nursery and vines cover about 
100 acres. He has just made a shipment to 
Chicago and New York of apricots, and if suc- 
cessful (being about the first to try the experi- 
ment in carload lots from Phccnix), he will 
soon commence the shipment of table grapes. 
The only question regarding its practicability 
is the freight With the terms exacted of Cali- 
fornians. Salt River people can compete suc- 
cessfully with any section of the Pacific coast. 




CAPITAL $1,000,000. ASSETS $3,000 000. 




(Pateoted Fel> 28, 1888 ) 

Specially Prepared for Drying Grapes and Other Fruits. 


Pntnp in Rolls containiDg 1000 smare feet, or in Reams of 480 Sheets— 24 1 36. 




Trial. Wby suffer from tha bad effects ot the Im Grippe, Lame Back, Kidney aod Liver 
disease, Rheumatism, lodlgestloc, Dyspepsia, any kind of weakness, or other diseases, when 
Klectrtclty will cure you and keep yon In health. (Headache cured in one minute.) To 

rrr.:;--: dr. judd s electric belt 

free. Prices, 93, $6, $10, and $16, If latliBed. Also Electric Trusses and Box Batteries. 
Costs nothlogr to try them. Can be re^ilatod to suit, and guaranteed to last for years. A 
Belt and Battery combined, aod produces sufflcleot Electricity to shock. Free Uedlcal 
advioe. Write to-day. Qlve waist measure, price and full particulars. 
AgnU Wanted. Address t>K. JUDD, Detroit, Mich. 


LiGHTNiN£ Baler. 

Capacity, 41 Tons per Day. 

SOCIETY FOR 1890 AND 1891. 




No tz-amptns. No forklns from the Stack. No cattlna of Btacka Neoeflasry. Ton 
can Bit at a hundred-foot ataok and bale It without a move. It makes the beat bale In 
the market. You can put 10 tona In a oar. The forklns trom the ataok la all done by the 
boraee. The baler can turn out more bay In leea time and In better atyle than any other 


Pacific Wheel and Carriage Works, 

== J. F. HILL, Proprietor, == 
Office and Factories, Nos. 1801 to 1323 J St., SACRAMENTO, CAL. 


July 2, 1892. 

f AClFie F^URAlo f RESS. 



— FOR THE — 




From ©eptember 5th to ITtli. 

California's Capabilities are Beyond Comparison. Let Not Apathy Prevent Their Being Exhibited. 
The State has Appropriated Over $5000 for Premiums for Soil Productions. 

REMEMBER THAT THE GREAT COLUMBIAN WORLD'S FAIR opens in May of next year. Hence, all agricul- 
tural exhibits must be collected this year. 

The State Board of Agriculture stands ready to assist the producer, and by gathering your exhibits and showing them at home at 
the State Fair, you can take advantage of the cash awards to assist you in the good work. All exhibits shown at the State Fair will 
be kept free of storage until their removal. BEGIN WITH HARVEST. 

MERCHANTS AND PROPERTY-OWNERS in each county are interested as much as the farmer, and should lead in the 

Do not overlook the chance of getting money to remunerate you, right here at home; it is to be given away at the State Fair of 
1892. Come and get some of it. FREDERICK COX, President. 

Send for Premium Lists. EDWIN F. SMITH, Secretary. 


Unrivalled for WATER WORKS, HYDRAULIC MINING, IRRIGATION, Etc., as has been Proved by Fourteen Years Practical Experience, 

Pacific Coast Ofl3.ce, 23 Davis Street, San Francisco. 

N^wYorkoffl^r'Mcuii'straet. THE GEO. P. EBBRHARD COMPANY. Managere. 


Wire Work 


window Onartla, 
Wroaght Iron Fenoinf, 
Bank, Store & Office Balling, 
Store and Window Flxtnreii 
Ornamental Wire Work, 
Boof Cresting and FlnlaU, 
Sieves, Biddies and Screens, 
Galvanized Dipping Baskets. 
And Prnne Screens. 


la the most rapid workiog maahine (or QRADINQ PRUNES, BOTH OBEEN AND DRIED, that haa ever bean 
introduced. Wbeievar it was u ed last aeagoD it gave perfect aatlsfaction, belli in the quantity ol fruit arraded 
and the way it did the work. The cai>acity ii practically uoUmited, as it will grade the fruit perteotly as fast as i 
^an bs fed to the machine. 




Walnnts^kles. Etc. 

win Grade Green 
or Dried Froit 
Kqaally Well. 

U Dse 1)7 Prominent 
FfPit Srowers. 

Pays (or Itself Qutelily io 
Saving Time and 

Money. ' 


I make all sizes o( this Orader, (rom the large 30-inch cylinder diwn to a small hand machine (or the use of 
growers whose crops are email. I (uroigh the Grader mounted complete, or the Cylinder alone, if, as is often the 
case, the purchaser prefers to mount it to suit himseK.' 

■end for circulars and prices. 



JCLT 2, 1892 

Influenza and the Eyes. 

The effects of ihe influenza epidemic were 
not without serious effects upon the eyes of 
many. It gave rise, we are told by Dr. 
Jeaflfreson, to severe cases of ophthalmia in 
some cases, and by lowering the vital pow- 
ers of those who were very aged or enfeebled 
by previous disease, converted eye affections, 
which would otherwise have been trivial, 
into cases of great urgency; indeed, its 
effects may be still noted in a marked man- 
ner, and it has left its stamp on the health 
of many which time and care can alone 
efface. A curious and instructive point as 
to the prophylaxis of this disease has been 
observed by Dr. Jeaffreson, who, we may 
mention, is physician to the Newcastle Eye 
Infirmary. It was noted that, though some 
6oo patients passed through the wards dur- 
ing the epidemic, no single case of influenza 
developed while in the institution. While 
taking the average of the ordinary popula- 
tion who suffered as being one in three, we 
should have had somewhere near 200 cases, 
or, at a very low computation, at least 100, 
during this period. Now there is one chief 
point in which the patients in this institution 
differ from the ordinary population outside, 
and that is that twice a day their eyes are 
submitted to a thorough and ample ablution 
•vith some antiseptic solution. It has been 
suggested by a very competent and keen ob- 
server that the poison of influenza effects its 
entrance to the general constitution through 
the medium of the mucous membrane of the 
eye, and a full account of this theory may 
be found in Dr. Parson's report to the local 
Government Board. This fact certainly ap- 
pears to support such a theory, and it is 
further strengthened by another no less 
curious, and that is that of the staff, who, of 
course, are not submitted to this treatment, 
scarcely a member escaped, and some had 
it very severely, notably the lady superin- 
tendendent, the doctor, the porter, the 
nurse, and some of the servants. Should 
another epidemic visit us, Dr. Jeaffreson de- 
clares his intention of joining the ranks of 
the patients and submitting himself to ab- 
lutions of the eyes and nasal ducts twice a 
day with a moderately strong solution of 
some germicidal solution. 

Treatment of Rheumatism.— It seems 
as if everybody is complaining of rheuma- 
tism nowadays, young and old, rich and 
poor. Science, ever ready with something 
new to alleviate the sufferings of mankind, 
has not failed in this direction, and salol is 
now the remedy extensively used for rheu- 
matism. The Medical Tiiius and Register 
says: " Therapeutically, the anodyne prop- 
erty of salol is exhibited in the cases that 
are rheumatic in source." The first tri- 
umphs of salol were won in the treatment of 
acute rheumatism, excelling, as it apparently 
does, all other remedies in its power to abate 
and lessen fever. If all the conditions be 
propitious, by the end of the second and 
third day, fever and joint pain and swelling 
will have disappeared. Salol has a further 
use, in that it is antiseptic, and excellent re- 
sults have been obtained from it when used 
as a disinfectant for the bowels in cases o 
cholera, typhoid fever, etc. In connection 
with the cure of rheumatism, it may be 
stated that ol late years massage treatment 
has found great favor with rheumatic pa- 
tients. In practicing massage, the fingers 
are usually moistened with some sort of oily 
preparation, and for this purpose nothing 
better can be used than lanoline. Many 
physicians consider this vastly preferable to 
vaseline or any other preparation, and its 
use has invariably been attended with the 
greatest success. 

Oar Agents. 

J. C. HoAG— San Francisco. 

E. G. Bailky— Ban Francisco. 

Geo. Wilson— Sacramento, Cat 

Samtjki, B. Cliff— Creston, Cal. 

A. C. Godfrey— Oregon. 

Mrs. Bkuce B. Lee— Tehama Ca 

Chab. E. Townsend— Solano and Yolo Cos 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persont recelrlni? this paper marked are requested to 
examlD its ooutenta, terms of Bubscriptlon, aDd give It 
Iheir own patronage, and as far as practicable, aid In 
oircuUtog the journal, and making its value more 
widely known to others, and extending its Influence In 
the cause it faithfully serv. s. Subscription, paid in ad- 
vance 6 m.a , $1; 10 mns., «2; 16 moa. «3. Extra copiM 
mailed for 10 c-uts, if ordered soon enough. If alreSdv 
a Bubscrlber, please show the paper to othe s. 

OR A N n r Treatise by T. A. Garey 

n H n U U of long expert' 

ence in Southern California. IM 
Pill Tlinr P»Ke». cloth bound, Sent postpaid 
I'UL I Unt "•??"oe<'Pr'«o'76ctcperoopy. 
* • - ' • t UKWEY PUB. CO..220 Majket,8.r 



Chaap, Darabls and Effectire. 

Pickets colored red by boiling in a chemical paint to 
preserve the wood. We make it 2 ft., 2i ft., 1 ft and ii 
ft high. Send for circulars and price list to 


14 * 16 Fremont St San Franolaoo. 

The above cut shows a section of the Judson S-ft. 
Rabbit-Proof Fenoe. By stretching barbed wires on the 
posts above it, It will turn any stock whatever. 


We on send you one of our 


Which Is the result of years of figuring to make the best 
harness ever known for the money. It is made from oak 
stock, hand stitched and finished by skillful mechanics, 
haudsome full nickel or Davis hard rubber trimmings. 

Jast the Harness for an Blegant Tarnqpt. 

They sell here for $36.00. and harness not as good is 
often sold for $35.00 In retail shops If harness is not as 
represented, money will oe refunded. 

Liebold Harness Co. 

110 MoAllistar St., San Francisco. 

Collar and Hamea. Instead of Breast Collar, 
82 OO extra. 

Please state if you want single strap E>rne!>s, or folded 
style Harness, with traces double throughout. 

The Best Article is the Cheapest. 



Best, Purest and IMost Effective 
insect Powder on the IViarlcet. 

hotels, restaurant?, saloons, 
stores and offices may be kept free 
from all troublesome insects. It is 
now regarded as a necessity in most 
of the principal hotels In the United 
States, and wherever it has been In- 
troduced it has given complete sat- 
isfaction. Owing to an increased 
production of Pyretbrum flowers, 
from which this valuable article is 
made, and their Improved faolUties 
for reducing them to powder, the manufactiuers have 
this season made a material reduction In their prices. 
Send your orders to the 

Sniiacli Froiucin^ ud Uanufaclurinif Co., 


Save $40.00 on New $140.00 


We wlU deliver, free of 
kfreight, to any point 
Iwest of the Bocky 
^Mountains, perfectly 
f new 81 40 grade, cush- 

tj — *^ ^re. Iteferee 

Safeties, highest prade, for 81 00. I-lsts Free. 
A. W. GUMP i CO.. Dayton. Ohio. 




SewiDg MacbiDes. 

Simple In Construction, Light 
Running. Most Durable and Com- 

- Visitors always welcome. 


948 A^ 046 MABKIST BT., 8. w. 





tS" Send for illustrated circular giving prices, sizes, capacity and testimonials. 

MOSHER, CHANDLER & CO., Manufacturers, 

2X8 Fft-OJNT'X' ST*.. - - - Saxx X*x-«k.xxolfiloo. 





Beat aa4 HtroBK*** KxpIoalTM im tke WorlA. 


The only Reliable and EWcIent Powder for ntnmjm and Bank Rlaatlav. Kallroad Contractors and Fanner 
use no other Aa ottaen ISflTATE oar Cllant Powder, ao do (bey JadsoB, by maBaraetarlBK 
an Inferior article. 

The Giant Powder Co. liavlug hullt Black Powder Works, with all the latest improvements, at OUpper Gap, Placer 
County, known as TUK CLirPEB MIIjI.M, oiler this powder aod guaraotve it the best. 

CAPM an4 FUME at I^oweat Bates. 

THE GiANT POWDER COMPANY. 30 California St., San Francisco. 



Stockton -Fresno Business College. 



a ^ 


T -ev ^ ^ ^. J^^^ ■ ■■ 


CO ^ 

% W 

cf SO 



Tuition One Tear (53 Weeks), $75. 

Sixteen Regular Teachers and Over Three Hundred Students attending. Courses Thorough, Bates hrfmntt- 
Instruction the Best, and School the Most Reliable. Address W. O. RABI8ET. 



For the Cheapest and Best 


Of ao)' Style known to the 
trade, address 





7R Front St.. Portland. Ornsron 



Tlie Armstrong Antomatlc 



The Best. Lightest, Cheapest 
Engine In the world. Can be 
. arranged to Burn Wood. Coal. 
^> Straw or Petroleum. 6 or 8 H. P. 
Mounted on skids or on wheals. 

TVOOIIC'BrR A no Ski* ir^Kn#.l«.M. 

Oldeiit Mviaic HouBe. 




•M O'FarreU St.. 8. F. 


Pacer Mannfaclnrers ajfl Dealers. 


Lining Paper o( svery description for Dried 
Fruit Boxes. 


Manilla and Straw Paper In Rolls and Sfaseta. 
Manufacturers of " Bagl* " Paper Bass., 
418 0\Wkj •treeJb Bju» rra^laeo. 

July 2 i'^^'J, 



breeders' directory. 

six lines or leig In ibis directory at 60o per line per mooth. 


F. H. BOB&B, 626 Market St., 8. F.; Reffietered 
HoleteiDB; winoers of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and special premiums than any nerd on the Coast 
Pure retristered Berkshire Pigs. All strains. 

JBBSBYS— The best A J. C. C. Reeist*red Herd is 
owned by Henry Pierce, S F. Animals for sale. 

P. PETBBSBN, Sites, ColusBCo.,Importer&Breeder 
of registered Shorthf>rn Cattle. Young bulls for sale. 

JOHN LiYNOH, Petaluma, breeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns. Young stock for sale. 

A. Heilbron & Bro., I^op8.,S>.c. Breeders of thorough- 
bred strains and Cruikshank Shorthorns; also Registered 
Herefords; a fine lot of young bulls in each herd for sale 

OHABLB8 B HUMBEBT, Cloverdale, Cal., Im 
porter and Breeder of Recorded Holstetn-Friesian 
Cattle. Catalogues on application, 

M. D. HO "KINS, Petaluma, Bre. der of Shorthorns. 
Dealer in fresh Cows, Beef Cattle and Sheep. 

PBROEBBON HOBSB8.— Pure bred horses and 
mares, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, for sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake Co., Cal, Mew cata- 
logue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

tor Sale. Bonnie Brae Cattle Co., Hollister, CaL 

J H. WHITB, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder 
of Registered Holstein CatUe. 

Cattle. H. A. Mayhew, Niles, Cal. 

P. H. MURPHY, Petkins, Sac. Co. , CaL , Importer and 
Breeder of Sliorthoro Cattle and Poland China Hogs. 

pgJTBR 8AXB & SON, Lick House, San Franolsco, 
Oal Importers and Breeders, for past '21 years, of 
every varletv of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holstein and Jersey Cattle. None better. 


Walnut Grove Herd of Poland China Hogs 




-OF — 

Strictly Bred 


unr^Qilo D^v''o^^l?"®^lS^ Stands PERFECTION KING, No. 7579; KING OF THE WEST, No. 8921; 
HUUbllSK BOY 2d, No. 8923. Breeding Sows as fine individuals and as strictly bred as any in the land- 
also recorded in the C P. C. R. record with pedigrees full to etendarl. Bieede-e for sale at aU times. 
I have hrst-class Figs of both sexes at reasonable prices. Residence l>i miles m rtheist of Davisville, Cal 
Personal inspection toliciled. All inquiries promptly answered. Yours truly, JOSEPH MELVIN 

0> BLOM, St. Heieoa. Brown Leghorns a specialty. 

MADISON d ORITOHBR, Santa Crui, Cal. 
Light Brahmas, Black Langshane, 3utl Cochins, 
Barred PIvmouth Rocks BUck Minomas, White Leg- 
horns. Settings, $1.60 Mann's Bone Mills, Creosozone. 

Cal. S. C. White Leghorns, W. Holland Turkeys, 
Toulouse Geese and Pekin Ducks and Guinea Pigs. 

CaL, send for illu-trated and deBCriptivecatalogue, fiee. 

JAMBS QUIi K Patterson, CaL, Breeder of Pure 
Bred Poult y of Choicest Va iuties and Best Blood. 

JOHN McFABLINQ, Ca istoga, CaL, Importer and 
Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send tot drenut. Tbor> 
oughbred Berkshire PIga 

B. O. HEAD, Napa, Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowla Send for New Catalogue. 


F> BULLARD, Woodland, Cal., Importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino She p. Premium Band of the State. 
Choice Bucks and Ewes for Sale. 

B. H. CRANE, Petaluma, CaL, breeder and importer. 
South Down Sheep; also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, CaL, Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Crossbred 
Merino and Shiopshtre Sheep. Rams tor sale. 


WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circolaie free. 

TYLBB BBAOH, San Jose, CaL, biMdat oi 
Ihorsoghbred Berkshire and Essex Hogi. 


auartera. Wm. Styan. San Mateo, Cal 



One and a half miles northeast of San 
Leandro, Alameda County, 


Every Facility for Breaking Colts Properly 

Rates Very Reasonable. 


P. O. Box 149 San Leandro, Oal 

a stamp for cur n^ w illustrated 
catalogue of Wool Growers 
Supplies and a free copy of the 
only illustrated Sheep and Wool 
Journal published. We sell 
Shepherds' Crooka, Shears 
Dockers, Hacks, Twine, Wool 
Boxes, Bells, Marks and a bun- 
dt«d other articles needed by 
every sheep owner. Sendto-da' 
O. 8. BURCH 4 CO., 178 Mici 
Igaa Street, Chicago. 


Prize Herd of Southern California. 



P. o. Box flSfl Los AnsreiPB. Cal, 


Importer and Breeder of 

English Sbire, Clydesdale, Percheron and Coacli Horses. 


Stable, Broadway and 82d Sta , Oakland, Cal. Address Box 86. 


Importers and Breeders of 

Red Polled Cattle. 

We have about 150 Head of Imported 
and Graded Stock, all Deep Red Color, 

Fu I Blood and Graded, of both sexes, for sale, 
all cominunicatiuns on cattle to 

W. S. PBITOH, Petaluma. 



Genuine only with BED 
BALL brand. 

Recommended by Gold- 
smith, Marvin, Gamble, 
Wells, Fargo & Co., etc., etc. 

It keeps Horses and Cattle 
healthy. For milch oows; 
it increases and enriches 
their milk. 

698 Howard St., San 
Vranelaeo. 0»l 


Backs, Turkeys, Oeese, Peacocks, Etc, 


Publishers of ■■ Nlles' Paclflo'Coast Poultry and Stock Book," 

a new book on subjects connected with successful poultry and stock raising on 
the Pacific Coast. Price 50 cents, post-paid. Inclose stamp for information. 


Jersey and Holstein Cattle. 

Address, WILLIAM 

Also, Poland China and Berkshire Pigs. 

NILES & CO , Los Angelas. Cal. 





Successors to 

Breeders and Importers of Thoroughbred 
French Merino Sheep, 


Address correspondence to J. M. Lathrnp, Agent, 
Newman, Cal. 



W. A. SHAFOB, - - Middletown. Ohio. 

Twelve Years Experience, Imports will arrive from 
England in July. Order Early. Get your neighbors to 
Join. Order car lots by frelG'ht. ^ave Gxpresfi oharflres 




Horse Liniment 

Is certainly the best preparation of Its 
kind In the market. Ranchers, Stock 
Raisers and Horse Owners of every 
description will tell you that It does 
good work every time. 

HissBi. H. H. UoOBi & Sons, Stockton, Cal.— Obmtli. 
MBi: In answer to your inquiry, would state that I used 
your H. H H. Liniment on my Holland prize-winning 
cow, " Lena Ueolo," for a wrenched shoulder, and it re> 
lleved her very much. She calved the next day, and while 
still suffering from the sprain gave the largest authen- 
ticated quantity of milk ever given on this coast (10) 
gallons per day), showing conclusively the great relief 
received from your remedy. I consider It a necessity in 
my stables, and when away from home feel perfectly 
safe, as Inexperienced men can do no harm with It, as 
they can with the more powerful blisters. Respectfully 
yours, FRANK H. BURKE, 

Breeder of Registered Holsteins and Berkshires. 

Ifenio Park, Cal., January 22d, 1889. 






Iteikel Si, Sw rranolwo. Blevatot, 12 riont SS 


I have two 2.year-oId Shorthorn Bulls, mostly red, 
In good order, and the price delivered on cars or ship 
in San Francisco, is ?80 each— are thoroughbred but 
can't pedigree, hence the price. 

Lick House, San Francleoo, Oal. 

Importer and Breeder of Sh opeblre Sheep. 

They were all Imported from England, or bred direct 
from Imported S ock. 

I have also bred American Merinos— Hornless Sheep— 
for 22 years. They are a large sheep, without wrinklt-s. 
Rams win produce 20 to 25 pounds of long white woul 
} early. Sheep of both sexes for sale. 



Stonv Point, 
B. B. station. Petaluma. Sonoma Oo., Cal. 



ary Surgeons, London, England. Late Veterinary 
Surgeon in the United States Army. Veterinary Con- 
tributor to the " Pacific Rural Press." The diseases of 
all Domestic Animals treated on Scientific Principles. 
Special attention given to Chronic Lameness and Surgical 
Calls to the country promptly attended to. Telephone 
Nn. Mitt 

Veterinary Surgeon, 

Graduate of Ont'rio Veterinary College, Toronto, Canada. 

SSI Oolden Gate Avenue, San Francisco. 
Telefhone 3069. 
No risk In throwing horses Veterinary operating table 
on the premises. 

MONEY Make Some?" 

By using the Paciflo Incabator 
and Brooder, which will hatch any 
kindof eggs better than ahen. In uni- 
versal use. Gold Medal wherever ex- 
hibited. Thoronghbred Foaltry 
and Poultry 4 ppllancea. Send 
8 cts. in stamps for 83- page catalogue, 
with 30 full. sized colored cuts of thor- 
oughbred fowly,to FaclfloTncnba- 
tor Co.. 187 Castro St., Oakland, Cal. 



ISIS MjrU* Street, OaklsHd, Cal. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 





Jilt 3. Itin'A 


Bowens Academy, 

CalT*rsltr A»e.. Berkeley. 


Special university preparation, depending not on time 
but on progress in sludies. 
T. 8. BOWBNS. M. A.. Head Maeter. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveylni;, Architecture, Drewlng and Aseajinft, 

Open All Year. 
A. VAN DER NAILLEN, President. 
ABMTlne ot Ores, $34; Bullion and Chlorlnatlon Asu) 
|2«; Blowpipe Assay. «10 " esr 


Full course of assaying, 150 
Send for circular. 


24 POST ST.. S. F. 

College Instructs In Shorthand, Type Writing, Book- 
keeping, Tel graphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the 
English branches, and everything pertalninc to business 
tor six (ul! months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Indlvi.iual Instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
Its graduates in every part ot the State. 


K. P HFIALD, Prw'den* 

O. 8. RALEY. SecrAtarv 


Write ns (or prices and full particulars. Address 



Commi8eion iMaler in 

Shingles, Posts. 
Pickets and Piling. 

Manuf tcturer & Pacific Coast Agent 
o( the Popu'ar 


Sheathing Lath, 


A va'uable invention but recently 
used Oil this loaot. Send (or Sam- 
ples, Circulars, Price Lists, Etc. 

42 Market Street, 


Hay Fienet made by the Celebrated Fren 

WIDE WEST (All Steel) PRE 38. 






Hay Balsr ? If so, do you nsB our Patenl 

steHfeCROSS HEAD?2!5M 



The Washburn & Moen Mfg. Co* 

San Francisco Office and Warehouse 
8 and lo Pine Street. 


Proprietori of the City Iron Woikt. 

Works, Cor. Bay, Kearny and Francisco Bts., 


Uanutacturera of and Dealers In 

Boilers, Eogloes, Pomps and MachiQerj 



Lap-Welded WroDght-Iron Tubing Coupled with 
Patent Lead-Lined Oonpllngs. 



Ment'on ibis paper. 

Thoroughly Cultivated about the Trees and 
Vines in order to the largest and best 
crop. The 


Does the bu>in;ss in first-olara shape and 
utilzjs all the mois'ure. D»lt light con- 
i lerinj; woric done. Four sizes, 6, 6, S and 
9J (jot. Write (or circulars. 

Q.G. Wlcltaon & Co., 8 & 5 Front St 
Sen Francisco. 
General Axcnts (or Northern Calitomla. 

Knapp, Barrel! & Co., Portland, 
General Agents (or Oregon. 


SOO B St., Los Aoselea, Cat. 

CAPACITY; l§_Bl]ls, A DAY, 

Try onr Brand of Floar. Makes 
Light, Sweet Bread. 

MM Faners' Union & Millini Co., 

•iUlH'li!; STOlKTON, OAL.. 

S. W. Comer Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

Vt— OoMh to and From th* Houm. j. w. BBOKBB, Proprietor. 

immm |iierchapt3. 


Commission Mercliants 



Qreen and Dried Fraita, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoot. 

Advances made on Oonalffnments. 
808 «i 310 Davii 8t„ San Franelioo 

(P. 0. Box int.] 

MrConslmments Sollelted. AY& CO. 

BOl, 603, 606. 607 8i 609 Front St., 
And SOO Washington St., SAN FRANCISCO. 







General Commission Merchants, 

810 CaUfomla St., S. F 
Ifembers ot the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

tS'Personal attention given to sales and liberal advance! 
made on eonolgnuionts at lo« rates '( Interest. 


Commission Merchants. 


418, 416 ft 417 W»ebln«ton Si., 

(P. 0. Box 20M.) SAN FRANCISCO. 




80 OlKy Street and 38 Oommerolel Street 
■aa FaAwnoe, Oai.. 




Con iirnmentg and Correaponde'cc Solicited. 
P ompC Sales and Q lick Cash Returns is our motto. 
219 and asi Davis Street, 8mn rranclico. 


And Dealers in Fmlt, Prodnoe, Poultry, Oame, EgfS 
Hides, Pelts, TaUow, ate., ISS Fiool St., and tSl, HS 
9S5 and m WaohlntctOD 81., San Prandaeo. 

3 - HAY 

Is a marvel. Saves Time— Labor— Hay. 
An economical remedy for scarce help. 
Will Load a Ton of Hay in 5 minutes. 
Gathers the Hay clean. Loads loose Grain. 
Loads Green Clover for Silo use. 
Strong, Light, Easily Hitched to Wagon. 

— Over 14,000 in use 

Send for circular " What Farmers Say." 
KEYSTONE MFC. CO.. s terling.jn. 

Branches: j 
Kansas City, Mo. I » 
St. Louis, Mo. I 
Council Bluffs, la.j 
Colunabua, O. 

PILES and all R-ctal 
Diseaws POeiTiviLT 
CITRKD, In from 80 to 
60 days, wrrHODf 
opsRAnoi oa dbtw. 


Strictl'ri anD URmiar Troublks CURED No charge 
unless cure Is effected Consuttatlen free. Call or 
address for pamphlet, DRS. POHTERFIELO k L08KT, 
Sm Market fltreet. Baa Francisco. Gal. 

Karkst M., laa FraoelaM. BoTaloi. U rrool M. 



Jolt 2, 1892. 

f AciFie ^.uraid press. 


JS* ©AJ^KET ]E{.Ef Of^T 

Market Review. 

Sau Francisco, June 29, 1892. 
The season of 1891-92 goes out on a lamb-like mar- 
ket. It Is to be hoped that the new season will be 
more profitable to agriculturists than the one just 
past All information at this writing warrants the 
statement that the outlook for products in each 
leading farm industry is of the most favorable char- 
acter. Farmers have done much to bring this about. 
AS a rule, they are cultivating, in the latest and 
most approved methods, the best variety of every 
thing grown that is specially adapted to each par- 
ticular locality. By this they turn out larger and 
better crops, which, in selling, command the highest 
range of values. It no longer pays to market poor 
stuff, for the general public Is discriminating more 
closely. The local money market is easy, with a 
large surplus of funds reported by the banks. To 
this there will be large additions next month, or as 
soon as the disbursements for interest, dividends, 
etc., find their way back Into the general reservoir. 

Foreign Grain Review. 

London, June 27.— Mark Lane Express says; En- 
glish wheats are depressed by the wlihdrawal of the 
K jBsian prohibition. The outlook for the importers 
and farmers is bad: the 1,600,000 quarters of extra 
stock Imported when the prohibition was enforced 
will now have to be sold at a terrible loss. American 
and Russian wheals have fallen Is, Australian, Call- 
fornlan and Argentine, 6d. Oats are dull. At to- 
day's market, foreign wheats were 6d cheaper. En 
glish flour was Irregular. Barley was 6d and Rye Is 
lower. Oats were firmer. 

Grain Futures. 


The following »re the closing prices paid for wheat options 
per otl. for the past week: 

Jime July. Aug. Sept. Oct. 

Thursday 6s07Jd 6s07}d bsOZid 6s08icl esOSJd 

Friday BsOTld 6s07 d 6fl073d 6808 d GsuSid 

Saturday bs06«d 6b07 d 68U7id 68-7id «8 d 

Moiiday 6806id 6807 d 6808 d 68084d 6808Jd 

Tuesday 68l)6 d SsO? d 6s075d 6sU81d 6s0a d 

The following are the prices for California cargoes for off 
coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for the past week. 


O. O. P. S. N. D. for P. 8. Weather. 
Thiu-sday ..3486 d 34s61 3lB6d Held higher. Very hot. 

Friday 348 d 3486d S4s6d Weaker. Showery, 

Saturday.. 31a6d 3tB6d 34sUd Inactive 
Monday.... 34s3d 34s3d 3483d Neglected. Hot. 
Tueid»y....3433il 3483d 34s3d Quiet. 
To-day s cablegram is as follows: 

LiVEKPOOL, June 29.— Wheat— Higher prices aihed, but 
DO advance eBtatjlisbed. Oalifomia spot lots, 7s: off coast. 
348: just shipped. 34«; nearly due, 348: cargoes off coast, 
moderate demand; on passage, quiet but steady: weather 
In England, (air after rain. 

New York. 

The following shows the oloalng prices of wheat for the 
past week: 

Day. June July Aug. Sept. Oct. 

Thursday 1433 144i 1442 1444 14.';3 

Friday 143i, 144j 1444 144} 1461 

Saturday 1434 144J 144g i44ii 145^ 

Monday 144 144^ 144i 1445 145J 

Tuesday 144i 144i 145i 145i 1461 

The following are to-days' telegram : 

New York, June 29. —Wheat— 863c for June; 865c for 
July; 875c for September; 88Jc for October; 89io for No- 
vember and 90§c fur December. 

Ohioaoo, June 29. Wheat— 79Jc for July; 79Jc for Sep- 
tember aud 81Jc for December. 

San Francisco. 


Seller Buyer Buyer 

'92. Aug. Aug. Sept. Sept. 

Thursday, highest 138J 

lowest 138} 

Friday, highest 138S 140J .... i40i 

" lowest 138 1405 .... 1404 

Saturday, highest 137S 

lowest 1375 

Monday, highest I37i 

lowest 137 

Tuesday, highest 138 1405 

lowest 137J 1408 


Seller Buyer Buyer 

'92. Aug. Aug. Sept. SepL 

Thursday, highest 93S 

" lowest 933 

Friday, highest 93J 

" lowMt 93 

Saturday, highest 923 

lowest 924 

Monday, highest 92i 

" lowest 91 

Tuesday, highest 925 .... 945 

•• lowest 92 .... 945 

Markets by Telegraph. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New Yokk, June 24.— The leading wool markets 
are quiet Manufacturers seem to be waiting to see 
whether the higher prices being paid In the West 
will hold, and are endeavoring to prevent an ad- 
vance by keeping out of the market. Meanwhile, 
new wool is coming forward and slocks are steadily 
incrpasing. Wools have, as a rule, been put up in a 
cleaner and better manner than for several years, 
and on this score should command an advance. 
Prominent dealers have freely expressed the opinion 
that Ohio and Michigan wools will show an advance 
of l@2c ft) within the next 30 or GO days. London 
sales have shown strong compaction among the buy- 
ers and a hardening tendency to values, but a com- 
paratively small amount of wool suitable for this 
country has been offered. There is a good demand 
reported for AustraLlan wools here, and while prices 
are no higher, they are very firm. 

Nbw Yobk, June 25. — Sellers still Incline to buyer's 
views of prices. An active business prevailed at the 
sea-board markets. Supplies are fuller, but not well 
sorted. This gives manufacturers a case against the 
suggested advance. Prices are no lower, and sellers 
seem satisfied to work off heavy, unwashed at the 
former rate, much more going direct to manufac- 
turers. The cleaned basis for California is 62@53c; 
for short, fine and iree, 54@55c; for long, staule 
Texas, 65@58c; Wyoming and Utah, 59@60c; Western 
good is active and steady. The sales at New York 
were 416,000 and 889,000 lbs foreign. Boston had an 
active week. The sale of domestic was 2,084,050 and 
1,500,000 lbs foreign, over one-third of which was Au- 
stralian. The rest was chiefly carpet. Philadelphia 
reports prices no better. There Is a good disposition 
to trade in better stocks, but is still lacking in grades 
not wanted. 

California Canned Fruit. 

New York, June 26 —Canned fnilts seem to be 
shaping right for future business. Baltimore will 

gut up much less small fruit than last year. Peaches 
ave already advanced. 

California Dried Fruit. 
New Yokk, June 26.— Cheap dried goods are not 
likely to repeat the competition Reverely next fall, 
and last winter's pack of f aclfic canned is firm, with 

5 cents advance in a few instances. The new crop of 
coast is regarded with more interest. 

Raisins— There have been no farther large deal 
ings. Remnants wiU go out, as there are only 25,000 
boxes ot Valencias held against 150.000 boxes last 
summer. New coast are not talked of. 

Some cold storage bags of apricots are quoted at 12 


New Yokk, June 26.— Hops still favor buyers; sales 
have been light on spot; brewers are picking up 
country lots cheap, which are pressed for sale by 
weak or tired holders; crop reports are favorable for 
the buying side of the market: there is no optional 
business of importance. State '91s range from •21@25c: 
Pacific, 21@25c. 

California Beans. 

New York, June 25.— Lima Beans— There is t 
strong market. Spot sales, $1.76@2.80, 1000 bags go- 
ing to Chicago. Pacific Mail parcels to arrive, $1.70 

New York, June 27.— The bullish sentiment is 
steadily developing in California Lima beans, and 
some enthusiastic bulls predict an advance to 82 
bushel before August 1st. Spot parcels are about 
cleaned out. 

General Remarks and Statistios. 

Produce Receipts. 

Receipts of produce at this port for 7 days ending June 
28 '92, were as follows : 

Flour, qr. sks 61.929 

Wheat, ctla 9,015 

Bye, ■• . 
Oats, " . 
Corn, " , 
•Butter, " . 

do bx3 . 

do bbls , 

do kegs . 

do tubs . 

do 5 bxs . 
tOheese, ctis 

do bxs 

do " Eastern 73,700 

Beans, sks 12,190 

Potatoes, ska 14,170 

Onions, " 5,436 


434 Honey, 
752 Peanuts,sk3 
76:Walnuts " 

doz 32.C60 Almonds " 

Mustard " 

Bran, sks 3,734 

Buckwheat " 

MiddUngs " 1.984 

Chicory, bblg 20 

Hopa, " 

Wool, " 1,614 

Hay, ton 1,638 

Straw, " 91 

Wine, gals 163,860 

Brandy, " 6,400 

Raisins, bx8 3,160 


Popcorn " 

Broom com, bbls. . 

•Overl'd,282 otls. t Overland, 18 ctls. 

Receipts Outside of California. 

The receipts of certain articles of produce from Oregon, 
Washington and other distant points compare as follows . 

July 1, '9J to July 1, '91 to 
June 27. '91. June 25, '92 

Flour, J sks 41U,643 476,957 

Wheat, ctls 1,410,129 1,305.062 

Barley, " 876,332 56,791 

Oats, " 379,188 446,910 

Wool. balcB 11,119 11,688 

Hops, " 508 431 

Rye, sks 210 3,498 

Potatoes sks 101,769 141,149 


Bradstriet's estimates that the reserve, visible and 
invisible, on July 1st, will be 70,000,000 of bushels, 
and the crop about to be harvested 550,000,000 of 
bushels, making a total of 620.000,000, which, after 
deducting 368,000,000 bushels tor seed and consump- 
tion, will leave 252.000,000 bushels for export and re- 
serves, of which '200,000.000 can be easily exported, 
and, if necessary, 220,000,000, or as much as has been 
exported the current season. The estimate of 200,- 
000,000 or 220,000,000 for export seems excessive. It 
is based on the crop estimate of 650,000,000, of which 
there is apparently no real prospect There is no 
likelihood of so large a crop, and an export surplus 
of 175,000,000 bushels will probably come nearer the 

The total shipments of wheat from India for this 
season to June 18th have been 14.880,000 bushels, 
against 14,610,000 bushels for the corresponding time 
last year. 

A cable from St. Petersburg, June 22d, says that a 
drought is prevailing in Toltava, and crops are being 
blighted. Sheep and cattle are perishing from lack 
of fodder. 

The latest official mail report from St. Petersburg 
announced that the condition of the growing wheat 
is unfavorably spoken of in three central and three 
southern governments, but it is good particularly in 
the Caucasus, some northern governments and the 
whole of Poland. In the province of Nizhni-Nov- 
gorod and the eastern government of Kazan, a sur- 
plus is promised. The whole area of grain it is said 
exceeds that of last year by 25 per cent. 

The June crop report of the Iowa Weather and Crop 
Service, from advices of 1600 country correspondents, 
shows the reduction in winter wheat area to be 3 per 
cent, and condition 86 per cent; spring wheat area 
reduced 3 per cent, condition 88 per cent. Acreage 
of corn 17X per cent reduced, and with best condi- 
tions, prospects favor only 70 per cent of last year. 
The acreage of oats is reduced 11 per cent, aud the 
condition is 82. The potato acreage is reduced 12 per 
cent The conditions do not promise a yield of over 
18.600,000 bushels of wheat, against '27,586,000 bushels 
last year. The corn crop of Iowa last year was 350,- 
000,000 bushels, and 70 per cent would be 245,000,000, 

The local wheat market has been inactive, owing 
to a strong bear pressure from buyers. So far as we 
are aware, this has been successfully resisted by 
farmers. A few sham sales, at lower prices, are said 
to have been made by and between bear operators. 
These sham sales were evidently made to have them 
published so as to get farmers to sell at a lower range 
of values. Toward the close of the week more 
samples are on the market, but whether in duplicates 
or not, it Is hard to say. Many farmers send samples 
to two or more brokers or firms, and these, when of- 
fered, make it appear that more is for sale than there 
really is. This policy is short-sighted. Some of ihe 
exporters expect to be able to borrow wheat from one 
or two warehouses so as to meet urgent demands. 
By doing this, they are not forced into the market 
and compelled to pay higher prices. This loaniog 
of wheat is entirely wrong, and should be guarded 
against. Buyers are bidding our quotations, but 
holders ask more money. 

Barley has come to hand more freely, but the bulk 
is common grades and not desirable. These grades 
are largely sought for by millers to be used in turn- 
ing out rolled and ground barley. The consumption 
of both rolled and ground barley appears to be en- 
larging. In the most of cases they give better gatis- 
faciion than either the whole grain or other ground 
feed. A strong effort is being made to force the 
market to lower figures; whether it will be successful 
depends largely on farmers. If the latter force sales, 
prices must go lower. There is more offering at the 
close; but so far as we can learn, no sales have been 
made at lower figures. 

Oregon has sent us heavy supplies of oats, which 
are supplemented by freer receipts from southern 
coast ports. The grades of the bulk of the oats re- 
ceived are common to fairly good, so that the market 
for these is slow and lower. Naturally, the heavier 
offerings affect the more choice grades, although they 
are not quoted any lower 

Corn has sold to lower figures. Receipts have been 
Itee, while the demand has been sluggish; and to 
sell, concessions had to be made. 

Rye Is in fair supply. The market Is dull at lower 

Harvesting is under full headway. The outturn 
is, as a rule, larger than was expected, while the 
grain is generally plump and heavy. Many fields in 
which the straw was short, and which were thought 
would give a poor yield, turned out an average crop, 
while in all, the yield was larger than had been es- 

timated. This holds good in both wheat and barley. 
A larger acreage has been cut for hay than thought 
possible, owing to favorable weather. 


Dealers and feeders appear to be purchasing 
ground feed in a hand-to-mouth kind of way. This 
is evidently done to break the market to as low 
figures as possible and then stock up. Ground and 
rolled barley appear to be their chief aim. The re- 
ceipts of bran and middlings are fair. There Is 
fair call lor ground feed from lumbering camps. 

Receipts of new hay have increased while that of 
old have decreased. It looks as if farmers are 
marketing their poorer grades, for the market is 
oversuppUed with poor to fair. Receipts of new 
continue to come chiefly from river points. Oregon 
sent us some old hay the past week. It is claimed 
that the hay crop this year will be larger than that 
cut in 1891. Slowly maturing weather and lower 
prices for grain induced the increased cutting. 

Dairy Produce. 

It is now given out that the creameries in Caisonand 
Mason valleys. State of Nevada, which are reputed to 
be controlled by a man named Evans Williams, are 
turning out oleomargarine. Considerable of this 
stuffia said to be marketed in this city as butter. 

Butter has ruled weak throughout the week 
Buyers have hesitated in taking much unless 
ofiered concessions; only in a small way were sales 
made at an advance on outside quotations for gilt 
edged and creamery. It is claimed that considerable 
packing is going on, but of butter bought at inside 
prices. Eastern butter continues to come to hand. 

A strong effort appears to be making to strengthen 
the cheese market, but so far it has proven futile, 
for receipts come in from unexpected quarters, and 
buyers will not stock up much beyond near by wants. 
Full cream cheese has a strong tone. 

Eggs have shaded off. Large receipts ot Eastern 
and a strong selling pressure caused prices for 
is" and also for fair to good candled to fall off, and 
as retail dealers were attracted to them the more 
choice had to be shaded. The market closes weak 
and in buyers' favor. 

To-day, butter was very weak. The tendency is 
downward, for the sources of supplies are increas- 
ing and the outlet 1? decreasing. Packers are virtu 
ally out of the market. 

We are informed that the statement made above 
that oleomargarine is made in Carson and Mason 
valleys. Is evidently a mistake, but cheese is made 
principally of emulsion of refined lard. 


The market in garden stufl has been slowly de- 
clining under increasing suppliesof seasonable kinds. 
The southern part of the State is sending us heavy 
supplies of tomatoes, which are breaking the market. 
During the week, ports on Puget Sound and others 
up-coast have drawn heavily of all kinds ot vege- 
tables, which aided in keeping the market from 
going to pieces. 

Red onions lell to such low prices that they no 
longer paid expenses Silver-skin onions are lower. 
At the lower prices there is a fair up-coast demand 
for the more matured, good keepers. 

Potatoes have ruled firmer under fair receipts and 
a good shipping and local demand. For shipping 
well matured in sacks are given preference. At 
times consignments of fancy potatoes are auctioned 
off on the wharf at an advance on outside quotations. 
The past week two of such consignments were sold 
by L. Scatena & Co., at 81-40 and $1.60. The potatoes 
are said to have been grown on loamy, sandy soil. 
It is claimed that they were better than anything 
heretofore received. 

In the absence of a shipping demand, potatoes 
were easier but no lower. 


The market is oversuppUed with small, trashy 
apricots. They sell at low figures. Pears are also 
smaU. Bartlett and Dearborn seedling pears are in 
the market; they are taken chiefly for shipping. 
They are thinnings and windfalls. Tragedy and 
Duane purple plums are in the market; they sell at 
the outside figures. Black cherries are going out and 
sell higher, as do Royal Anne. Currants are going 
out. Bleekberrles and raspberries are in heavy sup- 
ply. Sweetwater grapes are coming in more freely. 
Alexander peaches are going out. Hale's Early will 
soon be In. 

Owing to confirmed advices of a short crop of 
>eaches at the East, particularly in Delaware and 
Maryland, and a short cherry crop in New York, 
canners are buying fruit more freely than they ex- 
pected, but they want the more choice varieties. A 
fair idea of the prices paid in the interior can be 
gained by the following, taken from the Yuba City 
(Sutter county) Independent: "The Sutter Canning 
and Packing Co. has contracted for about 700 tons of 
fruit for the season's pack, of which there are about 
540 tons of peaches, 120 tons of apricots, 25 tons of 
pears and 15 tons of plums. The fruit is of extra 
good quality, and the contract price Is 2 cents per 
pound for cling peaches, 1}^ cents for free peaches 
and 1% cents per pound for pears, apricots and 
)lums. The fruit is from the orchards of 8. J. Stab- 
er, R. C. Kells, Mrs. Q. F. Starr, B. G. Stabler, Ferd. 
Hauss, B. F. Walton, J. C. Gray, the Cutts' orchard 
and Chas. Weemaa. Considerable drying will also 
be done at the cannery this season. The Maryerille 
cannery has contracted for some fruit in this county." 
On the Sacramento river several orchardisis have 
sold their peaches at 2 to 2>i cents on the river bank 
Canners bought in this city the past week as follows: 
Apricots, iy^\% cto.; blackberries, $3@4 50 per 
chest; raspberries. 84@5. 

Choice good keeping apples were in good demand 
the past week. 

Scnacht. Hempke & Co. report the sale of two car- 
loads of new crop dried apricots at 10 cents, for ship- 
ment in July to Chicago. New crop dried apricots 
are quoted in our market at 9]4@W% cents per lb. 

Oranges are slow. They have to be rehandled 
Limes are in large supply, but there is a good de- 

The market to-day was weak an i lower for cherries 
and peaches, owing to there not being any shipping 

Live Stock. 

BuUocks are weak and pressing the market, as are 
range calves. Mutton sheep are scarce and tending 
up. About all the large bands of sheep have been 
driven to the summer ranges. Hogs are higher and 
in good demand. The establishing of a large pack- 
ing firm near this city will cause hogs in the future 
to be sought afrer. Fresh milch cows are said to be 
more Inquired for. 


Poultry kept down until toward the close of the 
week, when a steadier feeling set in. The demoral- 
ized market was due to heavy receipts from Texas 
and Missouri river points. It is said that more is 
expected to arrive next week. Choice, well-condi- 
tioned young chickens are scarce. Well-conditioned 
turkeys are very scarce. For a coop of extra fine 
gobblers, 21 cents per fl>. was bid yesterday. 

The honey crop is short by from 40 to 50 per cent 
when compared with last year's crop. 

Old hops are about gone. For new crop hops buy- 
ers name 13 to 15 cents per B)., which growers will 
not accept. The crop on this coast, compared with 
the crop in 1891, will be short 

The receipts of wool are lighter. There is a fair 
inquiry, but buyers appear offish when confronted 
with any degree ot firmness from sellers. The Shire 
and Cotswold wools are the fai-jrite kinds wanted. 

Lima beans are doing better. The stock is nearly 

From reliable advices up to June 15, the following sufii 
mary tonnage movement is compiled: 

^In port—, 

,— On the way^ 




, .266,327 


•t 164,1 58 











•Engaged for wheat, 1892, 26,084; 1891, 25,409 tFor new 
crop loading, 1892, 16,849; 1891, 36,696, 

The statistics of produce exports from this port from 
July lat to June 22d, compiled from the most reliable 
sources aggregats as follows: 

1691-92 189T-91 

Wheat, ctls 12,835,424 13,698,398 

Flour, hbU 1,053,718 1,174,650 

Barley, ctls 1,110,123 312,36o 

General Produce. 

Extra choice In good packages fetch an advance on top 
a aotatlous, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 
quotations. Wkdnksdat, June 29, 1892. 

- @ 20 



Bayo, otl 2 00 @ 2 15 

Butter 2 50 @ 3 05 

Pea 2 20 @ 2 70 

Bed 2 00 ® 2 20 

Pink 2 00 @ 2 10 

Bmsll White ,.. 2 20 @ 2 55 
Large White. ... 2 20 @ 2 45 

Lima 2 15 2 40 

Fid Peas.Hkeye 3 UU @ 3 30 

Do gnm 1 51) @ 2 75 

DsNlies 1 30 @ 1 40 

apUt 4 50 @ 5 60 

Cat Poor to faUf,tti 15 @ - 
Do good to choice 17 
Do QUtedged 
Do Creamery rolls — 
Do do Oiltedge. . — 

Eastern. — (c? — 

Oal, choice cream 7i@ — 
Do fair to good 7 @ — 
Do gilt edged. . — @ Si 

Do skim 5 @ 6 

Young America — (g 9i 

Oal. •• as Is," doz. 16 @ 17! 

Do caodled 13 (a 20 

Dc ctoioe 21 (S 22 

Do fresh laid... 23 @ 24 
Dodo selected.. — (s* '.iS 

Bran, ton 17 50 @18 50 

Veedmeal 26 UO @28 60 

ar'd Barley.... 21 00 @23 00 

Uiddlings 20 00 mi 50 

Oil Cake Meal.. @25 00 

Manhattan Food ^ cwt. 7 50 

V7heat, per ton. 11 00 @ — 

Do choice @14 00 

Wheat and OatelO 00 #12 00 

WUd OatB 10 00 @ 

Cultivated do.. 10 00 @ 

Barley lo 00 @12 00 

Alfalfa 8 00 @10 00 

New Wheat ....10 00 #12 50 
Do Wheat* Oat 9 00 @ 11 

Do Oat 6 00 @10 00 

Do Alfalfa 7 00 @ 9 00 

Straw, bale .... 40 m SO 

Barley, feed, otl. 875® 90 

Do Choice 725® 95 

Do Brewing .... 1 00 @ — 
Do do Choice. . . 1 00 ffl — 
Do doGUtedge.. 1 10 @ — 
Do Chevalier.... 1 05 @ 1 40 
DodoGiltedge.. 1 45 @ 1 50 

Buckwheat — @ — 

Com, White.... 1 325® 

YeUow, large... 1 275@ 

Do small 1 325@ 

Oata, milling.... 1 50 @ — 
Feed, Choice.... 1 475@ — 

Do good 1 40 (3 — 

Do fair 1 335® — 

Surprise 1 65 @ — 

Black Oal — ® — 

Do Oregon 1 325@ — 

Gray 1 325® 

Kye 1 20 @ — 

Wheat, milling. 
Gilt edged.... 1 475@ — 

Do Choice 1 <5 @ — 

Do fair to good. . 1 41 J@ — 
Shipping, obo'oe 1 40 @ — 

Do good 1 38J(g — 

Do fahr I 36i@ - 

Common 1 333® — 

Sonora 1 331® I 40 


1891 Choice to Ex. 25 @ — 

Fair to Good... 22 @ — 


ffiitra, OityMilla 4 65 @ 4 75 

DoConntiyMiUs 4 50 @ 4 75 

Superfine 2 75 @ 3 10 


fV^ahiuts, OaL n> 4 @ — 

Do Choice 6 @ — 

Do paper shell.. 7@ — 

Almonds, 8ft shl. 10 @ — 

Paper shell 12 @ - 

Hard Shea 6 @ 7} 

Brazil 65® 8 

Pecans smalL . . 11® 13 

Do large 145® 16 

Peanuts 15® 3 

Filberts 105® 125 

Hickory 7 ® 8 

Chestnuts 115® 16 


Silverskin 40 @ 70 

Early Roue, ctl . 60 @ 75 
Do do in boxes. 75 ® 1 10 

Peerless 65 Oi 85 

Do In boxfs 70 @ 1 00 

Garnet Chilies-. 60 vt 90 
Kurbank Seedlings 65 @ 90 
Do do in boxes. 75 (8 1 15 

Hens, doz 5 50 @ 6 50 

Roosters.old.... 5 50 ® 6 50 

Do young 7 50 @10 00 

Broilers, small. . 2 25 ® 3 50 

Do large 4 00 ® 5 00 

Fryers 6 00 @700 

Duck 4 00 @ 5 00 

Qeeae. pair 1 25 @ 1 50 

Goslings 1 25 @ 1 76 

Turkeys. Qobrr. 17 ® 
Tiukeya, Hens. . 15 ® 
Manhattan Egg 

Food ^ cwt... 11 50 @ 
Oal.Bacon.he'vy.S) 105® 

Medium 115® 

Light 13 ® 

Laid »i® 

Oal. Sm'k'dBeef II3® 
Hams.Oalsalt'd 115® 

do Eastern... 145® 

Alfalfa 9 

Clover, Red.... 14 

White 20 @ 

Flaxseed 2 00 ~ 

Hemp 351 

Mustard, yellow 3(1 

do Brown .... 3 
Bpbino, 1892. 
Humb't&Men'clnol7 ® 
Sao'to valley. ... 16 ® 
S Joaquin valley 11 ® 
Cala'v* F'thH. 16® 
Oz'ieou Eastern. 725® 

do valley 18 m 

So'n Coast, def.. 10 m 
Nevada (State). 15 @ 

HONEY. -1892 Ckop, 
do do lib frame 
White extract'd 
Amber do 
Beeawax, lb.... 


Fruits and Vegetables. 

Choice selected. In good packages, fetch an advance on the 
laotations, while very poor grade* sell leu than the lower 

4 00 @ 5 00 

4 00 

> 6 00 

Limes, Mex . 

Do Cal — 

Lemons, box.... 1 60 

Do Sicily 5 00 

Oranges, Seed- 

Ungs 1 25 @ 2 25 

Do Navels 2 60 @ 4 50 

Oranges frosted and poor! 
sell at a decline of $l@$l 50 
^er box on the above quota-' 

Strawberries, per chest— 
Longworth... 9 00 @11 00 
Sharpleas .... 5 00 ® 7 00 
Gooseberries, lbs 4 00 @ 7 00 
Raspberries, ch. 5 00 ® 7 00 
Currants chest 5 00 @ 7 00 
Peaches, box... 60 @ 1 00 
Oherry Plum.dr 45 @ 66 
Bl'kberries^ch 3 50 @ - 
Pigs, blk box... 50 ® 1 25 
Do White do... 25 @ 1 05 
Apples, com. bx 50 @ 1 00 
Do Red Astra- 
Chan 1 00 @ 1 50 

Plums, Tragedy 65 @ 85 
Do Duane's Pur- 
ple 70 @ 90 

Wednebdat, June 29, 1892. 


SoedUng 1 00 @ 1 25 

Do Bartlett.... 1 00 @ 1 76 
Apricots, pr box 35 @ 66 
Cherries, box 


Royal Ann.... 

Beets, sk 

Carrots, ek 

Ukra, dry, lb. . . . 
Parsnips, otl. , . . 
Peppers, dry, lb 

Do green 

Turujps, ctl 

Cabbage, 100 lbs 

Garlic, lb 

Squash, Sum, bx 
Tomatoes, box. 
Peas, green, sk. 
String Beans.. 
Cucumbers, box 

do Bay 1 75 @ 2 25 

Mushrooms 10 m 30 

Egg Plant, lb. . . 17J@ 20 
Green Corn, sk. 50 ® 1 25 
Do sweet # aaok 1 00 1 60 
Doswt.Bay^dz 20® 25 

Live Stock. 


StaU fed 6 ^ 

Grain fed, extra 6 & 

First quality 45@ 

Second quality 4 ^ 

Third quality 35| 

Bulls and thin Oow9...2 | 

Range, heavy 4 (fi 

Do Ught.M 6 I 

Dairy 6 @ 


Wethers 7 (el— 

Bwe« 65<a— 

Do Spring 8 @— 


Light, $ lb, cents 5i® — 

Heavy 5 ® — 

Soft 4J® - 

Feeders 31® — 

Stock Bogs 34® — 

Grain and Wool Bags. 

Calcutta, spot . 
Wool Bags . . . . 

7 @ 

HoTuewlvei, Attention I 

Two n«u Ont-tian 'Sewing Machines for salecbaap. 
will b* MDt direct from warerooms, it desired. Address 
H. r. D.. Box 2617, Ban Franclaco, Cal. 


f ACIFie t^URAb f RESS. 

JuLT 2, 1812 

The Secretary's Column. 

By A. T. Dbwiy, SecreUry State GranRe of Californin. 

The State Grange Session.— Patrons are all 
looking forward to the coming annual session at 
San Jose. In this issue we give a list of standing 
committees appointed by Worthy Master Davis, 
who are to take active part in the deliberations of the 
session. I would suggest that each member of 
these committees review the past work in their 
branch of duties and be well prepared to assist in the 
work of the session. To consider and report on mat- 
ters referred to them is not all the work which mem- 
bers may well be expected to perform, but, in a man- 
ner, they should have an interest in seeing that any 
needed proposition should be duly submitted to the 
Grange. Should any members of the committees 
appointed be aware of any reason why they cannot 
attend the session, or for other reasons cannot act 
in performing their duties, early notice should be 
given to the Master, with any suggestions they 
deem advisable to him. The appointment of com- 
mittees is a perplexing duty for any presiding ofticer. 
The Master has tried to divide the work among the 
several sections of the State, geographically, and al- 
so to name members who will give time and thought 
to the work required of them, thus acting, I believe, 
conscientiously in accordance with his best judg- 


BrotherJDavis, W. M., writes, June 24ih, that he 
is well taxed with demands on him for the Grange 
and individual work, correspondence, etc. He ex 
pects to visit Grimes Grange. July yth, and assist in 
conferring the third and fourth degrees on a class 
of ten, speaking to an open meeting in the after- 
noon. There should be an old-fashioned turnout of 
Grangers, and it is pleasant to say that the citizens 
who attend will be rewarded with an eloquent and 
thoughtful address. 

Good results of the State canvass are already ap- 
parent, and a larger increase anticipated from now 
on until the Slate Grange meeting; and no doubt 
after the fruit aud grain harvests there will be many 
new applications lor membership. The fall cam 
paign may require some more visitations, but the 
Master hardly looks for any large demand lor 

There is a strong probability that E. W. Davis, 
W. M. of S. G., will be nominated and elected to 
Congress from the First District. The only difficulty 
'■ the way, according to the most reliable news- 
•vper authority, is to obtain the Master's consent. 
It is certainly desirable that there should be lots 
nore of as good representatives in Congress as we 
already know that Brother Davis would make. 

Tulare is among' the Granges that have en 
dorsed the San Jose Grange resolution in favor of 
equal legal rights for women on the death of bus 
bands to those of husbands on the death of their 

The Grange of Oregon may expect a prosperous 
year. Master R. P. Boise announces that be will 
have more time than formerly to devote to the cause 
he has always so ably and faithfully espoused, while 
Past Master Hayes, who has been elected State 
Lecturer again, intends to lake the field actively. 
Both should meet large audiences wherever an- 
nounced to speak, and their superior efforts will, no 
doubt, lend much inspiration to many other earnest 
and active Patrons. 


One of our best Past Masters, who has been for- 
merly a schoolteacher, and who has lately been 
farming in the interior, desires a situation in San 
Francisco at some reasonably paying business; per- 
haps would take a farm or business elsewhere, if he 
can obtain suitable opportunity for himself or self 
and wife. We make this mention unsolicited, de- 
siring to assist a very worthy and capable brother, 
we believe, whose address will be furnished on ap- 


Reports to June 30. — Tulare Grange, Eureka, 
Roseville, Pescadero, Merced, American River, 
Lockeford, Stockton and Glen Ellen. 

Two Rocic Grange.— We are informed by Past 
Master J. C. Purvine that four new applications 
were received at the last meeting. 

Eureka Grange, near Auburn, is progressing 
favorably. The summer months should be particu- 
larly delightful ones to the mountain Grangers. 


By resolution of Sacramento Grange, Bro. E. 
Greer presented the following at the last session of 
the State Grange, which was in substance adopted: 

Whereas, The Civil Codes of the State of Cali- 
fornia discriminate between husband and wife, re- 
lating to the disposition of community property, 
and should be so amended as to give the wife the 
same rights as are now enjoyed by the husband; 
therefore be it r. , 

Resolved, That the California State Grange, P. of 
H., instruct its Legislative Committee and repre- 
sentatives to give this matter their favorable atten- 
tioii, and to urge, by all honorable means, such 
amendments to the Civil Codes as will give the wife 
the same rights in the disposition ot community 
properly as are now enjoyed by the husband. 

State Grange Committees for 1892. 

standing: Committees. 

On Literary Exercises.— Sisters Amos Adams, 
S. P. Sanders ol San Jose, S. H. Dewey of Temes- 
cal, A. P. Roache of Watsonvilie, C. D. Bonner ol 
S^nta Rosa and W. W. Greer of Sacramento, and 
Brothers Cyrus Jones and H. P. Brainerd of San 
I ose. John Denman of Two Rock, D. Fisher ol 
Norih Butte, E. C. Bedeil of Roseville, H. C. 
Stucke of Waterloo and E. W.Williams of Pacheco. 

On Division OF Labor.— I. C. Steele, J. W. 
Montgomery, J. W. De Golia, N. E. Ailing, Sisters 
M. E. Donaldson and Ella E. Ashley. 

On CREDENriALS. — E. B. Owens, J. W. Robin 
?on C. H. Wakefield, Sisters Roxie Dennis and S. 
C. Dunlap. , „ 

On Finance.— D. Flint, E. T. Pettit, J. R. 
Denman, and Sisters S. T. Coulter and W. L. 

On Good of the Order.— S. T. Coulter, S, H. 
Jackman, W. A. BDwman, and Sisters Wra. John- 
ston and C. A. Merrill. 

On Cooperation.— Brothers Wm. Johnst n, 
Joseph Kline, P. L. Buuce, and Sisters S. T. 
Coulter and S. P. Sanders. 

On Constitution and By-Laws. - Brothers 
W. L. Overhiser, C. D. Bonner, L. H. Applegate, 
Sisters Fannie H. Liwton and Daniel Flint. 

On Farmers' Institute. — Brothers J. V. Web- 
ster, C. D. Bilderbeck James S. Perrott, Sisters J. 
M. Talbot and Thos. McConnell. 

On Trade-Card System.- A. P. Martin, W 
T. Lain, J. M. Talbot, and the Executive Commit- 
tee, viz: Thos. McConnell, Geo. P. Loucks and B. 
F. Walton. 

On Woman's Work in the Grange.— Sisters 
Hattie S. Jones of Yuba City Grange, Mary Merrill 
of Waterloo Grange, Amos Adams of San Jose 
Grange, S. J . Cross of Roseville Grange, S. H. 
Dewey of Temescal Grange, M. Brainard ol San 
Jose Grange, N. A. Ailing of Stockton Grange, E 
l. Roache of Watsonvilie Grange, C. E. Kinn>-y of 
Temescal Grange, E. Greer of Sacramento Grange 
and Mary E. Saxton ot Santa Rosa Grange. 

On Cooperation for Legislation.— J. V. 
Webster, Cbas. Wood, C. W. Norton. 

Auction Sales of California Fruits, 

At New York. 

June 22.— Two carloads: Apricots, 81 6.'i@4 10 
Peaches, 81 70@2; Clyman plums. 82 70®3 05; Brill 
plums, 81 90. Car sold gross for 82144. 

June '23.- One carload; Royal apricots, 81 50@1 70; 
Alexander peaches, 81 05@2; Clyman plums, 82 65® 
S 25; Brill plnms. $1 55. Car sold gross for 81988. 
Ventilated car No. 36.815; Aprieots, 81 'iO'^l 70 for 
Royals; Mou tagamet apricots, 83 85; Alexander peach- 
es, 81 60(g)l SiJ; Clyman plume, 82 16@2 56; Koenie 
Claude plums. 81 B5; Tragedy prunes, 85 60. Car sold 
gross for 81681 

June 24.— One carload from Newcastle: Royal Anne 
cherries, 81 90@2 35; Black Oregons, 82 15@2 70; 
Alexander peaches, 81 60@ 2 25; Royal apricots, 81 
@3 60; Cherry plums, 81 30@1 40. Car so d groes for 
82760 Goodell Refrigerator Car No. 16,358, shipped 
from Tulare: Royal apricots, 81 10@1 25; Alexander 
peaches. 81 70@1 85. 

June '24. —One carload: Royal apricots, SI 20® 1 75, 

averaging 81 48 crate; Seedling apricots, 81 SO V 
crate- Alexander peaches, 81 4"@1 75 averaging 81 51 
a box; Early May pez-ches, 81 60@1 75 box. 
June 26.— Two carloads: Royal Anne cherries, 

81 45@2 '20 ;Republican cherries, 82 15@2 20: Royal 
apricots, 81 05@t 16: Alexai^der peaches, 81 05@2 15; 
Royal Hative plums, $2 05 @3 10; Clyman plums. 

82 »<0(a3 15; Koeuig Claude plums, 82 10; Tragedy 
prunes, $5 '25. Gross sale of boih cars, 8'3926. 

June 27.— One carload: Royal Anne cherries 8125 
^2 65: Black Tartarian cherries, 81 25<5o2 05; Eagle 
cherries, 81 10@1 45; Republican cherries %\ 40: 
gross sale of this car, »3i;<3. Also sold Goodell No. 
16,168 — Apricots, 95c@82 65; Alexander peaches, 
81 25@1 75; average, 81 64; Cherry plums 82 10. 
Goodell Refrigerator Car No. 16,318— Apricots, small 
and overripe, sold at 81 05@1 10; Alexander peaches, 
81 2'(«l 30. 

Juno 27.— One carload: Alexander peaches, 81 35 
®1 85; some small, 81 10@1 20; Rosal apricots, $1 40 
@1 55- some small, 81 15; Garland peaches, 81 30; 
Centennial peaches, 82 60; small, 81 60; Feach ap- 
ricots, 82 50; Clyman plums 82 90; Cherry plums, 
small, 81 05; Black Republican cbeiries, 81 60; 
Royal Anne cherries. 81 80@2 40. 

June 28 —Two carloads: *\pricots. 81@8 20; Peaches 
$1 20@l 85: Royal Hative plums, 83; Jackson, $3 16; 
Royal Anne cherries. 81 50@1 8J; Oregon, $1 50@3 20; 
Black Tartariaus. SI 70; Black Eagles, 81 35. 

June 27.— Two carloads; Cherry plums, 81 25; Al- 
exander peaches, $1 26; Japan Blood peaches, 81 40; 
Briggs May peaches, 81 '25. Some peaches, over- 
ripe sold for less prices. Royal apricots, mostly 
over-ripe and small. 75@80c 

June i7 -Three carloads: Alexander peaches, 
81 05®! 65; Apricots, 30@81 40; Roval Anne cherries, 
81 6&@1 75; Black Tartarlans. 81 10; Republican 
cherries. 81 6,i; Eagle cherries. 81 25 Clymau plums, 
t\ 65; Koenig Claude plums, $l <)5@2 25; Cherry 
plums 81 65@1 80. lO Ib boxes. *1; Tragedy prunes, 85. 

June 28. — Four carloads: Apricois, *1@1 50; 
Montagamets, 81 65; Peaches, 81 10®l 65; Cherries, 
poor order, 81 60@1 75; Cherry plums, 81 90; Royal 
Hative, 82 10@2 50. 

At Chicago. 

June 22.— Three carloads: Peaches sold for 81 15 
®1 55; Eoyal apricots, 85c@$l 30; Monlagamet apri- 
cots, 81 65; Clyman plums. 82 '25; Cherry plums, 82 05. 

June 23 — Three carloads: Royal Aune cherries, 

81 60: Republican cherries, 81 50: Clyman plume, 

82 05@2 Ift; Royal apricots, 90o@81 25; Peaches, 81 15 
(q)l 60; Royal Uative plums, 81 26®2 10; Pears, 81 65; 
Tragedy prunes, $5. 

June 24.— Two carloads; Royal apricots, 81 30 
®1 SO operate; Newcastle apricois. 82 f. crate; Alex- 
ander pearbes, 81 25®1 60 ^ box; Royal Hative 
plums, 81 50 ft crate; cherry plumt, 81 35 ^ crate; 
Koyal Anne cheriles, 81 8.5@2 P5 crate. Black Tar- 
tarian $1 50®1 75; Black Bigerreau, 81 55; Black 
Republican, 81 35@1 66. Some fruit arrived in poor 
condition and sold for less. 

June 24 — Two carload!-; Peaches 81 20®1 25; 
Apricots, 70c®81 15; Koei.ig Claude plums, 82:Monta- 
eamet apricots. 76c@81 35; Peach apricots, 81®1 30. 
Weather very bad, raining bard. 

June 25 —One carload; Koyal apricots, 81 !0@1 20; 
some small. 90c@95c: Feach apricots 8115; Smith's 
Triumph 81 35: Alexancer peaches. 81 26@1 45; Early 
May, 81 25®1 30; St. Catherine plums, 82 30; Royal 
Hative, 81 80; Peach plums, 81 90. 

June 26:— Two carloads: Koyal Apricots sold at 
70c@81 40; Moorpark apricots 81 40; Montagamet 
spricots. 81 50; Peaches. 81 i'itg l 50; Clyman plums, 
%l 20(ff2 30; Koyal Uative plums, 82 10; Brill plums, 

81 85; Tragedy prunes, 84C«i 25. 

At Other Cities. 

MiKNSAFOUs (Minn.). June 22.— Two carloads: 
Apricots sold for S1.25®1.40 per half crate; peaches, 
8I.25@1.50 per box: cherries, 81.40@1.85 per box. 

Omaha (Neb.), June 23 — One carload: Peaches, 
81.25@1.60; apricots, 81.25@1.60; Royal Anne Cherries, 

Boston, June 24.— One carload; Alexander Peaches 
sold to average 82.08; Royal ApricoU, 82.23; Royal 
Anne Cherries, 82,49; Clyman Plums, 83,50. Car sold 
gross for 82767. 

Boston, June 27:— One carload; Early Mav peaches, 

82 10; Alexander, $]; Moorpark apricots, 8160; Koyal, 
81 ,59. 

Omaha (Neb.) June 27. One carload; Peaches and 
apricots 81 25®1 60. 

No slory ne«d be told of the Cyclone or of tha number that have been sold. They oao be mcd working In 
•very Inhabited part of the Pacific Slope whilst hundreds are exported every year. 

The Cyclone mill la not an experiment, but acknowledged by all who have used It to be the most powerful and 
durable mill on the market. 

It Is simple In construction, hu no cogs or complicated gearing to get out ot order. Haa only three principal 
bearings, heavily babbiteri boxes and self oiling apartments. 

The wheel and vane of the (Cyclone (which are the most durable parts of any solid wheel mill) are made strong 
and ot well seasoned wood finished with the best lead and oil which neither blister In the sun nor Is consumed by rust 

Bend for Illustrated Catalogue to 

Pacific Manufacturing Company, 


Manufaotrurers and Jobbers of Windmille, Pumps, Tanks, TUBULAB 
WELL TOOLS, Pipe, Pittings, Bto„ Hto. 




Slaudard Calcutta. 
Cartage added, 50c too. 


Stand,ird Painted, 3^- 

¥ou think it's aboat time to try a Cash House 
that followa docaly market changes 


416-418 Front St , S. F. 


NE Low Price 

To .Ist and Take. 
Equality to all. and no minrepre- 



Front .Street, 


ui. rs of iumtiy 





Want to Borrow on 20 Acrea Froit Land, 

Ten Acres Be«ring, near Haywards, 

JOHN F. BYXBEE, 42 Market Strtet, 


D/\lll T D V WlM C M Hens are beidDolug 
r\jyi^ I ■» I IWl K l« » to atop laying and 
coiiHeiiiicntly the jirice of eggs Is advaucing. Every one 
-houid now feed Wellington's Improved Kgg Food regularly 
if they detsir^ to have eggH tn sell when Ibey reach bigli 
pr ces. Get it of any MERCHANT or of Proprietor. 
B. F. WELLINGTON, 415 Washington St.. San Fmndsco. 









= QNg CENT^= 




Remember, we are the Inventors and Sole Owners of the RENTON " AUTOMATIC AND ADJUSTABLE 
POWER FENCE LOOMS, the only maihine which makes a perfect, straight, tight fence. 

Any size, style or quantity to order at short notice. Send tor descriptive and Illustrated Circular and tastl- 
mooials to 


Htntlon this papa , 


Jolt 2, 1892 

pAClFie f^URAb PRESS, 


Store Your Grain Where Your Best Interests Will Always 

Be Consulted. 

-^T THE 



Grain Received on Storage, for Shipment and for Sale on Consignment. 

We Solicit Your STORAGE for the COMING SEASON, Being Confident that 

the Result wiil be More Than Satisfactory. 

For Particulars and Rates, address all communications to our San Francisco office and they will be promptly attended to. Parties 
desiring Storage will please apply early. 





Do More Work, 
Produce More Cider, 
Require Less Labor. 

Mude with Adjustable Cylinders. 

Adapted to Crushing: Grapes 
and Small Berries, 


Keystone Mfg. Co., 



Price, $7 and .$15. 


For dance music save their cost in one night Any one 
can play them Over 600 tunes to select from. Plajs 
sacred, popular songs and dance music. Also 

Terms Moderate. We also keep Accnrdeons, Banjos, Mando- 
lins, Violins, Strings and Sheet Music, circulars free. 


Near Nineteenth Street. SAN FRANCISCO. 


WMlewasli Yonr Barns and Fences! 

Do Elthor Snooessrally. 
Catalogue and testimonials sent by mall. 

No. 6 Spear [Street, Ban Franolaoo.i Oal. 

J. F. HotJOHTOV, President, J. L. N. Bhepabd, Vlce-Pre«. 
Ohas. E. Btobt, Seo'y, K. H. Maojll, Qen. Ag't. 

Some Hatoal iDsorance GompaDy, 

H. E. Cor. Cnliroralft and SaBBom* HUk. 
INOOBPOBATBD A. D. 1864. ■»■ Framctaeo. 

La«u Paid Since Ornnliation . . , , 

Ameta. January 1, 1891 

^ital Paid Up In Gold 

trXT BUBFLUS OTer nTerytfalng. 

...13,175,759 SI 
... 867,611 19 
... 300,000 00 

... no an 10 


^f-.220 MARKET. ST.B.F.r" 
V_f LEVATOR 12 FflONT.ST5.F,— -i**^ 


Calves, Yearlings and 2-year-olds 

For Je*«,le>. 

Baden Station, San Mateo County, Gal. 

Only three foiirfihs mile from terminus of the S. F. 
and San Mateo Electric Road. 

O •-<• DWINt!;IjL,t<}. Breeder of Shropshire and Shrop- 
shire-Meiino cross-bred rams, Fulton, Sonoma Co., CtL 


f AC[Fie I^URAlo f RES8. 

Jolt 2. 1893 


Gret It to Market in Grood. Condition! 


This Can Only bb'^'^?,?. by Using the Howard Bolster Springs. 

26,000 »et8 in uee. Their success established 
throughout the United States. This celebrated 
Wagon Spring Is, without doubt, the only reli- 
able bolster spring maoufactured; and is the 
only portable bolster spring that will transfomi 
a common farm wagon into an easy, platform 
spring, to ride easy, with or without a load. 
Examine the cuts, and note the principle of Its 

Shows center spring In position 
for light load. 

Shows center spring In position 
for heavy load. 

The center springs, tor heavy use, are the old, 
reliable, elliptic, oil-tempered steel, which pre- 
vents any strain upon the bolster stakes. They 
are complete, as sold; and require no alteration 
of the wagon in applying them to bolsten. 
Give them a trial; they will prove to be the beat 
investment you ever ma-<e. Just the thing for 
fruit raisers. Springs warranted to carry to 
their full capacity. 


Improved Patent, Oct. 10. 1888. 


1,000 Pounds Capacity, 3 ft. 6 or 8 In 

1,;>00 " " .. 

3,000 " " 

2,600 " " " " " .... 

3,000 ■' " " " " 

t 7 00 4.000 Pounds Capacltv, 3 ft. 8 or 8 In. 

8 00 5,000 •' •' ' 

9 00 8,000 " •' " " " . 
10 OO 8,000 " " " " " . 
12 00 10,000 " " •• " " . 

«U 00 
. 16 00 

. 18 on 
21 00 
. M 00 


305 & 307 MARKET STREET, 




for $75. 

$125 JOB. 









— AN- 


Because it is more 
profitable to soma 
one els«. 






Alio Fine Stock of Shade and Ornamental Trees, Shrub*, Palms, fioses and Carnations. 

Correspondence Solicited. 


Cataloiiue and Price List Free, 



ABLE MIDDLE AOED WOMAN, with some bnalneaa 
•zperleno*. Address BOX Y, This Offlca. 

Vol. XLIV. No. 2. 


Office, 220 Market St. 

A Single Point But a Strong One. 

Last week we indulged in a few remarks upon what pro- 
ducers could do by individual diligence and effort. In 
view of the important results now being attained among 
the Fresno raisin producers, as reported upon a following 
page, thought naturally returns to the benefits of united 
action. It will be seen by the report to which we refer 
that something like four-fifths of the larger producers had 
agreed with each other upon a certain line of action in dis- 

raisin-raaking does not yield a living. Producers agree 
with each other that in selling their product they will not 
pass that point. This secures a profitable price for raisin 
and it leaves the producer full liberty in every other way. 

What shall the minimum price be? That is a difficult 
point to decide and the Fresno people are approaching its 
determination very wisely. They leave it for final ad- 
justment. They seek every light upon it. They request 
the opinions of packers upon it. They appeal to public 
sentiment to approve their course. It is a very simple 

may do more. From all we can discern of the signs at 
Fresno, the situation must certainly be looked upon as 
promising, not for that region alone, but for the State. 

Portland Residences. 

The handsome residences of which we have photo- 
engravings upon this page are situated in Portland, Ore- 
gon. Some of them belong to people of wide reputation, 
but our purpose is merely to reflect the character of the 


position of their product, and that the work of securing 
fuller accord was progressing favorably. We doubt whether 
such a large proportion of the producers of a given terri- 
tory has been before committed to a given measure. It may 
possibly have been done in some of the orange regions of 
the southern counties, but not elsewhere. Next week a 
meeting will be held which will show the outcome of the 
business — or at least the beginning of it. 

In connection with the work as thus far carried, the 
question naturally arises why has this movement made 
such progress while other efforts have died in committee or 
are languishing just beyond? It may be claimed that the 
situation among the raisin men, judged by last year's ex- 
perience, was a desperate one, and has forced producers to 
do something. This is, however, hardly truer of the raisin 
men than of other dried fruit producers. Why, then, do 
they combine more readily? It seems to us the reason is 
because they have made the bond of their union a single 
strand: Everyone can recognize it and understand and per- 
ceive its plain necessity. There is a point below which 

procedure and it seems to us a very strong one. We 
shall be glad to to see it win, and we expect to do so. 

Is it possible that in other movements for cooperation 
for disposition of fruit and fruit products, too much is be- 
ing attempted? The [chief objections seem to be doubt of 
the wisdom of such a governing board as is usually con- 
templated and dislike to delegate away individual rights 
and judgment. For these reasons growers risk only the 
cost of a single share of stock, when they should have 
scores or hundreds, and they give no surety that they will 
do & dollar's business through the channels they themselves 
create. Thus far these movements have proved weak, ex- 
cept in small regions were mutual acquaintance seems to 
have fostered cooperative action. We believe existing dif- 
ficulties, even in the more pretentious organizations can 
be overcome. They may be swept away by the confidence 
which may proceed from successful action in support of a 
single point. If the Fresno growers proceed to successful 
issue with their measure to establish a minimum price 
this year they will certainly not do less next year and they 

dwellings of prosperous Pacific Coasters and not to remark 
their personality. The photographs were taken in mid- 
winter, which is unfortunate in losing foliage effects and 
yet perhaps desirable to distant readers in wintry climates 
in that they show the scenes at thfeir very worst. 

Dwellings in general aspect and dimensions like those 
at Portland are to be found in or near all our largpr Pacific 
coast cities, and they represent sometimes the surplus 
products of successful local industrial or professional effort, 
sometimes the results of Eastern enterprise or inheritance 
expended to secure the possessor a handsome home in a 
genial clime. 

The Los Angeles Timea learns that the women principals ot 
the Los Angeles schools are to be dropped and their places 
filled by men. " The ostensible object of this movement is, of 
course, to improve the efHciency of the force, but there is some- 
thing more than a suspicion out that it is in the interest of 
practical politics." To this the Times enters a timely protest. 
Politics does quite enough mischief as matters now stand, and 
the public school system ought to be free from it. 


fACiFie F^URAb f RES8. 

Jdlt 9, 1892 


By The Dewey Publishing Co. 

Ogice, 220 Market St.; Elevator, 12 FroiU. St., San FiraTicUeo., Cal. 

AvNn»i.Si'n.MCRii»TioN RATE TiiP.EEDoLLAB»»ye»r. While this notice 
.nn^Su .ubSeJM»ying »3 to .d.auce will receive 15 moutha' (one year 
ICd^SekrcSlt For *2 I* advuuce, 10 mouth». For $1 m »<J">>ce. a« 
montL T?i»l 8utecrip?'oM for three monthB, paid In advance, each 60 cent,. 


1 Week, t Month. 3 Monthx. I Year. 

Per Uue (agate) * -25 » « 1.20 « 4.00 

Half Inch (1 square 1.00 a M ^6.60 ^^.^ 

One Inch 

Lare» advertisementa at favorable rates. Special or reading notlcen. legal 
.dvCTt'sementi. notice- appearing In extraordinary type, or In particular parts 
Se paper, at special rates. Four Insertions are rated in a month. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednes day ev e ning . 

Registered at 8. F. Post Offi ce as second-clasa ma ll m atter. 

ANY subscriber sending an inquiry on any subject to the Rdral Fbkss. w'th 
a S^uSSpVwSlTercive a reply, either through the columns of the paper 
or%y pireonal Ktter. The answer will be given as promptly as practicable^ 

AiTfRBD HoiMA N..^ General Manag er 

Saturday, July 9, 1892. 


ILLUSTRATIONS —Villa Residences in PoTtland, Oregon. 

wpixoRIfVL** — A SinKle Puint But ft Strone One; Portland Residenres, 
'21- Pacific Coast '.^iiKir Befts: Slatistical Review of Wheat and Bar- 
ley. 22: From an Independent -Standpoint 23. ^ ^ , , . „. 

nORRESPONDKNCE —Weather and Crops for Week Ending July 4. 24. 

FRUIT MAllKETIN(j —A Strone Cooperative Movement Among Fruit 
Grovpers; The Santa Clara Movement, 24. 

HOKTICUI.TL'RE.— Pioneer Fruit iroweis of Tuolumne County, 25. 

TBE API* KY.— Recognition and Treatment of Foulbrood. 

SHERP AND WOOL.— Delnine-Merino Sheep; Mutton vs. Wool; Sheep 
Shearing hy Machinery: The Upgrade, 26. 

THE DAIRY.— The Dairy Industry in the West. 26. , „ ^ 

SWINE YARD.— Points of a Good Hog, 2fi; Transfers of Berkshires; 
How to Make Lean Pork, 27. 

THE FIELD.— Yolo Co. Fruits and Farms; Killing Morning Glory, 27. 

THE HOME CIR'XE — In the Orchard: A Summer Love; Name-Sick- 
ness a Common Complaint Among Brides, 28. The Summer Boarder; 
A Great Pie Companv: A Unique Individuality, 29. 

Y'OUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.— John Martin's Revenge, 29. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY'.— The Secretary's Column. 30. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTErt.— From Various Counties of California, 32. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY'.— Sundry Recipes, 34. 



Windmills— R. F. Wilson, Stockton, Cal. 
Barley Crusher— M. L. Merv, Chico, Cal. 
Orange Seed— L G. Sresovich. 

Monte VisU Resort— Mrs. C. E. Kinney, Dutch Flat, Cal. 
See Adverlisittg Oalumns. 

The Week. 

California fruit is going eastward steadily and in large 
quantities. The city bids fair to assume its indignant at- 
titude of last year over the claim that Eastern people are 
getting the good fruit and San Franciscans the " culls." 
To the grower, however, there is but a single thought, and 
that is that the best fruit must go to the best market, and 
thus it will continue. Manager Buck of the Fruit Union 
has just returned from his Eastern investigations, and has 
a very encouraging report to make of Eastern trade and 
the season's prospects. He fears no conflict with the East- 
ern product, except a brief tussle with the Georgia fruit. 

■Just as we go to press, reports come of a serious conflict 
between the detectives hired by Pennsylvania iron 
masters and the locked-out operatives. Numbers of lives 
were lost in a battle on Wednesday, and the matter has a 
serious look which it is to be hoped will goon be averted. 

Preventing Levee Breaks. 

Mr. Dauiel Flint recently gave us some hints how to 
prevent gopher hole breaks in levees and other embank- 
ments, that may be of practical use to some farmers not 
so wise as Sacramentans are supposed to be on the subject. 

Often the difiiculty of locating the water side end of a 
gopher hole has caused great destruction. The common 
expedient when water pours through a gopher hole in the 
levee is to tramp along the inner slope until roily water 
passing out below indicates the position of the opening, 
when the flow can be easily stopped at its head, if found 
in time. 

Sometimes this system of tramping fails to succeed and 
Donplusses the investigator. In an emergency of this 
kind. Brother Flint, when called upon to act, went in for 
heroic treatment. Being an " instantaneous case " of 
" root, hog, or die," he had a longitudinal cut dug in the 
embankment, found the opening, and plugged it with bags 
of sand, the usual way. After a short cessation, the stream 
again poured through the levee. The cut was again opened 
and sunk a little deeper, and the bags inserted partly be- 
low the gopher's tunnel, and the job was as successful as 
Pharaoh's march through the Bed sea. 

,51 48 
8.09 11.61 
.56.09 7.5.8 



II 23 18 

18.10 14.67 1.5.23 

88 82.2 83.9 

Too Much Sting. — Cannot we have our official ento- 
mology without so much wasp in it? The acidity and ac- 
ridity among old school entomologists over questions of 
classifications and priority, become mild when compared 
with the recent sharpness among economic entomologists, 
and, strange to say, the ill feeling seems to be keenest over 
beneficial bugs, which certainly should'provoke the bland- 

est and sweetest sentiments among their devotees. And 
yet we find quarrels over discovery, introduction and sub- 
sequent handling and distribution, which ill become those 
who are diligent in pursuing beneficent missions. The 
work is a great one; there are achievements and honors 
enough for all. To quarrel and indulge in personal abuse 
will convince the public that the whole business is hateful 
and waspish, and will defeat ends which are only attain- 
able through public interest and support. Let us have 
peace ! 

Pacific Coast Sugar Beets. 

The Department of Agriculture at Washington, has just 
issued a special publication on the .sugar beet entitled 
"Experiments With Sugar Beets in 1891," by Dr. H. W. 
Wiley, chemis*. etc. It contains analytical results gained 
in the Washington laboratory by assaying beets grown 
from seed sent out by the Department, and transmitted to 
Washington by the growers in different parts of the country. 
The publication affords the widest data attainable on sugar 
bfets grown in all parts of the United States, and is there- 
fore an important contribution to industrial knowledge. 
Unfortunately, however, the data are not in all respects 
fairly representative, and in fact may in some cases create 
very wrong impressions. This is unquestionably so with 
reference to California, and as our State is the largest pro- 
ducer of beet sugar in the Union, this is peculiarly unfor- 
tunate. The distant reader will be wholly unable to recon- 
cile the conflict between the showing of California beets 
made in this report and the fact that we are successfully 
conducting sugar factories. Such a distant and ill-in- 
formed person will conclude that we are fools to think we 
can successfully make sugar from such beets as the govern- 
ment says we grow here, and he will henceforth have 
nothing to do with us in that line. 

We have tabulated the leading results obtained by the 
government analyses of beets received from Pacific Coast 
States as follows: 

Ariz. Cal. Nev. Or. Wash. 
Samples 2 8 18 35 U 

Average weight 'z 

Sucrosein juice, 

Purity, % 

It is upon such data that the government report makes 
the following deductions under the head of each State 
named in the table. 

Only two samples were received from Arizona. They were 
both very much overgrown, being about three times as large as 
the normal beet should be. As would be expected, the percent- 
age of sugar was very low. 

Eight samples were received from California. The average 
size of the beets was entirely too large, being 48 ounces. 

Of the Nevada beets, the numbers representing their quality 
are almost phenomenal with the exception of the average 
weight which is only about what it should be. This doubtless 
accounts for the fact that the beets were so exceptionally rich. 

The samples from Oregon are, the report says, " uniformly 
rich in quality, and if they truly represent the capabilities of 
the State there certainly is a bright future for the beet sugar in- 
dustry in that portion of the Pacific coast. 

With the exception of two, all the samples received from 
Washington were of high saccharine strength. 

These reports while they undoubtedly do justice to Ne- 
vada, Oregon and Washington, succeed in putting Califor- 
nia and Arizona in a very untrue and unfavorable light. 
The samples were clearly not fit for sugar-making and 
should have been thrown out, because it was clearly the 
fault of the grower and not of the Sta^e. The grower erred 
in choosing wrong soil or wrong cultivation and his fail- 
ure to produce a good beet is made to cast a shadow upon 
the State. 

It may be said that Californians are to blame for the 
result. They did not send proper and sufficient samples 
as other States did, consequently the report is unfavorable. 
This might be the case were not Dr. Wiley so well in- 
formed upon what California can do and is doing in this 
line of production. His earlier reports show what Califor- 
nia beets are, because he has given many analyses of them 
as secured from the analysts at Alvarado. If he had de- 
sired a hundred or a thousand other analyses he could 
have had them from the State University, or from Alva- 
rado or Watsonville or Chino. He could also have shown 
exactly what has been done in actual sugar-factory prac- 
tice in this State. For this reason we protest against the 
showing the State is given in this publication. It is a 
case where, in default of specimens. Dr. Wiley should 
have gone behind the returns and have fairly put forth 
the beet-sugar achievements of California in the light of 
his own knowledge and observation. The ill effects of the 
present publication is unfortunately likely to be wide- 
reaching and difficult to overcome. 

It is true that Dr. Wiley says in his introductory note 
that the "results must be simply regarded as tentative, 
showing in general where beets of fine quality can be pro- 
duced, but not in any way deciding on the comparative 
ability of the several States for the production of rich 
beets." This is a fair and frank admission, but the fact 
remains that this allusion will be seen by few and the 
general unfavorable reflection upon California beets will 
reach many. This should not have been made possible. 

Statistical Review of Wheat and Barley. 

The harvest season ending with June 30, 1892, will no 
doubt be often referred to by commercial writers owing to 
the large direct shipments of wheat from this port to 
France and Belgium. This movement assumed large pro- 
portions toward the close of the season of 1890-91, or as 
soon as reports of short crops on the continent were veri- 
fied, and continued well into the first five months of the 
1891-92 season. The exports to France within the twelve 
months ending June 30, 1891, aggregated 5,214,530 cen- 
tals, and to Belgium 848,898 centals, the larger propor- 
tion of which, as above stated, was made in the last six 
months of the 1890-91 season. 

The wheat shipments during the twelve months ending 
with June 30, 1892, aggregated to the several different 
countries as follows: Great Britain, 8,342,288 centals; 
France, 3,852,233; Belgium, 676,771; Peru, 33,824; Cen- 
tral America, 21,990; Australia, 8,393; Hawaiian Islands, 
8,390; various, 2,067. Total, 12,945,956 centals, against 
13,836,467 centals in the season of 1890-91. The highest, 
lowest and average prices of No. 1 white shipping wheat 
in the open market by months from July 1, 1891, to June 
30, 1S92, were as follows: 

Months. Highest. I^owpst. Average. 

.lulv 81 58?4 »1 4314 t\ 48'^ 

August 1 72K 1 55^'4 1 62J^ 

September 1 1\W 1 6« 1 64 

October 1 71^ 1 m4 1 6S% 

November 1 ;>0 1 6Ta 1 &2% 

December 1 85 1 7S'4 I 80^ 

January 1 82>i 1 6.5 I 74 

Februaiy 1 72^ 1 .52% I 63% 

March 1 70 1 S2»^ 1 63% 

April 1 55 I i-y, 1 .50 

May 1 81Ji 1 40 1 47!^ 

June 1 40 1 1 X9% 

The highest price for the season was $1.90, the lowest 
was $1.38i, and the average was $1.63|. The average waa 
the highest since the season of 188.3-84, when it was $1.64i. 
From the latter season to the season just closed the aver- 
ages were as follows: 1884-85, $1.3 1 J; 1885-86, $1.43i; 

1886- 87, $1.52J; 1887-88, $1.40.1; 1888-89, $1.34i; 1889-90, 
$1.28 J; 1890-91, $1.46}. ►The causes which brought about 
the high prices the first six months of the past season were 
given at considerable length in the Rural Press of Feb- 
ruary 6, this year, and it is to be presumed they are fresh 
in the memory of readers. 

The exports of flour from San Francisco for six seasons 
past, were as follows in barrels: 1891-92, 1,083,577; 1890- 
91,1,185,410; 18s9-90, 1,189.629; 1888-89,909,032; 1887- 
88, 854.735; 1886-87, 1,001,579. 

The combined wheat and flour (flour reduced to wheat) 
exports from this port, aggregate by seasons as 
follows in centals: 1891-92,16,196,687; 1890-91,17,392,697; 

1889- 90,17,271,078; 1888-89,16,112,191; 1787-88,11,324,- 
398; 1886-87; 15,339,629. 

Of the exports of barley from San Francisco the past 
season. Great Britain took direct as follows: For Cork, 
247,629 centals; Gloucester, 46,840; Hull, 54,439; Liverpool, 
232,148; London, 7,375. Total 588,431 centals out of total 
shipment of 1,037,982 centals. The exports to other coun- 
tries and foreign ports were as follows: Antofogasta, 22,400 
centals; Callao, 10,516; Hawaiian Islands, 66,623; Iquiqui, 
70,151; Los Pal mas, 69,500; St. Vincent, 82,152; Sydney, 
2508; Tahiti, 3356; various 2804 centals. To New York 
there was shipped by sea 144,270 centals. No shipments 
were made eastward in last season by rail. 

The highest, lowest and average prices by months in the 
season of 1891-92, were as follows for No. 1 feed barley, 
based on actual transactions: 

Months. Highest. Lowest. Aversge. 

July $1 20 Jl 00 SI IS's 

August 118% 1 05 1 10^ 

September I 10 1 05 1 07 

October 1 Ot^i I 02% 106% 

November 1 15 1 02>i 1 10 

December 1 15 1 05 1 10^^ 

January 1 12J^ 1 02",^ 1 11« 

February 1 05 95 99^ 

March 1 05 97% 1 00 

April 1 10 1 (/O 1 02 

May 1 05 95 995,^ 

June 98?i 92 92J^ 

Average for the year $1,051; highest for the year, $1.20; 
lowest for the year, 92 cents. The average price of No. 1 
feed barley by seasons, was as follows: 1891-92, $1,051 

1890- 91, $1 39J; 1889-90, SIJ cents; 1888-89, 75| cents 

1887- 88, 79* cents; 1886-87, $li; 1885-86, 1.28. 

Los Angeles Express: " Some energetic steps should be taken 
to secure to California a fair share of the business of shipping 
deciduous fruit to Eastern markets. While the production of 
deciduous fruit is large in this part of the State, the crop is dis- 
posed of almost entirely in the dried or canned form. North- 
ern and Central California are allowed to capture nearly all of 
the great shipping trade in this class of fruits. There is no 
snOScient reason for Southern California's lagging behind in 
this respect." 

Stockton MaU: " The chief point of attack as respects mat- 
ters connected with Yosemite valley should be the excessive 
tolls charged for the privilege of entering the great fissure. The 
valley is a national reservation, under the management of the 
State of California, and it is just as wrong to charge any tolls 
at all as it would be to exact an admission fee from visitors to 
the State Capitol grounds or to Golden Gate Park. There is a 
burning need of reform here." 

July 9, 1892. 

pACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 


From an Independent Standpoint. 

The chief.political event of the week was the birth of 
the National People's Party which was accomplished ac- 
cording to programme at Omaha on Independence Day. 
The leaders felt that there might be some advantage in the 
coincidence, and so managed their meeting that the plat- 
form was adopted and the candidates named on the Fourth. 
The sentiment was a good one, but it must be said that in 
political warfare sentiment of this sort is of small practi- 
cal account. The temper of the Convention was radical 
from first to last, and the platform and the candidates alike 
stand for the extreme tenets of reform. The declaration 
which precedes the resolutions shows the spirit of the dele- 
gates. " We meet," it says, " in the midst of a nation 
brought to the verge of moral, political and material ruin; 
corruption dominates the ballot-box, the legislature, Con- 
gress, and even touches the ermine of the bench. The 
people are demoralized. Most of the States have been 
compelled to isolate voters at the polling places to prevent 
universal intimidation or bribery. The newspapers are 
subsidized or muzzled. Public opinion is silenced; busi- 
ness is prostrated; our homes covered with mortgages; la- 
bor impoverished; land concentrated in the hands of capi- 
talists. Urban workmen are denied the right of organiza- 
tion for self-protection when imported, pauperized labor 
beats down their wages. A hireling standing army, un- 
recognized by law, is established to shoot them down, and 
they are rapidly degenerating into the Europeaa condi- 
tion. The fruits of the toil of millions are boldly stolen 
to build up colossal fortunes unprecedented in history, and 
make the possessors of them in turn a menace to the re- 
public and to liberty." 

Of course a body of men coming together in this temper 
could not be expected to be politic, much less diplomatic, 
and it is not surprising that the formal platform following 
such a preamble should give voice to a good deal that is 
false and mistaken with much that is good and true. The 
platform proper is as follows: 

" We demand a national currency, safe sound and flexible, 
issued by the General Government, full legal tender for all 
debts, public and private, and that without tbe use of banking 
corporations, a just, equitable and etiicieut means of distribution 
to the people at a tax not to exceed two per cent per annum, 
to be provided as set forth in the Sub-Treasury plan of the 
Farmers' Alliance, or a better system; also by payments in the 
discbarge of its obligation for public improvements. 

— We demand free and unlimited coinage of silver and 
gold at their present legal ratio of sixteen to one. 

" B_We demand that the amount of circulating medium be 
speedily increased to not less than $50 per capita. 

" C — We demand a graduated income tax. 

'• D — We believe the money of the country should be kept as 
much as possible in the hands of the people, and hence we de- 
mand that all State and national revenues shall be limited to 
the necessary expenses of the government, economically and 
honestly administered. 

"p; — We demand that the postal savings banks be established 
by the government for the safe deposit of tbe earnings of the 
people and to facilitate exchange. 

" Transportation being a means of exchange and a public 
necessity, the government should own and operate railroads in 
the interest of the people. 

"The telegraph and telephone, like the postoffice system, being 
a necessity for the transmission of news, should be owned and 
operated by the government in the interest of the people. 

" Land, including all the natural sources of wealth is the 
heritage of tbe people, and should not be monopolized for 
speculative purposes, and alien ownership of land should be 
prohibited. All lands now held by railroads and other corpora- 
tions in excess of their actual needs and all lands now owned 
by aliens should be reclaimed by the Government and held for 
actual settlers only. 

In addition to the platform there are a host of miscella- 
neous resolutions submitted, not as part of the platform, 
but as expressive of the sentiments of the convention. 
There is a demand for a free ballot and a free count with- 
out Federal interference, and " through the adoption by 
States of the unperverted Australian or secret ballot sys- 
tem." The revenue derived from a graduated income tax 
it declares should be applied to the reduction of the bur- 
den of taxation now levied upon the domestic industries 
of the country. Fair and liberal pensions are pledged to 
ex-Union soldiers and sailors. The protective system as it 
is related to American labor is declared fallacious and in- 
effective. Tbe Pinkerton system is strongly condemned. 
The eight-hour system of labor is recommended as a mat- 
ter of justice to the workingman. There is a resolve favor- 
ing the constitutional provision limiting the office of Pres- 
ident and Vice-President to one term, and providing for 
the election of Senators of the United States by the direct 
vote of the people; and another against the giving of any 
subsidy or national aid to any private corporation for any 

When the Convention came together, the almost unani- 
mous wish of its members centered upon Judge Gresham 
of Indiana as the Presidential candidate. For ten days 
or more, the leaders had been in constant communication 
with him, and although he had declined in positive terms 

to accept the nomination, there were still those who 
thought that he might be induced to do so at the last mo- 
ment. Mr. Weaver was among those who heartily fa- 
vored Gresham's nomination, and who were willing to 
shape the platform in accordance with his wishes. It 
was not until after the Convention was actually in session 
that a final and positive refusal came from Gresham, and 
with the possibility of his nomination out of the way, the 
radical spirit arose in force. It was in this spirit that the 
resolutions were framed, and it was in this spirit that 
General Weaver of Iowa and Mr. Kyle of Virginia were 
named for President and Vice President. The former is 
well-known to the public. For ten years past he has been 
more or less a figure in national politics. Formerly a Re- 
publican of the independent type, he represented his dis- 
trict in Congress. In 1880 he abandoned the Republican 
party and ran for President on the Greenback ticket. In 
1886 he was again elected to Congress a.i a Greeubacker, 
but was defeated in 1888. He is an able lawyer, a man of 
large, "all-round" political information, and a power in 
debate. At the beginning of the war he enlisted as a pri- 
vate, rose through the minor degrees to the rank of Major, 
and for gallantry at the battle of Corinth, was brevetted 
Brigadier-General, Mr. Kyle is less known and has here- 
tofore had no part in national politics. He has been iden- 
tified with the People's Party movement in Virginia from 
the beginning, and is easily its strongest man in the 
northern tier of the Southern States. 

There was a striking difference in the Convention scenes 
at Omaha and those at Minneapolis and Chicago. The 
drinking and rowdyism which was so conspicuous at the 
last-named places was wholly lacking at the former. The 
delegates were a sober-minded people in dead earnest. 
They came in homely garb, many of them in hickory 
shirts and brogan shoes, and more thaa two- thirds from 
the anvil, forge and the field. They were for the most 
part poor men with neither time nor money to waste in 
revelry and dissipation. The bar-rooms of Omaha did not 
have to double their force to meet the demands of a crowd, 
and throughout the whole period of the Convention, the 
city was as orderly as at ordinary times. There was, it is 
true, a considerable sprinkling of the worn out and cast off 
political "hacks" of the old parties — men like Ignatius 
Donnelly, who having failed in one cause are always seek- 
ing a new one, but these men were insignificantly few in 
number, and their part in the proceedings was only in 
proportion to their numbers. It was unquestionably a 
Peoples' Convention, and more democratic in its purposes 
and in its membership than any ever before held on 
American soil. 

old parties are arraigned for treachery to the interests u i ^ 
the country, as false to their own professions and promt- 
ses and as subservient to the enemies of public order and 
public morals. There is no declaration as to the silver 
question. The original draft, as it came from the com- 
mittee contained a straight free coinage plank, but the 
convention voted to throw it out and a subsequent effort 
to revive it failed. 

The candidate. General Bidwell, is one of the very 
early pioneers of this state and his biography partakes of 
the romantic interest which attaches to California in the 
" Forties," He arrived in the Sacramento Valley early in 
1841 after a six months' trip across the plains. Soon after 
that he obtained employment at Sutter's Fort and re- 
mained in Sutter's employ for two years. He was inter- 
preter and aide-de-camp to Governor Micheltorena for a 
year, until the revolt of 1844 and 1845 resulted in Gov- 
nor Micheltorena's expulsion. Bidwell returned to Sut- 
ter's employ, and on the advent of General Fremont 
joined his forces, later being appointed magistrate of the 
district of San Luis Rey. He was for a short time quarter- 
master by appointment of Commodore Stockton. In 
1849, at the age of 30, he was a member of the first 
constitutional convention at Sacramento and the following 
year was elected to the State Senate. In 1855 he was a 
delegate to the Democratic national convention at Charles- 
ton. During the war of the rebellion he was a brigadier- 
general in command of the Fifth Brigade, California 
Militia. He was a member of Congress from 1864 to 
1867 and was honored many times by being sent to various 
important conventions. In 1875 he was a candidate for 
Governor on the nonpaitisaa and antimonopoly ticket, 
but was defeated, and a few years later he was a candidate 
for Governor on the Prohibition ticket. He is a man of 
large wealth, which he employs widely in benevolent 
ways. Politically he has been for years identified with 
the Prohibition party and with aatimonopoly and anti- 
Chinese movements. 

Marion Cannon, the Galifornian, was one of the striking 
figures of the convention and he succeded in giving it one 
of its most sensational incidents. The Pacific railroads 
did not allow the customary half rate to the delegates, and 
it was moved to request them to return half of the full fare 
which had been paid. This brought Cannon to his feet. 
" I want this convention to understand," he said, " that it 
is not by an oversight that the Pacific coast delegates were 
not accorded the usual privileges. Our request for a cus- 
tomary courtesy was denied deliberately and with inso- 
lence, I do not want this convention, so far as California 
is concerned, and so far as I am concerned, to go back to 
that railroad, cap in hand, and ask for any privileges 
whatever. The Democrats and Republicans secured half 
rates; but we, who are not connected with railroads, but 
are the producers of the earth, have been refused equal 
terms. We can stand the refusal. The people of Califor- 
nia and of the whole country will operate their own lines 
in the interests of justice before the expiration of another 

The National Prohibition Convention finished its labors 
on Thursday last by nominating General John Bidwell of 
California for President, and Mr. Joshua Levering of 
Maryland for Vice-President. This result was accom- 
plished without a " fight " and was accepted with perfect 
good feeling. The platform calls for the entire suppression 
of the manufacture, sale, importation, etc., of alcoholic 
liquors "as a beverage" by State and national legislation; 
maintains the right of women to vote ; declares that 
money should be issued by the Government only; that a 
tariff should be laid only against those countries which 
discriminate against us; that railroads and telegraphs 
should be "controlled in the interest of the people"; that 
foreign immigration has become a burden; that no for- 
eigner should be allowed to vote until one year after he 
becomes a citizen; that no alien should be allowed to own 
land; that all unearned land grants be reclaimed; that all 
men should be protected by law in their right to one day's 
rest in the week, and that speculation in margins should 
be suppressed. The party is pledged to support of 
the public school as against the sectarian school and the 

Before the delegates came together at Cincinnati, there 
was a good deal of talk, even in the Prohibition press, 
looking toward fusion with the People's party. Among 
the advocates of this policy was Miss Willard, who has 
heretofore been one of the strongest of the party leaders. 
Miss Willard had, also, a scheme to drop the name of 
prohibition and substitute that of " Home Protection 
party." The convention gave these and other sugges- 
tions scant courtesy, and remained true to the ideas and 
the name under which it has fought up to the present 
time. In four national campaigns it has,stood by its colors, 
and has fairly earned identity among the established po- 
litical parlies of the country. In 1872 it gave James 
Black a popular vote of 5fi08 for President. In 1876 it 
gave Green Clay Smith 9522 votes. It had no distinctive 
condidate in 1»80, but in 1884 gave John P. St. John 
150,767 votes, and in 1888 it gave Clinton B. Fisk 251,147 
votes. If the party is not very near success, it is at least 
growing, and its partisans are content to keep up the fight 
in the interest of their convictions, even if they do go 
regularly to defeat. It is not in the nature of things that 
California should be a prohibition State, but the party has 
maintained an organization here from the beginning. In 
a total vote of 250,220 in 1888, California gave the Pro- 
hibition candidate for the Presidency 6107. Gen. Bid- 
well's vote this year will probably exceed these figures. 

After all, the Secretaryship of State, was not given to 
Gen. Tracy. On Thursday last the President sent in to 
the Senate the name of John W. Foster of Indiana, and 
confirmation followed immediately. Mr. Foster's appoint- 
ment is clean apart from politics. He is, it is true, a Re- 
publican, but for many years has been out of the line of 
party affairs. He has served as United States Minister in 
Russia, in Mexico and in Spain; and is perhaps, the near- 
est approach among American citizens to the European 
model of a trained diplomat. Mr. Foster's experience 
abroad and his acquaintance at foreign Courts will stand 
him in good hand in the State Department. On the whole 
the appointment is a good one. 

It is a very common remark that the religious interest is 
dying out in the United States, but the facts as we find 
them in an article by Dr. H. K. Carroll, Supf. of the Cen- 
sus of Churches, in the Forum, point directly the other 
way. New England, as Dr. Carroll's statements show is 
no longer Congregational, but Catholic. It contains 1,000,- 
000 Catholic communicants as against 230,000 Congrega- 
tionalists, yet take the country over, Congregationalism 
has been increasing more rapidly than Catholicism. In 
1880, there were 384,000 Congregationalists and in 1890 
512,000— a gain of 33 per cent. In 1880, the Catholic 
" population" according to Sadlier's Catholic Directory was 
6,367,000; in 1890, the number of Catholic "communi- 
cants", according to the Census, was 6,250,000. Fifteen 


f ACIFie f^URAlD f RESS. 

Jdlt 9, 1892 

per cent of the church " population" ia below the age of 9, 
10 or 11. It is difficult to figure the exact percentage of 
increase in Catholicism, but Dr. Carroll reckons it as only 
about 20 per cent notwithstanding the enormous emigra 
tion from Italy, Austria and French Canada. All of the 
great Protestant denominations seems to have done better 
The Methodist Episcopal church shows an increase from 
1,707,000 in 1880 to 2,229,000 in 1890— a gain of over 30 
per cent. The Presbyterian church shows a gain of nearly 
40 per cent., advancing from 573,000 communicants to 
788,000. The various Litheran bodies advance from 712' 
000 to 1,200 000— a gain of more than 60 percent., largely 
due to emigration. The Christian or Campbellite Church 
shows an increase from 350,000 in 1880, to 641,000 in 1890 
— a gain of 83 per cent., without the assistance of emi 
gration. There is no return for the Baptist or Episcopalian 
but the report states that there is no reason to suppose 
that either of these denominations has fallen behind the 

Weather and Crops for Week Ending July 4th. 

The following crop reports are for the week ending Mon- 
day, the 19th of June, and were furnished by James A. 
Barwick, Director of the California Weather Service, viz.: 

Humboldt.— i/ad River— We are hiving for our section an 
uuusually long spell of clear, warm weather. Cereals are look- 
ing fine, though some ground needs rain. Potatoes on high 
ground are doing well. Vegetables are in fine condition. Fruit 
is very light. 

Blocksburg — Highest and lowest temperature 92° and 50°. All 
crops are doing well. Rainfall .02 of an incti. 

Hydesville — Haying has commenced. There will be a large 
yield and of fine quality. 

Shasta. — Anderson— "there is not much change in crops the 
past week. Harvesting is well along, with good crops. The 
latter part of the week has been warm, reaching 105° to-day 
(Sunday). Fruit is ripening fast. Happy Valley shipped some 
very fine peaches this week. 

Tehama. — Red Bluff— The weather conditions have not been 
altogether favorable during the week. It is reported that grain 
has been damaged by the recent northers. Winter-sown is very 
light. Fruit suffered very little. A considerable percentage of 
pears were blown off by the storm. The other trees were 
scarcely affected. Highest temperature 10.3°, lowest 56°. 

Lake. — Upper Xaie— Seasonable weather has benefited nearly 
everything, tliough it has been a little cool for corn, pumpkins, 
etc. Grain has ripened rapidly and reaping has begun. The 
grain crop will be heavy and good. Grapes continue to im- 
prove. The season is about two weeks late. 

Solano. — Denverton — Cool west winds for the past week. To- 
day, July 1st, a hot north wind. As fast as possible threshing 
is being done. Crops are nearly up to the average. 

VacavUle — The week has been quite warm, and for the past 
few days we have had a warm north wind, which is ripening 
fruit very fast. Apricots and early peaches are about all gath- 
ered, and Crawford peaches are now being shipped. 

SoTTEB. — West Butte — Harvesting of wheat and barley i^ well 
advanced. The yield is above the average and of good quality. 
Alfalfa for seed (not irrigated) is passing from bloom to weil- 
developed seed pod. 

Yuba Gily — The past week has been quite warm. The ther- 
mometer has registered over 100° in the shade for several days. 
The nights are cool. The north wind shelled some grain last 
Friday and Saturday and blasted some varieties of fruit. Har- 
vest is in full swing. Good yields are reported. There is some 
grain that is shrunken. 

Sonoma. — Farestville-^mn^ temperature; highest 98°, on 
Friday. Harvesting has earnestly commenced. The early 
crop of peaches is getting ripe. 

/SSsnoma— Peaches and apricots, while a little backward, will 
be superior to last year, and in another week fruit will be com- 
ing in with a rush. 

nealdshurg—T:he temperature was 101° on Friday. Corn is 
growing finely. Hay is good, plentiful and cheap. The can- 
neries will soon open on peaches. 

Butte.— Palermo- Shipment of fruit still continues, with 
good returns. Barley harvesting is over, and the harvesting of 
the wheat crop has begun. Temperature on Friday, 100°. 

Placer.— iVeuJC<u«i<r— Highest temperature, 104°; lowest, 51°. 
All kinds of fruit is now coming forward rapidly and an abun- 
dant yield is looked for. 

AMADOB.—0/««a— Haying finished and plentiful. Crops of 
grain on summer fallow good; winter sowing not so good. 

Stanislaus.— T^rtocA—The week has been quite warm taken 
as a whole. Highest, 102°, last Saturday. Rye harvesting is 
about finished, and wheat well advanced. Some fields of rye 
gave a large yield. Wheat is not as good as expected. 

Alameda.— iVito— The cool weather last week has been bene- 
ficial to fruit. No apricots picked yet. The wind is from the 
northwest; force, four miles, which may counteract the effect 
of the high temperature. 

jlZiarado— Harvesting has commenced. Fruit is doing well. 
Beets are growing finely, but a little late; onions, carrots, etc., 
not up to ordinary prospects. 

Fleasanton — The hay crop will be less in quantity than was 
at first estimated, but the quality will be good. The wheat and 
barley very plump; harvesting began during the week. Hops 
are making a more rapid growth, but are fully three weeks 
late. Sugar beets doing well. 

Nevada.— A'wada 0%— The highest temperature was 90°, on 
Saturday. No damage has been done from the excessive heat. 
A light north wind prevailed the latter part of the week. 

MoNTEfiEy.—Saiinas— Harvesting is under way and crops 
promise a fair average; not quite equal to last year, but better 
than many previous years. 

Santa Clara.- (JiYroy- The prospects continue excellent, 
with harvest in full operation. 

San Joaquin.— Sioetton — The last two days were very warm- 
harvesting going on well; outlook good. ' 

/-odi— Highest and lowest temperatures were 104° and 52° 
but causing no damage, as all the grain was ripe, and apparent- 
ly no iiij'iry was done to the fruit or berries; good weather for 
watermelons, which are very late, and it will be some time be- 
fore they are ready for market. 

Sacramento. — Sacramento — The temperatu'e has averaged 4° 
above the normal during the past week, but on two davs, 
Wednesday and Thursday, it was 2° and 3° cooler than the 
average; while on Saturday and Sunday was 15' and 12", re- 
spectively, warmer than the average. The average or normal 
precipitation was nothing, and there was no rainfall during 
the week. The crop of grain is about secured and the yield is 
an average one. The fruit crop is rapidlv ripening under the 
heated sun. The highest and lowest temperatures were 102' on 
Saturday and 52° on Thursday. 

San Luis Obispo.— San Uiis' Obispo— We have had northwest 
winds all the week, but from 9 a. x. to 3 r. m. a light south 

breeze with light fogs, which is just what is needed. Warm 
weather is coming on, which will be beneficial if not too warm. 
Beans are doing well. Harvesting is going on nicely and grain 
threshing out better than was expected. 

Santa Barbara.— Son<a Maria— The weather has at last 
warmed up. Barley is threshing out a little better than antici- 
pated, but average is not large. Beans are growing but are 
thinner than usual and have not a very good prospect. Apri- 
cots will soon be ready for drying and canning. Prunes are 
light. Highest and lowest temperatures, 93' and 48'. 

Los Anqeles. — Los Angeles— The Observer at Los Angeles tele- 
graphs as follows: The generally clear and warmer weather 
the past week has been favorable to all crops, especially for 
fruit-drying. Apricots are an average crop in some localities 
and light in others, but the quality is fine. The drying of them 
is in full operation. Peaches are ripening very fast. 


Portland, July 5. — Rain is very much needed, especially for 
late sown grain, corn and gardens. The total wheat crop of 
Oregon in 1891 amounted to fourteen million bushels. This 
year it will not be over ten million bushels. The nearest to an 
absolute failure is in parts of Morrow, Gilliam, Sherman and 
Wasco counties. Here in some localities not much more than 
seed will be secured. Potatoes are doing fairly well, but would 
be improved by more rain. Hops are in a promising condi- 
tion. The peach, prune, apple and pear crop will not be an 
average quantity. The hay crop will be large. 


A Strong; Cooperative Movement Among Raisin 

The raisin producers of Fresno and Tulare county are 
rapidly advancing toward an effective organization on the 
cooperative plan — or rather perhaps toward a mutual 
agreement among producers not to sell (or less than an 
agreed price in the sweat-box. 

At a meeting held June 23, the following form of agree- 
ment among producers was adopted: 

We, the undersigned raisin growers of California, having 
become fully satisfied that the present demoralized condi 
tion of the raisin market is almost, if not entirely, due to 
the absence of any understanding concerning uniform sell- 
ing prices among the parties who have the products of rai- 
sin vineyards in their hands for sale, and from the fact that 
numerous established agencies in the East are in the habit 
of competing and thereby underselling each other without 
regard to prices, we believe the time is at hand when this 
system of disposing of our vineyard products will bring the 
raisin growers of this State to poverty and finaiicial 

Now, therefore, in view of the facts above stated, we, 
the undersigned raisin growers, do most earnestly request, 
as a matter of protection to ourselves and families, even 
demand, that the packers who are producers of raisins, and 
packers who are not producers ot raisins, and in fact all 
who have raisins in proper condition for the markets of the 
world, join together immediately and agree among them- 
selves to establish a minimum price on each and every 
grade of raisins, and that they bind themselves not to sell 
any raisins during this present crop year for less than such 
minimum price agreed upon. And in consideration of 
such an agreement as above, we, the undersigned raisin 
growers hereby agree and mutually bind ourselves upon 
our honor not to give, sell or consign any raisins subjett to 
our control, during the term above mentioned, to any party 
or parties who do not enter into our agreement establishing 
such minimum price. 

A declaration of similar import was prepared for signa- 
tures of business men and citizens by which they could ex- 
press their approval of the movement and sympathy with 
its purposes. 

There was a long discussion as to what should be the 
minimum price in the sweat box, and most speakers argued 
that it should be 5 cents per pound. The final determina- 
tion of the figure was, however, postponed. 

A large committee was appointed to obtain signers to 
the above agreement throughout the settlements of Fresno 
county, and the active cooperation of other raisin produ- 
cers was invited by the following resolution : 

The raisin growers In convention assembled in the city of Fresno, 
respectfully request your cooperation to secure living prices for raisins 
and submit the following form of subscription to be signed by the 
raisin growers of your county to the end that all growers and pack- 
ers in the Slate may sustain prices to protect our industry from its 
worst enemy — increasing competition. 


On Saturday July 2, there was a great meeting of raisin 
producers in Fresno, to which the above proceedings were 
preliminary. The Expositor said: 

The canvassing committees had done their work well, 
and had reached all the principil districts in the county 
where raisins are produced. Thus, the convention was 
well ready to go into business in a businesslike way. 
Some of the best men of the country were present. Tu- 
lare county had its delegates in the convention, and stran- 
gers could be seen from other places. A glance at the 
people assembled showed that the movement was growing. 
The report of the executive committee appointed at the last 
meeting was read by Alexander Gordon, chairman of that 
committee, as follows: 

"We, your committee, report as follows: That in ac- 
cordance with instructions given at the late meeting of your 
body we have caused an invitation to be sent to every rai- 
siri grower in Fresno county, together with a copy of the pe- 
tition, and also to every raisin grower in the State whose 
acreage exceeds 50 acres. 

" In all we have sent out 1750 circulars and petitions, 
and up to 9 o'clock this morning we have received replies 
and assents to the petition from 729 raisin growers, repre- 
senting 16,500^ acres. 

In order to further the interests of the raisin growers 
throughout the State, with a view to establishing prices in 
the sweat-box, we recommend that this meeting be ad- 

journed until the 14th day of July, 1892, for the purpose of 
obtaining the assent of those not already obtained; that a 
committee of raisin growers be appointed to present their 
petition to the packers and sellers of our vineyard products, 
and to confer with them, with a view of establishing mini- 
mum selling prices as indicated by petition. That a reso- 
lution be passed inviting all packers and sellers of raisins 
to meet a committee of growers in the city of Fresno on 
Saturday, July 16th, at 10 A. M., for the purpose of confer- 
ence, with a view of establishing a minimum selling price 
for each grade of raisins for the present season. That the 
prices of raisins be discussed, but no definite action taken 
until the next meeting, July 14th. 

Discussion followed upon the various points advanced in 
the above report, which was agreed to. Signatures taken 
during the progress of the meeting raised the aggregate to 
849 signers, representing 18 803/2 acres of raisin grapes, 
According to the figures on the subject, this was four-fifths 
of all the raisin lands in the county, and four-fifths of all 
the growers. Others were willing to sign, but felt them- 
selves bound by existing contracts, and therefore not at 
liberty to do so. But many expressed their determination 
to join as soon as possible. 

A resolution waj adopted that a committee be appointed 
to draft a letter to Congressman Bowers, asking that a 
tariff oi lyi, cents a pound be placed on Zante currants. 
The following gentlemen were charged with that duty: W. 
A, Noble, D. T. Fowler and Alex. Gordon. 

The committee to meet the packers was appointed as 
follows : D. T. Fowler, Alex. Gordon, John S Dore, Miss 
Hatch, Mr. Vanwormer. Mr. Oothout, Colonel Trevelyan, 
P. Y. Baker, E. P. Irwin, P. M. Pyle of Kern county, Mr. 
Maxwell of Yolo. 

It was ordered that one representative from each county 
in the Sta*e where raisins are grown be invited to attend 
the meeting in Fresno on July 14. 

The Santa Clara Movement. 

At a meeting of the Fruit Growers and Driers' Associa- 
tion in San Jose June 26 a discussion arose as to the ben- 
efits to be received from the Fruit Exchange, which has 
recently been established. Colonel Philo Hersey, presi- 
dent of the exchange, being present, said: 

The Fruit Exchange is ot as much importance to the 
drier as to the grower. Were I a drier and knew what the 
market was I would like to buy on as close a margin as 
possible. Last year a great many of the driers sold their 
fruit for 5J cents a pound, and a short time afterward fruit 
went up to (>% cents a pound. What was the cause of all 
this? Simply on account of the lack of such an organiza- 
tion as the Fruit Exchange. Eastern buyers said it was 
caused by no other reason. It only establishes the fact 
that we must have an understanding among ourselves. We 
are not organized to injure the driers, but to help them. 

"Two million pounds of prunes will be raised this year, 
and if the Exchange can control three-fourths of the crop 
and the driers the balance, then we can hope in some way 
to arrange to hold up prices. We are charged with work- 
ing for the interests of one house, but if we can keep up 
prices so as to save the one-tenth that was lost last year, 
then our purpose has been accomplished. 

" If we can make the Fruit Exchange a success, then we 
will be able to cut loose from all commission houses." 

" I am in favor of the Fruit Exchange,'' said Mr. Flem- 
ing, "but there are some parts of its objects that I do not 
like. The fruit driers and growers object to tieing them- 
selves up. They want to be able to sell their own products 
at any time. I would like some information upon that 

Colonel Hersey — The West-side Fruit Exchange has 
seventy members, and as soon as the fruit is delivered at 
the drier they lose sight of their product because it is graded 
and credited up to them and then dumped into bins. When 
the fruit is sold they are paid pro rata. It is good, because 
better facilities are offered for not only grading but drying 
the fruit, consequently the goods and grades are uniform 
and better prices can generally be procured. 


The San Jose Mercury gives the foUowin? report of a 
meeting of the stockholders ol the Santa Clara County 
Fruit Exchange held July 2 : 

Colonel Philo Hersey presided at the meeting and W. H. 
Wright acted as secretary. 

Quite a discussion took place in regard to the adoption 
of the by-laws. On motion of Colonel R. P. McGlincey, 
the following article was offered to be added to the by-laws: 
'"No person can acquire by purchase more than 100 shares 
of the capital stock of this corporation." The amendment 
was favored by F. M. Righter, who said he understood that 
capitalists were ready to put their money into the Exchange 
as an investment, but such money was not wanted or 
needed by the corporation. It is desired to have for stock- 
holders only those whose interests are identical with those 
of the fruit growers. The amendment was then unan- 
imously adopted. 

In response to R. P. McGlincey's inquiry President Her- 
sey stated that more than five-sixths of the present stock- 
holders did not own more than one share each. In expla- 
nation of that fact Director Righter stated that when the 
canvass was made the impression got abroad that it was 
not necessrry that a fruit grower should subscribe to more 
than one share. 

In the afternoon a directors' meeting at which there were 
present Directors Hersey (president), Dawson, Gordon, 
Righter, Johns, Adams and Crandall. 

President Hersey stated that circulars explaining the di- 
rect objects of the Fruit Exchange had been printed and 
sent to all fruit growers throughout the county. He also 
reported having the promise of about 200 more shares. A 
member of the other directors reported additional shares 

The directors decided to go into business this year and 
hope all fruit growers will rally to the Exchange's aid and 
help to make it a success by subscribing for stock. 

Jolt 9, 1892 

f ACIFie (^URAlo PRESS. 



Pioneer Fruit Growers of Tuolumne County. 

The State Horticultural Society is making a commend- 
able^effort to gather information about the beginnings of 
horticulture in this State. For conveniencp, the subject is 
being worked up by counties and localities, and after much 
material has been accumulated it is expected to condense it 
into a horticultural history of California. DiflTerent counties 
and localities are entrusted to different writers, and their 
chapters are now coming before the society. At its last 
meeting, W. B. West of Stockton read a paper on early 
fruit growers of Tuolumne county, which is printed below. 
It is hoped that the current publication in the newspapers 
will draw out contributions from others who may possess 
interesting and important facts. 


Tuolumne county was one of the first to make an effort 
to establish orchards and vineyards, and up to i860 it had, 
perhaps, more land in cultivation and money invested in 
this interest than any other in the State. Many orchards 
and vineyards were p'anted; the population was la^ge and 
furnished a good market for all the fruit and vegetab'es 
that could be produced. There was but little diminution 
in the yield of gold and everything was prosperous. In the 
virgin soil all kinds of deciduous fruit trees grew wonder- 
fully, and the absence of insect pests, blights and mildew 
rendered the work of the orchardist comparatively easy, 
and the good market at home made the enterprises quite 

Previous to 1865 'here were apple trees that were a foot 
in diameter at the ground, whose products were reckoned 
by barrels, cherry trees 30 feet high and wonderfully pro- 
ductive. The mountain orchardist spared no pains to pro- 
cure the choicest varieties of fruit and to cultivate them in- 

The prosperity of horticulture began to wane in i860; 
the placer mines had been growing less and less profitable 
for two years. The fruit was not so readily disposed of; 
shipments to San Francisco, Stockton and eastward were 
made. Wagons were sent to the plains and the fruit dis- 
posed of to farmers. Every effort was made by the ener- 
getic fruit grower to render his business profitable, but the 
business could not be made to pay. 


It is sad to see the decadence of those promising and 
profitable orchards. On rich, deep and moderately moist 
land the apple and pear still remain and produce fru t much 
better than their condition would seem to warrant, but 
many plantations were made on soils where the depth was 
not great enough to sustain the trees without irrigation, and 
as the price of fruit became less with the constantly dimin- 
ishing population, the proprietors became disheartened 
and let their places run down. The inroad of the codlin 
moth and scale finished the work in many places, and old, 
diseased and abandoned orchards remain where once was 
thrift and prosperity. 

How great the disappointment has been can only be 
realized by seeing those abandoned orchards and beautiful 
little homes that are so common in the mountains. 


This was the pioneer of orchards and vegetable gardens 
in Tuolumne county, and established in 1850 by Mr. U. S. 
Smart, a native of the State of Maine. He was at that 
time about 55 years of age, a thoroughly active, bright man 
and a money maker. 

He commenced by inclosing a small piece of moist land 
upon Wood's creek, a little distance from its junction with 
the Tuolumne river, at the town of Jacksonville. He had 
for sale in 1850 vegetables of all common kinds. It is said 
that he furnished a vegetable dinner to miners at the mod- 
erate sum of $2.50 a head. It is also said that his price for 
cabbages, turnips and beets was $1 per pound. One party 
assured me that he paid him $6 for one head of cabbage. 

In the fall of 1854 he received an invoice of trees and 
vines from the East. The assortment was very complete, 
and from these were propagated many of the orchards of 
Tuolumne county. These trees, and probably a few peach 
trees raised from seed sown in the fall of 1851, produced 
peaches in 1854, and a crop in 1855. Marvelous stories are 
told of the prices obtained for these first fruits. Visitors 
paid $5 to $10 apiece for what they could eat. Equally 
marvelous were the size and flavor of these novelties. With 
due deference to the word of the old '49er, and the time 
that has passed since these recollections, we must recognize 
the fact that at that time the commonest kind of fruit was 
not to be had; canned fruit was not so common or so good 
as it is to-day, and the miner who was working for a home- 
stake would hesitate at paying $2, the common price, for a 
can of peaches or apricots. He would, however, pay $1 
for a peach without a murmur. 

The following is the statement of Mr. Peter Lesher of 
Modesto, who was then an orchardist and a fruit dealer in 
Sonora, Tuolumne county: I bought from Mr. Smart some 
of his first crop of peaches, for which I paid him 50 cents 
each. Took 500 or 600 at a time. I took these to Sonora 
where I sold them for $1 each as fast as I could pass them 

In 1854 Mr. Smart had about three and a half acres en- 
closed and in fruit. In 1858, Mr. Peter Lesher leased the 
orchard. It then had sixteen acres of bearing fruit and 
was in a very profitable condition. In 1863 Mr. Smart 
sold the orchard to miners and the whole place was mined 
out, thus finishing one of the most profitable ventures in 
orchards in the county. 

f* As everyone who has ever lived in Tuolumne"county (and 
they are a host) has some recollections of Smart's garden, 
it may not be inappropriate to mention the latter days of 
the enterprising man who established it and what became 

of the fortune made by so much industry and perseverance. 
I quote from a letter of F. N. Smart, Lodi: 

"After selling out Mr. Smart joined a company formed 
to grow cotton at the Galapagos Islands. The scheme 
was a failure and he was left alone on one of the iilands 
for three years, living a Robinson Crusoe life. He suc- 
ceeded in starting a garden, but in the mean time came 
near starving. He was finally taken off by a passing vessel 
and brought to California, where he died about 1870. His 
whole fortune was consumed in the enterprise and he died 
a poor man. 


Statement of James L. Coggswell of San Francisco: In the spring 
of 1854, Mr. Pirrin, now R gi ter and Receiver of the Lind 
Office at Stockton, and myself, were residing at Girrote No. i, 
Tuolumne county. Wishing to improve our property by plant- 
ing an orchard, we sent to West B os., Stockton, an order for trees. 
We received an assortment of apple, pear and peach trees. They 
were imported trees, grown at Stockton one year, and produced fruit 
the year that they were pUnted, and soon were producing fine crops. 

Our vegetable garden was a great success. We had no blight or 
mildew, or insect pests, that I recollect. Our fruit and vegetables 
were fine and abundant. 


Statement of J. A. Goodwin, Mountain Pass: I settled on my 
place in 1854. I always had a desire if I ever was owner of a piece of 
land, to have an orchard on it; still I knew nothing about horticul- 
ture. In the winter of 1854 I bought a pound of peach stones (for 
which I paid one dollar) and planted them; not one cam^ up the fol- 
lowing spring, but after remaining in the ground a year they made 
their appearance. An old Englishman, a neighbjr, taught me to 
bud, to prune and take care of the trets. He was very particular, and 
the result was, the fruit was very fine. I used to sell peaches at 25 
cents per pound, or 75 cents per dozen. 

In the spring af 1856 I bought from a peddler from Sm Jose a good 
assortment of trees and vines, There were apple, peach, plum and 
six common h'nck fig trees, of which three are now living, and are, 1 
think the largest in the State— the body of one being 12 feet in cir- 
cumference. My trees have all grown and done well; the more I h*ve 
cared for them, the better they have paid me. 1 have always been in 
favor of irrigation, and have used water freely, although I could have 
done without it, but was determined to have the best (tuit. 


Statement of Chamberlain & Chaflf^e:— We commenced to plant 
our orchard in the spring of 1859. It consisted of apple, pear, plum, 
peach, apricot, cherry and nectirine trees bought of West Bros, of 
S;ockton. We had at that time no experience in fruit-growing, and 
paid dearly for knowledge obtained. The borers attacked our young 
trees, and not knowing how to combit them, we lost heavily. The 
climate was too severe for our stone fruit; the spring frosts killed 
much of it, and sometimes the trees. Plums were a failure, but 
peaches did a little t>etler. We get fruit about one year in five. We 
set out two thousand grape vines, but they were still more uncertain; 
so we dug them up and planted apple and pear trees in their pUce. 
The only fruit that his paid us to cultivate is the apple and pear. In 
early times we took great care of our orchard, cultivating, pruning 
and irrigating, and could sell our fruit at good prices — 3 and 4 cents 
per pound at home. A; the population diminished, we found more 
difficulty in selling here, and shipped it to San Francisco, where it 
brought a fair price at fi st; but as the codlin moth increased, the 
market was full of wormy apples, which were sold at any price that 
could be obtained. Good fruit had to compete with it. We have 
not suff red so much from the ravages of the moth in our orchard. 

At present we neglect our orchard, paying no attention to the trees 
except to pick tlie fruit, which is as good as it ever was, and on fa- 
vorable years the quantity is ample. Upon deep land the trees 
thrive, but on shallow places they are dying out, as we do not irri- 
gate now. 


I think, with you, that the names of the pioneers in horticulture, 
who at great risk and expense solved the prob'em of fruit culture in 
California, " should be recorded before they all piss away," and for 
that purpose will willingly contribute what I know regarding Tuol- 
umne county. 

My father, Edward S. Jarvis, and I bought Vine Spring Rinch of 
John Randoller and Joseph Lord, who had squatter titles to the land 
between Gald Springs and the Stanislaus river, and were raising 
vegetables and selling them to the miners of Sonora and other camps 
at two or three bits per pound. 

Tlie next year, 1852, I bought an invoice of peach, apple and pear 
trees from Oregon; but, owing to bad packing and exposure to the 
hot sun on th# way, were completely dried up and destroyed — not 
cne survived. That same spring, 1852, I got from Mr. B;ard of the 
Mission of San Jose about 1000 cuttings of the Mission grape. 
Nearly all took root and produced the first grapes raised in the 
county, which sold readily for 25 cts. per pound. 

In 1854, Capt. U. S. Smart of Jacksonville, on the Tuolumne 
river, received a fine lot of foreign grape cuttings — over 63 varieties 
of table and wine grapes— from Dr. Butte (Buist?) of Puiladelphia. 
He also received a large lot of apple, pear, peach, cherry, plum, fig 
and other trees. His place being only 35^ acres, we bought most of 
these, started a nursery by root-grafting, and soon hid all the stock 
we could use, and supplied most of the demand in the county. 

Smart's Garden, well known to all pioneers, was a favorite resort in 
early days. His peach trees began to bear in 1855, and visitors paid 
from $5 to $10 apiece for what they could eat. H P. Barber, a 
prominent lawyer of Sjnora, went there one day with a lady. After 
eating what fruit they could, B. cilled for his bill. "$25, Mr. Bar- 
ber." He paid it. Soon after, the Captain called at B.'s office for 
advice, got it, thanked him and was going out, when Birber'said, 
" Hold on. Captain I You have fjrgotten my fee." " Hiw much 
isit?" " Fifty dollars, sir.'' "Is not that rather steep ? " "Not 
steeper than $25 for a little fruit." 

In 1858, I think, C. & J. Parsons started a nursery in Columbia 
and sold a great many trees. For many years there was no disease 
in orchards or vineyards, and the fruit was of the first quality. The 
first pest to make its appearance was the codl n moth, sent from the 
States to Sacramento, thence to all parts of California. There was 
no mildew, nor do I think the vineyards in Tuolumne require sul- 
phuring now. When 1 left six years ago. the orchards and vineyards 
were in good condition where they had been taken care of. The first 
wine made by me was in 1858, and was much praised by those whom 
I had the pleasure of entertaining. In early days the mining camps 
were the markets for all we could raise, afterward San Francisco, 
Stockton, San Joaquin valley, Nevada and Mono. 

She ^^piary. 

Recognition and Treatment of Foulbrood. 

Independence, Cal., June 17, 1892. 

Foulbrood is a contagious disease which attacks and 
kills the brood of bees while this brood is in the larva 
state. The disease germs are mainly contained in the 
honey, and, through the food prepared by the nurse-bees, 
conveyed to the brood, although it does not affect the per- 
fect bees; nor does it destroy all the brood at once. 

The symptoms of foulbrood are: 

1. A peculiar, offensive smell, at first noticeable only 
when the hive is opened, but, as the disease spreads more, 
being strong enough to be detected at the entrance of the 
hive, or even in the surrounding air. 

2. The capping over diseased brood always becomes 
concave, or sinks into the cell, and is often of a darker color 
than the cappings over adjoining healthy broods. 

3 Frequently, but not always, there will be found a 
small pinho'e in the center of the capping over the dis- 
eased brood. 

4. The dead brood turns into a thick, sticky, coffee- 
colored matter. On pushing a small stick into a diseased 
cell and then withdrawing it, this matter will adhere to the 
stick and come out with it as an elastic string, which breaks 
when the stick is from one to two inches from the su face 
of the comb, and most of the matter flies back into the 

In course of time, this matter dries up and lies as a hard 
brown scale along the horizontal bottom wall of the cell. 

Cells having contained diseased brood are never cleared 
out by the bees, and are never used afterward either for 
brood or honey. Consequently, though the disease may 
spread slowly, the breeding space becomes gradually less, 
until there are so few cells leit for the disposdl of the queen 
that she cannot keep up the numerical strength of the stock 
sufficient to protect the hive, and the result generally is that 
other bees from the healthy hives rob them and carry the 
disease home, to run its course over again. 

The disease is usually dormant, or nearly so, during the 
winter, but as warm weather comes on it increases in pro- 
portion to the general temperature, and the increasing 
amount of brood in the hive. If, however, the colony is 
naturally strong and has a good queen, the bees may be ap- 
parently as prosperous as any heal hy slock, and have betn 
known to store surplus honey through a whole season and 
pass through the ensuing winter. But the next spring or 
early summer will usually finish the career of a diseased 
stock, even if it is not robbed or destroyed by other bees. 
The principal danger lies in robbing. 

The cure of foulbrood is simple and need not occasion 
any serious loss, if due precaution is taken in carrying it 

In the first place a diseased hive should never be opened 
while bees are flying, if there is any disposition to rob in 
the apiary. Such work should only be done late in the 
afternoon, when the bees have about quit flying. Honey in 
frames or sections, or on plates from the household table, 
should never be exposed where bees can get at it, as the 
least drop is liable to convey the disease to a healthy col- 
ony. After handling a diseased hive, the beekeeper should 
thoroughly wash his hands and the tools he has used to 
prevent diicase germs from being afterward carried to 
other hives. 

Prepare a hospital hive by taking any good, sound hive 
wiihout any cracks or openings except the entrance, through 
which the bees can escape. Make a frame of one by two 
inch sticks, to fit on the upper rim of the hive, and to be 
fastened with screws. Cover this frame with wire cloth on 
one side. 

At the proper time move the diseased hive off its stand, 
and set the hospital hive in its place. Put a cover over the 
wire cloth frame, but leave the entrance open. A few 
empty frames may be put into the hospital hive for the 
bees to cluster on, but they are not neces5ary. 

Now take the combs out of the diseased hive, one at a 
time, and brush every bee off in front of the hospital hive 
and let them run in, as in hiving a natural swarm. Set 
these combs into an empty box. When all the combs are 
out, brush the remaining bees out of the diseased hive, but 
be careful not to scatter any trash or bits of wax on the 
ground, and under no circumstances shake the bees off the 
combs, as new, thin honey, containing disease-germs, may 
bs spilled on the ground, and afterward sipped up by other 
bees. Carry the diseased hive, cloth, cover and box of 
combs to a safe place, where no bees can get at them. 

When all the bees have entered the hospital hive, close 
the entrance with a stick, so that none can get out. Raise 
the cover over the wire cloth, so that they can get air, but 
still be shaded from the sun during the daytime. 

Then prepare the following mixture: Salicylic acid and 
borax in equal parts. Dissolve four heaping teaspoonfuls 
of this mixture and two teaspoonfuls of salt in a pint of wa- 
ter. Shake occasionally, until most of it is dissolved, 
which will take several hours. For this reason, the mixture 
had better be prepared beforehand. Saturate a sponge, 
the size of a man's hand, with this solution, and lay the 
spon^ie a it on the wire cloth, so that the bees can suck it. 
Saturate the sponge, but not sufficiently to drip, three or 
four times a day, for 48 hours. At the end of that time the 
bees will have consumed most of the honey they have had 
in their honey sacks when they were confined. Now, 
change them into a clean hive, supplied with frames and 
full sheets of comb foundation, bat give them no empty 
combs or combs of honey, in which they could deposit any 
disease germs. If any honey still remains in their hnney 
sacks, this will b; converted into wax, with whijh to build 
their new combs. As they have to make a new start, the 
best time is, therefore, when honev is coming in freely 

The hospital hive may now be used for another diseased 

The combs from the diseased hive are to be cut out of 
the frames and melted up. The wax will be good for comb 
foundation or other purposes. Bringing the honey to the 
boiling point will destroy the disease germs contained 
therein, but care must be taken that the honey does not get 
scorched. The work must of course be done indoors, 
where no bees can get at the combs or honey. The frames, 
cloth and refuse must be burned up; also everything that 
can be scraped off from the inside of the hive and under 
side of the cover. Finally, the hive and cover should be 
boiled in clean water. If a vessel large enough for the 
purpose is not obtainable, the hive and cover may b( 

i charred by burning shavings, straw or brush in and aroun 
them. As soon as they are thoroughly charred, throw w/ 
ter on them to extinguish the fire. But as disease geri 


f AClFie I^URAb f RESS. 

JcLT 9, 1892 

may be lodged in the joints of the hive where the fire can- 
not reach, boiling is the safest. . , , . 

It is advisable to leave the hive unoccupied and exposed 
to all kinds of weather for at least a year, when the charred 
surface may be scraped off and the hive may then again be 
used without any danger of contagion. 

As long as any foulbrood remains in the apiary or m the 
neighborhood within flying distance there is always danger 
of the disease breaking out again It is therefore of the 
greatest importance, that when foulbrood is known to exist 
in any locality, a thorough examination be made of all col- 
onies and that wherever the least symotom of the disease 
be found, a thorough cure be effected as soon as possible. 

A beekeeper who handles foulbrood cannot be too cau- 
tious in regard to spreading the disease. Before going to 
any other place where bees are kept, he should not only 
wash himself but also change his clothes, which be has 
been wearing in the apiary. Foulbrood is suspected to 
have been conveyed through the mails in letters written 
with hands unwashed after handling diseased hives ; and 
it is regarded as an almost criminal ofifenseto send samples 
of foulbrood through the mails, or to bring such to another 
apiary for inspection. A beekeeper who is conversant 
with ihe disease can tell just as well from a general descrip- 
tion, whether a suspected case is foulbrood or not, as if he 
personally examined the combs. By beekeepers unfamil- 
iar wi h the disease, chilled brood which is of common oc- 
currence in early spring, is often mistaken for foulbrood. 
But chilled brood occasions nothing but a temporary incon- 
venience to the bees, and will be cleaned out by them with- 
out causing any further trouble. — Wm. Muth-Rasmussen, 
in Inyo Register. 


Delaine-Merino Sheep. 

The distinction made between the common fine wool 
Merino sheep and the Delaine is one of importance to 
those engaged in the line especially of fleece production. 
A correspondent of the 0/tio Farmer says that in writing 
an article on this valuable breed of sheep, I wish to tell, 
first, why their wool is more valuable and quoted higher 
than ordinary fine wool. First, the protection given to 
worsted goods by the tariff of 1867, aided by the enterprise 
of an eminent manufacturer, Mr. E. R. Mudge of Boston, 
resulted in planting in this country a branch of textile in- 
dustry until then unknown; to wit, that of combing, spin- 
ning and weaving into fine worsted goods our fine combing 
and delaine wools. This new process of combing instead 
of carding is one in which the fibers or strands of wool are 
laid parallel with each other and spun at full length in 
yarn, thus getting all the strength of the fiber. It is there- 
by susceptible of being made the finest as well as the 
strongest and most durable of any other fabric of woolen 
production. There is no class of wool now produced that 
will yield a better return to the husbandman than the fine 
delaine wool. We are fully aware that the class of goods 
now manufactured from delaine wool is very fashionable, 
and that fashion increases the demand for the time being 
for the fashionable article that at other times would not 
exist; yet, aside from this, their comfortable and durable 
wearing qualities are so superior that no change of fashion 
will materially decrease the demand for such goods. 

Textile fabrics from this class of wool can be made very 
firm and yet very strong, so that they can be worn in 
southern climates, even for ladies, where but a few years 
ago there were little or no woolen goods worn. If this 
class of goods is so valuable, then the wool necessary to 
produce them must be in demand and bring good prices. 
But what are the qualities peculiar to delaine wool, by 
which it is alone suitable for the manufacture of this 
superior class of goods? Since this class of wool has be- 
come so popular, many breeders call their wool delaine. 
All is not gold that glitters, neither is it all delaine wool 
that is called such. It is not every fleece with a fiber three 
inches long that deserves the name of delaine. There are ' 
certain conditions, such as healthy, strong-constitutioned 
sheep, uniform care and feeding, length and uniform 
strength and fineness of fiber, that are essential requisites 
to a good delaine fleece. The fiber should be at shearing 
time from two and one-half to three inches long, with 
white, well-distributed oil, enough to protect the wool, but 
not enough to form a black coating or crust on the outer 
ends of the wool that will not wash oflf, but remains to be 
broken off in the manufacture, or if not, will form a brittle 
place in the yarn and destroy it for spinning purposes. It 
must be a compact fleece, not loose and stringy, or else a 
long, brittle top will form on the fiber, which destroys its 
combing qualities. 

A compact fleece also protects the animal from cold and 
wet. If the animal is chilled, even for a time, the fleece is 
destroyed for delaine purposes. The conditions for a good 
fleece of delaine wool are: A large, healthy, strong sheep, 
dark (not black) top, not an excess of oil, a long, strong 
fiber, ihe sheep always well cared for and in good condi- 
tion. But sheep are kept for a twofold purpose — for wool 
and mutton. To combine the two qualities in their greatest 
development in the same anjmal is conceded to be a phys- 
ical impossibility, yet the nearest approach to such results 
would certainly be a model as well as a most profitable 
sheep. The Merino is conceded to be the best wool-pro- 
ducing sheep, but is it a success as a mutton producer ? If 
it is, then it becomes the more important and desirable. 
On this point, we claim for the Delaine-Merino mutton, 
equal quality to any other. The correlation which always 
exists in the different parts of the same animal is evidence 
that the finer the fiber of the wool the finer the fiber of 
muscle or flesh. 

MtJTTON VS. Wool.— The culture of the special wool 
crop has cost the American farmers millions of money. 

There is five times as much profit in the mutton as in the 
fleece. A sheep may be fed for one-seventh of the food 
that an ox requires, and will make a growth of nearly »hree- 
quarters of a pound a day for the first 280 days of its life, 
when it becomes excellent mutton. For 600 days it will 
make nearly half a pound a day. Such sheep will easily 
net six cents a pound at the farm. But such sheep, too, 
having a large carcass, will have a large fleece in propor- 
tion. So the income from it will be large in both ways. 
There is nothing shadowy about this kind of sheep, but 
strange to say, in pursuit of the most transparent shadow 
referred to, this substance is lost. — Rural World. 

Sheep Shearing by Machinery. — An interesting ex- 
hibition was held at the warehouse of L. A. Watkins at 
Denver, on the 6th instant, when two sheep shearing ma- 
chines, manufactured by Bergen &. Ball, of Sheflield, Eng- 
land, were tried upon a variety of sheep, ranging from the 
most wrinkled Merino ewe to thoroughbred Shropshire. In 
every case the work done was first-class, and astonished 
most of the spectators, who were representative sheep men 
from New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming. J. D. Wood- 
ruff, a large sheep owner of Lander, Wyo., kindly assisted 
the exhibition by shearing several to satisfy himself of the 
practical utility of the machine. Never having seen the 
machine before, he could not be called an expert, but the 
first sheep was sheared in 12 minutes, and a better job was 
never seen. Professor Quick, of the Agricultural College at 
Fort Collins, also sheared some and expressed himself as 
very much pleased with the easy and clean way the machine 
did the work. Mr. Watkins had received a cablegram from 
the manufacturers requesting him to postpone the exhibition, 
as they had shipped 25 improved machines recently, but 
the work done with the two on exhibition was sufficient to 
demonstrate that in the near future they will be generally 
used on all large ranches. It is next to impossible to cut 
the sheep, and fully a pound more wool is taken off than by 
hand from heavy-shearing sheep. 

The Upgrade. — The upgrade of sheep and the dairy 
has been attained on the line of the improved breeds. The 
hogs, too have been quite universally improved, and scrubs 
have given place to high grades and full bloods of the vari- 
ous improved breeds. Cattle and horses must follow the 
established law of improvement, and when farmers learn 
the necessity of breeding to only pure-bred bulls and stal- 
lions, they will then insure the success of stock-raising on 
the farm. The grade sire of any and every kind is a de- 
lusion, and a sire as the father of scrubs is a step backward 
from full blood sires. 

The Dairy Industry In the West. 

New industries come into a country as the tides rise on 
the shore. There is a great wave which scatters itself on 
the rocks and then flows backward. The next wave breaks 
higher, and has less of a reflux. On the whole, however, 
there is a marked and substantial advance. It is in the 
memory of all middle-aged farmers when the butter product 
west of the Mississippi was rated as grease, and sold at 
grease prices. Then came the discovery to the butter-eat- 
ing world that the Iowa product was greasy or golden, at 
the will of the maker, and the dairy industry at once took 
the form of a boom. The next decided move was the in- 
troduction of the creamery inch and the gathered cream 
system. Creameries sprung up over nearly alf the States, 
and often far in advance of the dairy conditions. The 
grains were there, and in some cases the improved grasses, 
but a dairy population and dairy cows were wanting, hence 
many of these ventures were failures, frost-bitten blossoms 
and worm-eaten apples, which fell with the first wind, to 
the great relief of the proprietors. The raising of grains 
and the growing of cattle, horses and hogs was too profit- 
able to induce men who were not reared on cows' milk and 
broken into the cow's way in their youth, to learn how to be 
on good terms with the dairy cow, and for a time the dairy 
interests were driven back from a large part of a natural 
dairy region. One of the great sources of grief and loss in 
these early ventures, was the fact that no way had yet been 
found of giving full value to the farmer who kept his own 
good cows, fed them well and took good care of the milk. 
Milk was sold like butter in the middle ages of the West, at 
the same price. Then came the separator, which made 
whole milk creameries on a large scale possible, the milk 
test, which enabled the creamery to distinguish between the 
blue milk and the jich, to get even with the pump if it put 
its snoot in the milk can, and finally the baby separator, 
which enables the dairyman with 20 cows or more, to milk, 
cream it and feed the skim milk to the calves as a morning 
chore, and saves him the space, with all that means, in his 
spring house. He has milked his cows, taken off the 
cream and put his skimmed milk in the best market for it — 
the calves' stomach — in the best condition, and needs but a 
small tank to take care of his cream. All these are marked 
steps in dairy progress. Meanwhile other changes of 
scarcely less importance has been going on. The low price 
of cattle and the high price of land have been forcing on the 
attention of the farmer this fact, that he cannot afford to 
board the ordinary cow a year for the chance of a calf. He 
must have something more than this, or find something 
besides cattle to eat his grass. To many men this is a 
most unwelcome view. They have perhaps been unfortu- 
nately raised to view milking as women's work. 

They have never been inducted into the mysteries of 
feeding the calf, or, if they have, in the small way that 
tends to make a man disgusted with the business. It is 
not a pleasant thing for a man whose education has been 
away from the dairy to come down to pulling teats and 
feeding calves, but we are afraid that thousands will come 

to it, or do worse. When land gets up to a certain price, 
and has a certain rental value, the calf ceases to do the 
milking. Look eastward in any State, and see if this is not 
true as gospel. Why should it not be equally true in the 
West ? Fortunately, butter-making and the management 
of cows is fast becoming a science. Farmers are learning 
how to organize creameries, and young men are choosing 
butter-making as a profession, and it will soon be possible 
to conduct creameries on a far less margin than in the 
past. The farmer will get a larger share of the proceeds, 
and when even the grain grower and the cattle feeder see 
that it will pay, they will be ready to enter the dairy king- 
dom as a little child, for the money that is in it. It would 
not surprise us if some of these new converts to dairying 
should surpass others who would not be happy unless they 
had ten cows to milk morning and evening. They will 
have nothing to forget, and will enter upon the study of 
dairy problems as a lawyer enters upon the study of a case 
at the bar. 

They will test the milk of each cow, and quickly reject 
the unprofitable servant. They will bring to the subject of 
dairying their knowledge of breeding and feeding. In fact, 
the greatest improvement possible, as we see it, in the dairy 
business, is to make ten cows, with ten cow's cost and ten 
cows' keep, bring the profit that twenty do now. That this 
is clearly possible is manifest from the fact that it has been 
done over and over again, and is being done to-day. Here- 
tofore, there were no means of ascertaining, short of 
churning each cow's milk by itself, which was the dead 
beat border at the bovine table. The milk test settles that 
for every man that will apply it. There are men who are 
going into the business that will apply the test. Then will 
come the science of breeding for milk, as yet applied to but 
three or four breeds, but which will in time be applied to 
many others. Then comes another question— whether the 
test will give the honest cheese value. There is a world of 
knowledge yet to be discovered about the cow, her milk, 
her ancestry and her posterity. There is plenty of room 
for the breeder, the feeder, the butter maker, the cheese 
maker and the scientist to distinguish themselves. The 
agricultural mind of the West is observing the cow, study- 
ing her possibilities. Formerly, farmers who were in the 
mire of debt were wont to get a good grip on the cow's tail 
in order to be pulled out. They are observing her teats 
now, and will in due time get a fourfold grip. The me- 
chanics are studying how to get out the cream, the agri- 
cultural colleges are teaching the boys how to churn it, the 
bacteriologists are telling us all about the inhabitants of 
the milk can, the chemists are telling us all about the ra- 
tions for the cow, the breeders are applying the laws of in- 
heritance, and the farmer is " all ears " to hear what true 
things these men say and what wise things they may do. 
From all ihese he may get wisdom, and will apply it to the 
increase of his own bank account and the glory of the 
cow. — Western Farm Journal. 

Points of a Good Hog. 

There is not uniformity enough in the variety of breeds 
of hogs reared in the West to warrant a correct description 
of them under one general head; however, we think that a 
few remarks or indications would not be out of place, per- 
tinent to what a hog of any breed should be to deserve the 
qualification, "good." 

First of all there should be sufficient depth of carcass, 
and such an elongation of body as to insure a good lateral 
expansion. The loins and chest should be broad. The 
breadth of the chest denotes sufficient room for the heart 
and for a good play of the lungs, and the consequent free 
and healthy circulation of the blood, essential to the thriv- 
ing or fattening of any animal. 

All bones ought to be firm and small, and the joints fine. 
Nothing is more indicative of high-breeding than this. 
The limbs of a first-class hog ought to be no longer, than, 
when fully fat, would prevent the animal's body from trail- 
ing on the ground. I'he leg is the least profitable part of 
a hog, and we require no more than is absolutely neces- 
sary for moving about. 

The feet should be firm and sound, the toes lying well 
together, and pressing tightly upon the ground, and the 
claws — even, upright and healthy. 

Many think that the head is of little or no consequence, 
and that a good hog may have an ugly head; but I regard 
the head of all animals (as of all men) as one of the prin- 
cipal points in which pure and impure breeding will be ob- 
viously indicated. 

A high-bred animal will arrive more speedily at maturity, 
will turn out more profitable than one of questionable or 
impure stock; and such being the case, I consider that the 
head of the hog is by no means a point to be overlooked 
by the purchaser. The description of a head most likely 
to promise, or be the concomitant of high breeding, is one 
not carrying heavy bone, not too flat on the forehead, or 
possessing too long a snout. The snout should be short, 
and the forehead rather convex, curving upward; and the 
ear should be, while pendulous, inclining somewhat for- 
ward, and at the same time light and thin. In a word, 
the good hog must be an aristocrat, which means nothing 
more than lightness with strength of bone and suppleness 
of body. 

Nor should the buyer pass even the carriage of a pig. 
Hi: be dull, heavy and dejected, reject him on suspicion of 
ill health, if not of some concealed disorder, actually exist- 
ing or just about to break forth; and, attention, farmers; 
there cannot be a more unfortunate sympton than a hang- 
down, slouching head. Of course a fat hog ready for the 
shambles, or a sow heavy with young, has not much 
sprightliness of deportment. 

If hogs, such as the description portrays, were reared, 
no matter of what grade or breed, an immense profit would 
accrue to the farmer who is interested enough to note 

Jdlt 9 1892. 


these few indications. — Perry Warren Davenport in Prairie 

Transfers of Berkshires. — Jno. G. Springer, Secre- 
tary American Berkshire Association, Springfield, III, 
sends the following transfers of recorded Berkshires in 
California: Solano 27752, Sonoma 27753 and Belted 
Cruiser of Eden I. 27751, Henry P. Mohr, Mount Eden, 
Cal., to J. C. Penke, Mount, Eden Cal. Our Dick 27781 
and Charmer's Duke 27767, Byron D. Brown, Nelson, 
Neb., to John H. Temple, Puente, Cal. Lynwood Fancy 
27744, Lynwood Dennis 27743 and Lynwood Dottie 27430, 
Sessions & Bigelow, Los Angeles, Cal., to Sessions & Co., 
Los Angeles Cal. Mayday 27766, Mayfield 27765, Rayle 
27764, Dayle 27763, Dinah 27762, Cora 26506, Sallie XX. 
26504, Orima Donna 24437, Model Lass 24432, Model 
Sallie 24220, Cape Flower II. 24218, Redwood Charmer 
24216, Royal Beauty XXVIII. 21630, Redwood Sallie IX. 
21044, Perfection 21042 and Minerva 21041, estate of 
Andrew Smith, Redwood City, Cal., to Alfred Seale, May- 
field, Cal. Model Queen 24428, estate of Andrew Smith 
to Henry P. Mohr, Mt. Eden, Cal. 

How TO Make Lean Pork. — It is cheaper to produce 
meat that contains a large proportion of lean with the fat, 
than to fatten the hog to such a condition as to fit it only 
for the production of lard, and it is a fact that by feeding 
for lean meat a greater weight of carcass is secured, and at 
no more expense than in producing an excess of fat. This 
is explained by reason of the fact that when an animal is 
given food containing the elements of growth of bone and 
muscle as well as fat, the condition of the animal is sus- 
tained in a manner to permit more perfect digestion and 
assimilation, and a greater proportion for the support of 
the system of the nutritious elements that are required, and 
which are more evenly distributed through the body, in- 
stead of the semidiseased condition produced when corn is 
given as an exclusive diet. Hence the farmer who dimin- 
ishes the ration of maize, allowing but a portion only — sub- 
stitutig therefor bran, middlings, milk and clover cut fine 
and scalded — will have his hogs larger, heavier, healthier, 
and of a better quality of flesh than from corn. While 
giving the advantages of a systematic method of feeding for 
the best results in producing the heaviest pork, the fact that 
prime lard brings a price that makes it desirable on the 
part of the farmer to have his hogs fat, it must be admitted, 
is a serious obstacle in the way when lean meat is advo- 
cated, but the lean is simply interspersed with the fat, and 
the greater increase from the variety of food does not di- 
minish the supply of lard. The frrmer will find that in 
those portions of the carcass from which the lard is pro- 
duced, but little difference will be observed, and the hog 
will be much more valuable as a whole. — Ex. 

She ]E{iEbi3. 

Yolo County Fruits and Farms. 

Woodland, June 25. 

To THE Editor: While Woodland, Winters and Davis- 
ville have long been the chief fruit growing centers in Yolo 
county, and will doubtless remain so in great measure, they 
will not be the only ones. Within the past two or three 
years localities which had been considered unadapted to 
much else but agriculture have shown large orchard and 
vineyard acreage. 

Winters was shipping fruit East a month ago, and the 
apricot and early peach harvest is about completed. A 
section that is bidding fair to rival Winters, and for which 
even more is claimed, though just where and why is not 
always evident, is Capay Valley. It certainly has temper- 
ature enough, as during four days of this week the thermem- 
eter registered above 100°, reiching 112° on Sunday, at 
the head of the valley. But a little thing as that is consid- 
ered no drawback, and we hear expression of great hopes 
for this valley. 

Like many other sections of this State, Capay valley 
owes its development ingreat part to the railroad Co., which 
secured some six thousand acres of the best land in the 
valley at an average of $40 an acre; built their road, and 
then, with their usual magnanimity, dispensed it to needy 
colonists in 10 and 20-acre doses, and even larger, at an 
average of $150 an acre. 

The pioneer in the fruit industry in the valley is W. B. 
Still, of Guinda, who has 76 acres of 4-year old apricots 
and peaches. This year he expects to ship about 8000 
boxes. What the actual capacities of the valley are in this 
line it is impossible to say. The industry here, as else- 
where, is considered an experiment, and the trees are still 
too young to bear their earliest. Some two thousand acres 
have been planted in orchards within the past two years. 
The soil seems splendidly adapted to rapid growth. The 
finest development the writer has seen anywhere was in the 
young orchard of Mr. G. W. Woodbury, of Guinda. This 
gentleman has about 30 acres set to apricots, peaches and 
almonds. The trees are but yearlings, yet they have a 
stock in nearly all instances of two inches and over, a cor- 
responding height, and heavy foliage. This extraordinary 
growth is owing to the rich character of the soil. It is the 
heavy sediment bordering Cache Creek. Mr. Woodbury 
claims to have discovered a black scale pest preying upon 
his potato vines and other vegetables that has not hitherto 
been seen in the valley. 

Five miles below Guinda and ten above Capay is the 
Tancred Colony, composed of 500 acres or more of young 
orchard and vineyard. Here all is owned and worked on 
the cooperative plan. All property owners in the colony 
are shareholders in the company. Those who have hold- 
ings but live in the city or elsewhere pay certain fixed as- 
sessments to have their properties worked. Those who 

live in the colony and cannot secure a living at present on 
their own small place work on the other lands of the col- 
ony and are paid from the funds provided for such pur- 
poses. E. W. Hammon is superintendent. 

Many other orchardists of the valley might be mentioned, 
as Messrs. Sprouhl and Sharpe of S. F., who have a young 
orchard and vineyard near Guinda under the charge of G. 
W. Kneeland. Samuel Allen has a fine almond orchard 
near Tancred. 


Is another locality that promises to become a prominent 
fruit center, as several orchards have been set out within 
the past two or three years. The most extensive of these 
is the Yolo Orchard, as it is called, which is owned by a 
Woodland syndicate and comprises two hundred or more 
acres. E. C. Zane is superintendent. Among others who 
have gone into the business on a less ambitious but still 
promising scale are Messrs. W. T. Akers, O. Plantz and 
W. F. Hayden. 

W. J. Reid of Dunnigan has set out several small 
orchards and vineyards, which give promise of success. 
However, all who are now rushing into tl.e business con- 
sider it but a speculation, or at best an experiment, and 
occasionally one meets a grower, long in the business, who 
has had enough, and pronounces fruit-raising a lo-^ing 
proposition. They give two reasons — rates of transporta- 
tion and commission men. As an old gentleman remarked 
a few days ago, " There is only one thing possibly worse 
than these, and that's the grasshopper. He takes every- 
thing, and offers no apology either." 

Woodland and Danville will ship considerable quantities 
of fruit, though more in the dried state than heretofore, as 
the profit on this class is generally better than on fresh 
fruit. The fruit crop here, however, as everywhere, is light, 
and the only hope many of the growers have, is better 
prices than have ruled the past season. 

Mrs. G. G. Briggs, who has large vineyards at Woodland 
and Davisville, is one who does not take an optimistic 
view of the fruit situation. On 63,000 boxes of raisins 
shipped last year, she lost on every box. There are many 
other producers who still have their last season's crop 
awaiting a market. 

general farming. 

Harvesting is in general progress throughout the county. 
In some places, as about Danville, the farmers were through 
a week ago, while in other parts, particularly on the tule, 
the grain has not ripened sufficiently. 

The prospects of a generally large crop are good. There 
were fears of continued north winds, but the grain has met 
with no serious drawback. In many places on the high 
lands wheat will run as high as 15 or 16 sacks to the acre. 
The farmers, however, are but little more encouraged than 
the fruit men. Many are contractingitheir wheat now at 
$1.30 — equivalent to $1.40 delivered at Port Costa — fearing 
even lower prices later in the season. 

Those who have tule lands are the most jubilant, for 
promises of a tremendous crop are now assured. This is 
the first year in four that floods have not covtred these 
rich lands and either prevented the planting of the grain or 
destroyed the crop just as it was ready for harvest. " Re- 
clamation district 108 " extends from Knight's Landing 
north a distance of 30 miles and comprises 68,000 acres. 
With the exception of two 8o acre plots on the border, 
every foot is in wheat, which will yield from 10 to 30 sacks 
to the acre, and the average, according to good authority, 
at least 15 sacks. 

Harvesting will begin this week on many of the great 
farms. There are nine harvesters at work on the Curtis 
place alone. With such possibilities, there is no surprise 
that the owners of these lands should consider feasible a 
$750,000 canal to intercept the foothill waters that have 
prevented crops in past seasons. It is intended to run this 
canal along the west border of the tule. It will be over 30 
miles in length, 600 feet wide, and have a mean depth of 
eight feet. Surveyors are at present running preliminary 
lines. When these tale-land farmers consider they have 
lost sufficient in the past three years to build six such 
canals, and, as it is, seem only assured of one crop in four, 
they may well take half their present crop and put it into 
the project. There seems general unanimity regarding the 
scheme and strong hopes that it will be a success. 

C. E. T. 

Killing Morning-Glory. 

Saticov, Ventura Co., June 28, 1892. 

To THE Editor. — The article quoted in your last issue 
from a Hueneme correspondent on the subject of killing 
morning-glory is the first practical treatise I have seen 
concerning this dreaded pest and its extinction. The 
question seems to be generally avoided by correspondents 
presumably because they fear a discussion thereon would 
unpleasantly advertise their localities. As the pest is quite 
widely distributed throughout the State, this is certainly a 
mistaken sentiment. If people do nothing and say 
nothing concerning this formidable trespasser, fearing to de- 
tract from the value of their property, it will not be long 
before their fair lands will have little value to sustain. 

Endorsing all that the Hueneme correspondent has said, 
it seems to me he neglects one phase of the subject. 
There is, doubtless, no question as to the efficacy of con- 
stant cultivation or "smothering" as a means of extermina- 
tion, and on patches not exceeding a few acres in extent, 
the plan may be practical, but in fields of several hundred 
acres, where almost each individual acre is infested with 
varying degrees of hopelessness, the expense of such cultiva- 
tion and more especially the loss entailed by two or three 
years idleness of the land, places the remedy out of the 
reach of any but millionaires. Even should the plan be 
followed, the expense and loss mentioned would place a 
value on the land entirely out of proportion to its real 
worth for raising any ordinary crop after the pest is eradi- 

Many people in this vicinity have adopted the following 

system, which is entirely practical, subjects the owner to ii^ 
loss, removes the pest, and doubles or quadruples the actual 
value of the soil. The land is set out to fruit trees (pref- 
erably English walnuts, as they are planted far apart and 
give plenty of room for work) and beans or other hoed 
crops are raised between the trees until the latter are bear- 
ing profitably. Hoed crops do reasonably well, even in 
thick patches of morning-glory, necessitating only thorough 
cultivating and hoeing every few weeks until the crop is 
harvested, which, in the case of beans, is about three 
months from the time of planting. Very thick patches can 
be kept cultivated clean with a weed knife to avoid the 
trouble and expense of hoeing, and still not interfere with 
the crop as a whole. This summer cultivation and the shade 
of the bean vines seem to recompense for the draft made 
upon the moisture, and if the ground surrounding the 
trees for several feet be kept clean, the latter need not suf- 
fer materially. The number of bean rows between the 
trees is diminished year by year as the trees become larger. 
The number of crops raised this way depends, of course, 
upon the kind of fruit, apricots, apples, etc., bearing much 
earlier than walnuts. 

Now, when the trees are bearing profitably, the "smoth- 
ering " process can begin and continue, with no attending 
loss, until the pest is eradicated, the repeated cultivations 
being alike a boon to the trees and destruction to the 
morning-glory. When this desired condition has been 
reached, the owner will have a property which, however 
skeptical he may be concerning the profit of fruit culture, 
will be vastly higher in the market than his unimproved 
land, even if he had no morning-glory to contend with. 
Judicious interculture is quite generally followed, in this 
vicinity, to tide over the first few years until the orchard 
will pay its way, and the trees do not suffer perceptibly as 
a consequence. An exception would have to be made in 
the case of grains, which, not admitting of summer culti- 
vation, dry out the soil to the detriment of the trees. I 
have never, however, seen such a practice followed. 

Now, there has been no break in the receipts from the 
land, and the morning glory is killed, when, if the owner 
should imagine that other crops would pay better than his 
orchard, he can dig it out (the wood paying for the cost of 
clearing) and still be far ahead in the operation. His land 
will be clean and greatly strengthened by the change, when, 
if he had done nothing, the pest would be growing each 
year more formidable. 

But in the favored land of California, who will say that 
fruit is less profitable than any agricultural staple, and if 
the obnoxious morning-glory will thus add to the acreage 
of orchards, may it not, after all, like most of our afflic- 
tions, prove a blessing in disguise ? H. F. Clark. 

World's Fair Notes. 

The Kern County World's Fair Association has appointed 
a board of lady managers for the county. 

An effort is being made to prepare a facsimile of the 
San Luis Rey Mission, which is the finest and most exten- 
sive one in southern California, to be set up at Chicago. 

On June 14th, the Humboldt County World's Fair As- 
sociation was formed at Rohnerville. A. P. Campton was 
elected president, and D. E. Gordan secretary, both of 

C. M. Wells, president of the Los Angeles County 
World's Fair Association, is quoted as saying that the 
women of that county are taking more interest in World's 
Fair work than men, outside of the Executive Committee. 

On June nth, a meeting of the .Shasta Countv World's 
Fair Association was held at Yuba City, and an Executive 
Committee of seven members was elected. Glass jars of 
different shapes and sizes, to the number of 240 were or- 

The Santa Rosa School, at De Luz, San Diego county, 
has prepared 50 beautiful specimens of wild flowers and 
ferns, neatly mounted on white cardboard. Commit- 
tees have been organized among the children to continue 
the collection during the summer. 

The Fresno County World's Fair Association reports 
that good success is following efforts to obtain excellent 
samples of wheat, barley, rye and oats for a World's Fair 
exhibit. The association will be ready to begin on fruit 
and other products in due season^ 

On June 20th, the supervisors of Orange county decided, 
for the present, to appropriate one-ninth as much money as 
Los Angeles county will appropriate for a World's Fair 
exhibit. As the latter county will appropriate $40,000, the 
appropriation by Orange county will therefore be about 

The Alameda County World's Fair Association is having 
prepared an illustrated album of Alameda County, to be 
used at]the Exposition next year to assist in advertising the 
resources of the county. The printed matter accompanying 
the album will be both descriptive and statistical. 

R. H. Young, secretary of the San Diego County World's 
Fair Association, has forwarded to the State Commission 
for indorsement, applications from 37 different residents of 
San Diego county for a total of 4820 square feet of exhibit- 
ing space in the different department buildings at Chicago. 

A public spirited resident of .Siskiyou County has sent a 
communication to the Yreka Telegram, stating that as the 
California Commission has decided to maintain a restau- 
rant and cafe in the State Building at Chicago, Siskiyou 
County should endeavor to furnish therefor butter, ham, 
bacon, eggs, etc., to show the superiority of the county's 
products in that line. 

A design submitted by Miss Rose Brier of Oakland, Cal., 
for a panel for the Woman's Building at Chicago, has been 
approved by the National Board of Lady Managers, and 
Miss Brier has been given an order to execute the work. 
The panel is of conventional design on the Italian Renais- 
sance style, of which the Eschscholizia, or California poppy 
is the central figure. 


f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 

Jolt 9 1892 

IIIhE JiojVlE QlReisE. 

In the Orohird. 

I.3zy, languid shadows stretch across the orchard 
Krass. ., , , 

And warm and blushing snowflikes drift downward 
as I pass; „ . 

The robins whistle blithely, white butterflies float 

One fleecy cloud has lost its way in the soft blue of 
the slcy~' 
And the spring is in my thought. 

I^ight streams down through pale green leaves that 

whisper in the breeze; 
Deep in the heart of blossoms lurk drowsy, droning 


The willows bend down slender leaves and dip them 

in the stream; 
The day floats by on fragrant wings like a sunny, 
golden dream — 
And the spring is in my heart. 

Happy birds through languorous air now tell their 

secrets sweet; 
Clover leaves and lender grass are thick beneath my 

feet; .. , 

Sunshine lights my baby's hair as at my side he 


His treasure trove of dandelions in tiny, tight shut 
hand — 
And the spring is in my life ! 

—Virginia Franklyn in Harper's Bazar. 

A Summer Love. 

Written for the Ri kai. Press by Kate Masters. 

A foggy morning at Santa Cruz. The sea 
looks oily and calm; the fishermen's boats 
tied to, or anchored near the wharf, scarcely 
move on the tranquil waters, and the peli- 
cans on the island rock near Phelan park 
ruffle up their feathers and try to think it is 

An hour later the fog has lifted and lies 
like a white curtain half way across the now 
sparkling waters of the bay. The beach be- 
gins to look like business; that is, the chil- 
dren and nurses are arriving. The children, 
happy and wild as colts; barelegged, sun- 
burned and happy. Some in laces and 
finery playing with little strangers in cotton, 
while the French {?) nurses gossip and chat 
with each other to the perfect satisfaction of 
their charges. 

In another hour the swells have arrived 
and the idlers are watching for the rival 
belles and beaux to take their morning 

Among the gayly dressed ladies on the 
wide porch of the bathhouse a young girl 
appears. She seems quite alone, and walks 
to the top of the steps and looks out at the 
water as if to judge if it is tempting enough 
for a swim. 

She is slight, tall and very pretty, and has 
a quiet sort of dignity particularly noticeable 
among the noisy, chattering girls around 

As she turns to go into the bathhouse she 
takes one glance around the sands. Her 
blue eyes show surprise for a moment. The 
expressive face is full of pain, as the dark 
lashes sweep down over her eyes as if to 
hide what she could not bear to see. 

"He said he did not know her," she is 

Her glance again strays to where a young 
man is laughing and talking to a very hand- 
some woman. More than handsome, and 
he, too, is good to look upon, with curly 
hair, clear-cut features and the bold, blue 
eyes that women adore. He is probably 
twenty-six or seven years of age, while the 
beauty by his side is perhaps older. 

They are only flirting. What else can it 
be ? They have only known each other 
since the night before. 

He turns and sees the girl he really loves 
and his first impulse is to excuse himself 
and go to her, but then he thinks, why 
should he not devote just one morning to 
the belle o.' the beach ? He feels certain she 
is quite taken with him already and so he 
stays, and Helen looking straight at him a 
moment, smiles scornfully, then goes to get 
ready for her swim with a sad and bitter 

They are not engaged, these two. He 
hasn't even made love to her. In fact, she 
is the only girl he knows that he hasn't 
flirted with. Why ? Because he loves her, 
he is afraid of her, afraid those blue eyes 
will flash in scorn, or, worse still, in laughter, 
instead of the soft, trustful glances she gives 
him now. 

Many admire the graceful figure as she 
plunges into the breakers, and none more 
than Frank Saunders' companion, who 
knows full well that he has been her devoted 
slave, but now — why, he is her own, of 
course; he pleases her and that is enough. 

That evening he meets Helen riding on 
Pacific avenue. She colors, but does not 
smile, only bows slightly. He feels hurt 
and tries to think she is rude, but knows in 
his heart he has oflfended her and how. 

For a week he does not see her at the 

beach, but enjoys himself in a way with the 
gay people at the hotel. One day a gay 
young matron invites him to a picnic at the 
Big Trees, promising him a jolly time. "And 
Mrs. Montgomery is going, too." Mrs. 
Montgomery is the lovely widow whom 
Frank is already supposed to be madly 
in love with, and not a few whisper that the 
widow is more than pleased with him. 

The next morning, at ii o'clock, a three- 
seated carriage, drawn by four prancing 
grays, leaves the hotel and is soon whirlitig 
along the wild mountain road to the Big 
Trees. Even Frank's frivolous soul is im- 
pressed with the grandeur of the scenery. 
The murmuring waters of the San Lorenzo, 
so far below; the gray rocks and the railroad 
above, and, finally, the great redwoods, tow- 
ering to meet the sky. 

After they have had their lunch and are 
lounging about, a young lady on horseback 
and a gentleman of tender years, in fact, 
only ten, gallop in the grove. The girl is 
Helen. She looks very pretty on horseback 
and rides with the easy grace of a horse- 

Some one notices her and says, "You 
know who that is, don't you, Mr. Saunders .'" 
with an arch look. Frank colors slightly 
and looks annoyed. 

It soon appeam that the hostess, who is a 
great friend of Helen's, had asked her to 
come, as she did not like Mrs. Montgomery 
and saw pretty well how things were going. 

At first her little scheme seems to have no 
effect, as they hardly notice each other. 
Frank still devotes himself to Mrs. Mont- 
gomery, while another young fellow of the 
party starts a mild flirtation with Helen. 
Bat, after a time, this rouses Frank and he 
manages, as they are all strolling about the 
grove, to get a few words with her. 

" Helen, what is the matter with you ? 
Are you angry with me ? " he says. 

" With you ! Why should I be angry ? " 
But she does not look at him. 

" But you are changed," protests Frank. 

" If I have vexed you, I think you might 
forgive me to-day, when I have not seen 
you for so long, won't you ? " 

She says, " I have nothing to forgive," 
yet looks into his face with the old look that 
makes his heart leap. 

" I will hope that you will grant me more; 
will you meet me this evening " 

She murmurs " Yes," and soon they sepa- 

It is a pet evening. Moonlight floods the 
bay and the breakers glint and glisten, their 
foamy crests almost ghastly in their un- 
natural whiteness. But it is not on the 
beach Frank meets his sweetheart. Out on 
the clifls, where the waves dash and roar 
continually, instead of breaking in placid 
monotony on the sands, he meets her. She 
is walking with her huge friend and almost 
constant companion, a dog named "Victor." 

Helen is the only daughter of an old gen- 
tleman in moderate circumstances. Fond 
and proud of his daughter, whose mother 
had died when she was a little chilld, but 
yet selfish and pleasure-seeking, he lets her 
have full liberty to find her own amusements. 
Had she been a different sort of a girl, it is 
hard to tell what troubles her independent 
spirit and perfect liberty of action might 
have got her into. As it is, her quiet dig- 
nity and perfect frankness with every one 
save her from the slightest breath of scandal. 

When they meet, these two, this summer 
evening, they only look in each other's eyes, 
and the old story of love is told and an- 
swered in their mute language. They turn 
and walk back— back in the direction she 
has come. His arm steals round her waist 
and he tells her all his love. But she — how 
can she begin to tell him all the devotion of 
that brave young heart ? Only the light in 
her soft dark eyes can tell, and he is not the 
man to read them. If he could, what trouble 
might have been saved for both of them. 

Three happy weeks have passed and they 
have been together every day. They have 
arranged to get married the next spring. 
To-day he has returned to the city, and 
Helen is left to dream over the past and 
look forward to the future. 

The autumn has come. The breakers are 
treacherous; sometimes mere ripples, the 
next nninute mountains high. October heat 
has ripened the grapes on the mountain 
sides, the dust is deep, the fogs of the sum- 
mer months have melted, and only the 
smoke from the forest fires darken the bluest 
of skies. Yet to-day the sea is angry in- 
deed. Now and then there is a few minutes 
calm, and some timid bathers venture to 
don their bathing-suits, only to come out 
and find the breakers worse than ever; but 
for very shame they find they must at least 
get wet, and timidly advance to meet the 
foe, who coolly doubles them heels over 
head and rolls them up the sand, to the very 
feet of the laughing spectators. 

Mrs. Montgomery is a swimmer, but a de- 

cidedly amateur one. She has not been in 
long before she finds that the breakers are 
too much for her. She tries for the raft, but 
soon feels she cannot reach it. She turns 
to come back. A mighty mountain of green 
water lifts her higher and higher, then sud- 
denly drops her, and presently the undertow 
is rushing her, as she thinks, far out to sea. 
She is a brave woman, but, in her exhausted 
condition, she loses her self-controf. She 
stops swimming and tries to call for help 
just as another great wave rushes over her 

Helen has just come into the water. She 
dives through two green walls of water, and, 
as she opens her eyes the second time, she 
notices the red cap of a lady farther out, 
floating on the water, while the lady herself 
has disappeared. Then she sees her rise to 
the surface on the crest of the next wave. 
She calls on her big dog, who is swimming 
beside her, and together they go to the res- 
cue. She knows there is a swimming 
teacheron the beach, but he cannot get there 
in time. She grasps the helpless woman on 
one side, while her brave dog catches the 
other, and they manage to keep her head 
out of the water. Then comes an awful 
struggle between them, as the poor woman 
tries to strangle them both; but Helen has 
had experience, and keeps well behind those 
clutching arms. But, even when she be- 
comes quieter, it is hard to keep her up. At 
last the swimming teacher reaches them, 
and Helen swims off to the raft as if noth- 
ing had happened. 

When Mrs. Montgomery recovers suffi- 
ciently to understand who her rescuer is, she 
insists on seeing her. She is quite affected 
when she does; insists on her accepting a 
handsome bracelet she wears, and says she 
must only mention anything she wants and 
it will be hers. But Helen only smiles and 
says: "All I wish from you is your friend- 
ship, for you are a very brave woman. As for 
me, I only did what I would have done for 
any one and am very glad I was able to do 
for you.'' 

Some time after this, Helen gets a letter 
from Frank, who has not written for at least 
a month. He writes: 

Afy Dear Helen: — When you get this, my mother 
will be in Santa Cruz. She is very anxious to see 
you, so I hope you will call on her as soon as you 
can, as she is not going to stay long. 

Then a few more lines and the letter 
closes. Helen feels there is something 

" So you are the fair Helen of whom I 
have heard so much!" says Mrs. Saunders 
when she meets her. She is a tall, dark- 
eyed, hard-mouthed woman; not at all like 
her son. 

After a few minutes ordinary conversation 
she says, " Well, dear, what I really wanted 
to see you about was Frank. I am so pleased 
to find you such a nice, sensible girl, for 
really, you know, I didn't expect it. Frank, 
you see, came home really quite mad about 
you, and was so very serious about it; but 
you, I know, will understand and sympathize 
with me when I tell you he is my only son 
and — well, you see he has to support us both, 
and really it is out of the question for him to 
marry at present; unless, of course, he could 
marry money, which I have reason to think 
he could, if it were not for the fact that he 
feels bound in honor to keep some sort of 
promise to you." 

Helen's face throughout this speech gets 
whiter and whiter. Then at last her cheeks 

This, then, is her sweetheart's mother 
cooly insulting her with smiling lips. 

She says, " Did your son send you down 
here to say this to me?" 

"Well, no! Not exactly. You see the poor 
boy is quite upset and worried about it, but 
I told him you would not consider it any- 
thing but a summer flirtation." 

Helen draws off her glove. I do not my 
he made any promise," she says, " but there 
is the ring he put on my finger, and I shall 
keep it there till he himself asks for it, or — " 
faltering, " till he is married to money. Then 
I will give it to him." 

Then she leaves the room. Neither of 
these women ever see each other again. 

Weeks pass. Helen will not write for a 
long time, hoping he will write first; but at 
length she can bear it no longer, and writes, 
telling him what his mother has said, and 
asking if he really wants to break the en- 
gagement to tell her so. " But," she adds, 
" I can hardly believe I have given my heart 
to the wrong man, and that yours only a 
summer love."' 

He does not answer her, and the strong 
young heart is half broken with the pain of 
suspicion. Then one day she sees in the 
paper the announcement of his marriage to 
Mrs. Montgomery. Then, God help her! 
Gone is her faith in men. The soft, kind 
mouth hardens, but who shall say her heart 
is broken. Not her friends, who find her 

far brighter and wittier than before, and one 
honest fellow's heart is filled with hope. 
Only her faithful dog has heard a complaint 
from her, or seen her bleeding heart. Once 
only, and then she had cried, " God forgive 
him! He did not know how I loved him, or 
surely he would not have done this cruel, 
cruel thing," and buried her face in bis 
shaggy coat. 

A bright, warm day in January. The tide 
is far out, and the hard, wide sands are a 
tempting place for a gallop. 

Two people are strolling along; a lady and 
gentleman; both handsome and happy look- 
ing. She says, "Now. Frank, aren't you 
glad we came here.' What could be more 
lovelier than this?" 

He does not answer. Down the beach he 
sees a slight, swaying figure on a bright, sor- 
rel horse, which seems mad with terror at 
the waves, at the shining sand, at the horse 
car and everything. Rearing, plunging, foam- 
flecked he comes toward them, his rider cool 
and firm, half-smiling at his mad antics. It 
is Helen. She is within a few yards ol them, 
when suddenly her eyes meet Frank's. She 
turns deathly white. The horse, feeling the 
firm hold on his bit relax, leaps wildly for- 
ward, and she, forgetting herself, gives a 
cruel jerk at the Spanish bit. 

Mad with pain, the sorrel rears up, up, till 
he falls over backward; over till the girl is 
crushed beneath him. Then he struggles to 
his feet and kicks at his helpless rider as she 
tries to rise. 

Frank's heart turns sick as he hears the 
iron hoof strike her breast. His wife screams, 
but there is no sound from the motionless 
form lying on the sand. When they try to 
raise her, she opens her eyes and says, 
" Please don't move me. It hurts so. It 
will soon be over." 

There is a thin stream of blood trickling 
from her mouth. Frank knows she is dying. 
She moan's, " It was not the horse's fault. 
Mine! All mine." Then, very faintly," Frank, 
pull off my glove.'' Wondering he does so. 
"Take off the ring." He shakes his head. 
" Yes, please." "Not now, Helen! I can't 

With great effort she draws off the little 
golden circle, which meant so much to her, 
and so little to him; and bands it to Mrs. 
Saunders and says, "Take it! He gave it to 
me because — because he thought — he would 
marry me — but now — !" 

"Frank, is this true?" cries his wife. 
"You told me there was no engagement; and 
she saved my life, and this is the way I have 
repaid her. Oh, you men! Will you never 
cease this cruel sport of breaking women's 

The dying girl lays her hand tenderly on 
Frank's bowed head and smiles bravely her 
old sweet smile. " He did not know or un- 
derstand how I loved him. But I am not 
sorry I loved him so, because I am going 
away. Then she turns to look at her poor 
dog, who is lying with his great head on her 
arm, watching her face with sad brown eyes. 
Blue eyes dim with the shadow of death look 
into his. She smiles her last brave smile. 
" Good bye, old fellow," she whispers, " We 
will meet again, never fear." 

Frank, whose face is buried in his hands, 
hears the dog give one piteous cry. He 
cries " Helen forgive me!" But his summer 
love is dead. 

Name-Sickness a Common Complaint 
among Brides. 

"It's an old trick of the trade with the 
novelists to tell bow young women when in 
love never fail at a certain juncture to double 
lock theit room doors, and with many flushes 
and heart-beatings write down their Chris- 
tian name coupled with the surname of the 
man whom they have promised or hope to 
marry," commented a young married woman 
lately wedded to a fine man of her choice, 
says the Illustrated American 

" I suppose it is the way with many senti- 
mental girls, though I never did it myself; 
instead, I underwent a very different emo- 
tion, of which I don't think men have any 
comprehension, but which I find is not pe- 
culiar in my case. I mean grief of having 
to give up one's maiden name. 

"All the time I was engaged I never took 
any thought for the day on which I was to 
drop my own nice surname and title, for 
which I had such a deep affection, and be 
addressed by my family, my friends, and 
people to whom I was introduced by an en- 
tirely different one. 

" For the first week after my marriage 
even, I scarcely noticed the change, but one 
day there suddenly came over me a curious 
little lonesome feeling. It seemed so chilly 
and formal, so unlike myself, to be addressed 
as ' Mrs.' at every hand, and never to hear 
my own dear original name. 

" The more I thought over the matter, the 

JuLT 9 1892. f ACIFie R.URAL> PRESS. 

more despairing I became. Never, never 
could I hear the old familiar " Miss " when 
anybody spoke to me. 

" Thereupon I actually locked myself in 
my room, and wept so long and bitterly 
from pure name sickness that my husband 
besought me tearfully through the key-hole 
to tell him what was wrong. 

" He was very much hurt when I first ex- 
plained the cause of my grief, but when I 
brought him to a realization of my loss, he 
grew sympathetic, and do you know, for a 
long time he called me by my maiden name. 
That wore off with the honeymoon, however, 
but even to this day I think sadly of my lost 

The Summer Boarder. 

The business of keeping " summer board- 
ers " has grown wonderfully for the past de- 
cade among the farmers ot the country. We 
have always had our summer resorts — our 
Saratoga, Cape May, Thousand Islands, 
While Mountains, Lake George and kindred 
places — but to sojourn at them was too ex- 
pensive for persons of moderate incomes. 
The great masses of the people who dwell 
in cities were shut up lor the summer be- 
cause they could not afford to pay the prices 
demanded at these noted resorts. The 
farmer then stepped into the breach. He 
found that he had something to sell which 
thousands wanted to buy, viz., entertainment 
in a country home at a price so moderate 
that thousands could avail themselves of it, 
and yet sufiicient to pay a good profit to the 

To day the number of boarders who thus 
recreate in farmhouses and small country 
towns far exceeds the number patronizing 
the more famous and more expensive re- 
sorts. The thousands who are engaged in 
a small mercantile way, the great army of 
doctors and lawyers whose professional 
fame has not yet given them large incomes, 
the newspaper workers — most of such are 
patrons of the farmers. The wives and 
children are sent out for the season, general- 
ly from the middle of June to well along in 
August. The head of the family spends a 
brief vacation with them, but business calls 
him back, and he is obliged, for the bulk of 
the time, to content himself with a run into 
the country on Saturday, returning on Mon- 
day to his work. 

The prices paid cover quite a wide range, 
depending, of course, on the accommoda- 
tions. T/ie Rural has heard of families be 
ing boarded in a farmhouse at the very low 
rate of $4 per week for each member. This, 
however, is very unusual. Prices generally 
range among farmers from $5 to $8 per week. 
At these modest figures there would be small 
profit to a denizen of the town. But it pays 
the farmer better. He converts his butter, 
, milk, eggs, poultry, fruits and vegetables 
into cash, without the intervention of two or 
three middlemen. In other words, he real- 
izes the highest retail prices for all the prod- 
ucts of his farm consumed by boarders, even 
at the modest figures named, and in this 
fact lies the explanation of his profits at 
such seemingly low rates. It is estimated 
by careful judges that summer boarders pay 
more money to the farmers of Sullivan Co., 
N. Y., than would be realized by the sale 
of the entire agricultural products of the 
county in the open markets, and what is true 
of this county is doubtless true of many 

By common consent. Decoration Day, 
May 30th, seems to be the time when thou- 
sands run into the country for the purpose 
of looking up a place where their families 
can be comfortably domiciled for the 
summer. The trains leaving the city on the 
eve of that day are generally crowded to the 
greatest degree. The railways contribute 
to this hegira by offering special rates, and 
stimulate the business by "summer home" 
pamphlets for distribution, in which the at- 
tractions of the points along their lines are 
glowingly set forth. Soon afterward, the 
families begin to go out, and before July ist 
the number is at its greatest height. 

A few points are essential to success in 
this busmess. Good beds, well-ventilated 
rooms, perfect cleanliness and a generous 
table. The bill-of fare need not be so varied 
— it is wasted energy to attempt to rival the 
more pretentious hotels in this matter. 
There can be ample variety with but a lim- 
ited number of dishes, by changing them at 
every meal. Abundance of milk, fresh 
vegetables, well cooked, with the fruit, eggs, 
and poultry at every farmer's command, are 
the staples of a diet which will always please. 

The thoughtful farmer will see that loung- 
ing accommodations are at hand. Ham- 
mocks swung in the shade, armchairs on 
cool piazzas, swings for the young folks, and 
if a stream or lake is available, arrange- 
ments for bathing add greatly to the attrac- 
tions of a summer home. 

The average city boarder, who is spending 

his first suncmer in the country, is a source 
of much amusement to the farmers' family. 
His ignorance of everything rural is laugh- 
able m the extreme — quite as much so as 
would be that of a farmer who should be 
making his first visit to the metropolis. But 
he picks up a little knowledge, bit by bit. 
He finds out that buttermilk is the product 
of the churn and not of a special breed of 
cows, and the younger members of the family 
very quickly find out when the harvest ap- 
ples are ripe. They achieve numerous colics 
in experimenting in this direction, but they 
always persevere. The young ladies find 
out where the most delightful walks are to 
be had, and, strange to say, the young men 
are equally alert in securing this informa- 
tion. In short, it is a delightful period for 
the city folks — a succession of halcyon days. 
Let us hope that the farmer will get a sub- 
stantial benefit from the business, and yet 
make his home so attractive that all will 
want to come again. — Rural New Yorker. 

A Great Pie Company, 

The New York Pie Crmpany has a small, 
unpretentious room in which pies are retailed 
by a rosy-cheeked and robust woman, and a 
plain archway at its side, through which the 
wagons of the company drive to the interior. 
That is visible from the street, but gives 
one no adequate idea of the size of the busi- 
ness which IS carried on. In^i Je v/e find an 
area or court, fil'ed with wagons, taking on 
their loads of pies or discharging their return 
loads of tins. There aie a dozen ovens here, 
and offices, rooms for the manufacture ot 
mincemeat, one for the preparation of fruit, 
and another where the dough is manufac- 
tured — in short, it is a very busy place. It 
consumes every day, except Sunday, 20 bar- 
rels of flour, 1200 quarts of milk, about 8000 
eggs, 3000 po inds oT lard, about 4000 pounds 
of sugar, 20 barrels of apples and other fruits 
in season and out. A very large number of 
employees areengaged, most of them going to 
work at 3 A. M., and leaving at 3 p. m. The 
pies are all delivered before or by noon — 
there is no demand for them lafer in the day. 
There are 40 wagons, in all, engaged in this 
work of delivery in New York, Brooklyn, 
Jersey City and Newark. 

Twenty thousand pies are turned out daily, 
and the apple pie leads the year round, 
though mince is a good second about the 
holiday season. Five sizes of pies are made, 
known to the trade as "home-made," the 
twelve-inch, nine-inch, seven-inch and " but- 
tons." The varieties on the list are apple, 
mince, peach, plum, lemon, cranberry, pump- 
kin, custard, cocoanut, rhubarb, pineapple, 
strawberry, currant, gooseberry, huckleberry, 
blackberry and cherry. Others are made at 
times, but these are the staples which are 
found on the lunch counters, and in the hotels 
and restaurants all over the city. The small- 
est pie is sold at wholesale at 4 cents, the 
next at 7, then 14. 20, 35 and 45 cents. Only 
the best material is used — no rancid or adul- 
terated lard is wanted, and the most critical 
examination by nose and palate failed to 
find anything wrong. "They are made," 
said the president, " ju.^t as our grandmo'hers 
made them 50 years ago, only on a larger 

" How long has this company been organ- 
ized?" said the visitor. 

" For 21 years. I have been in the busi- 
ness all my life — started with my entire stock 
in a basket — you see what it has grown to." 

It is a very ably managed institution and 
has a branch in Philadelphia, which is also 
doing a thriving, though smaller business. 

A Unique Individnality. 

A striking instance of feminine individu- 
ality was that of Miss Midy Morgan, a 
woman who was a marked and unique figure 
in New York, and who for 23 years had 
been in the service of the Times as stock 
and cattle reporter. Her history is a curi- 
ous one. Maria — known as "Midy" Mor- 
gan, was born in Ireland in 1828. She re- 
ceived a good education, and in 1865, 
her younger sister Jane, she went to Rome, 
where her sister wished to study art. Here 
she met Miss Charlotte Cushman and Miss 
Stebbins, both of whom became her warm 
friends. Miss Morgan had always loved 
animals, and King Victor Emmanuel, dis- 
covering her judgment of them, commis- 
sioned her to go to Ireland and purchase a 
number of horses for him, a commission in 
which she was so successful that he pre- 
sented her with a watch, bearing his initials 
and a diamond pendent. In 1869 she came 
to New York, and has since served the 
Times as its live stock reporter, and she was 
also the station agent at Robinvale, N. J. 
She was a familiar figure on Newspaper row 
in New York. Over six feet in height, 
wearing a short gown of serge, with (tout 

boots and a bonnet to defy wind or storm, 
— this odd exterior yet held such sterling 
qualities of head and heart that she com- 
manded universal respect. She leaves to 
the metropolitan museum in New York the 
watch presented by the King of Italy, and a 
number of valuable and curious Florentine 
mosaics and cameos. This seems to be an 
age in which woman lives out her individu- 
ality, and does that which she was born to 
do. The Times says editorially of her: 
" It is fitting to record here the most cor- 
dial and grateful acknowledgement of her 
probity, her unfaltering fidelity, and the con- 
stancy with which the least of her daily 
duties was always performed. Nor can her 
companions in the office forget her kindli- 
ness of nature, the courtesy of her demeanor 
toward ail, the native refinement and wom- 
anly grace of her character, and the patience 
and fortitude with which she bore the 
fatigues and difficulties of a calling that 
might well have taxed the strength of a 
man." This tribute is full of significance. 

^OUNG IfobKS' C[obUMjvj. 

John Martin's Revenge. 

In the cool of the morning John Martin 
kissed his wife and two little ones by-by at 
the door of their humble home, half frame, 
half dugout, took his team and went over 
the toll of the prairie to work at his plowing, 
about half a mile from the house. 

As he paused on the top of the roll before 
going from sight, he called back to his wife: 

" Mary, let George come to me at noon 
with a lunch and fresh drink of butter-milk. 
It's so far that I don't think I'll come home 
to dinner." 

The team started, and chattering cheer- 
fully to them for company's sake they went 
on to their work. 

The sun climbed higher, and furrow 
after furrow was turned. John kept the 
team going steadily, but Fan was restive 
and would throw her head up and look 
around and then throw herself into the 
collar, and forge ahead as though suddenly 
anxious to get the work finished. 

" What does ail you, Fan ? You seem 
daft," said John finally; " does your harness 
hurt you, old girl ?" 

And then he went over the harness, care- 
fully examining each strap and piece where 
it touched her sleek coat. 

He went back between the handles of the 
plough, and Fan threw her nose up over her 
mate's neck, looking in the direction of the 
house, and whinned so shrill and mournful, 
that John involuntarily looked in the same 

He started. 

Were his eyes deceiving him ! 
Was that a thin column of smoke rising in 
the clear air from over the roll in the prairie ? 
His heart almost stopped beating. 
It is smoke ! 

Fast' as his fingers could move he undid 
the harness fastenings from the team, threw 
the harness to the ground, released one 
horse and sprang upon Fan's back. She 
needed no urging or directing, but leaped 
like an arrow from the bow. 

As they gained the summit of the rise of 
ground, John looked, and had to clutch the 
horse's mane to keep from falling. A thin 
blue column of smoke was rising from the 
ground where his home had stood, and as 
he cast an agonized look over the plain for 
some sign of life, he saw away off on the 
distant horizon a few rapidly diminishing 
specks and a little cloud of dust. 

No use to urge the creature, she seemed 
to share his fear, and was doing the best 
that flesh and blood could do. 

At the little bed of hot ashes she stopped 
and he rolled from her back. For a few 
seconds he could not see, and his limbs 
trembled so that he could not walk. He 
knew what sight would meet him. A few 
steps from him lay the body of his little boy 
Georgie, the one that was to bring his lunch 
and drink at noon. 

He bent over and tenderly kissed the 
little dead face. 

" Two more," he whispered to himself, 
" two more; where are they ?" 

They were not far away — the little girl, 
three years old, with long brown hair, and 
his wife — dead, and the scalping knife had 
done its work. 

Side by side he laid the three, around 
whom all his hopes, all his ambitions, his 
love, was centered, now gone from him in a 
moment, it seemed. 

As he turned away to look back again, he 
heard a light whinny come from the cattle 
yard, and he walked that way. There stood 


Fan over the body of her colt, whinn, 
pitifully and nudging it with her nose to in- 
duce it to get up. 

" Your baby, too. Fan. Poor Fan ! poor 
me !" 

He stayed by his dead all day and night; 
then laid them gently in the grave he made 
them, pressing a last kiss upon the un- 
responsive lips of each. His task finished, 
he mounted Fan, and, drawing rein beside 
the mounds for a last look, raised his hand 
toward heaven and took oath: 

" I swear before God, beside the graves 
of my dead, that so long as I have life, I 
shall hunt Apaches. They have robbed me 
of all, and my hate shall never be satisfied." 

A coup'e of officers were enjoying their 
after-dinner smoke sitting in chairs tilted 
back against the shady side of the quarter- 
master's building 

" Say, captain, have you noticed anything 
strange about these Apaches since we 
brought them back to the reservation 

" Nothing special that I can think of. 
They're a grisly lot anyway. Whv do you 
ask ?" 

" Because I've noticed now that they keep 
close to headquarters and don't go out in 
bands of two or three; and again, they're 
holding lots of pow-wows, and every day or 
so they bring in a dead buck." 

" Oh, have you just found that out ? Why, 
that's old to everybody but the reds, and 
with them it isn't allowed to get old. Ever 
since the Sandy Fork raid the Apaches have 
had a Nemesis after them. Who it is or 
how many, no one knows, but if a buck 
goes away from the crowd, it's ten to one 
he doesn't come back, and when they start 
out to find him, which ihey usually do, he 
has become a good Indian." 

Just then a tall, gray-haired man, dressed 
as a scout, came past and changed the 
current of their conversation. 

" Who is that chap ?" asked the lieutenant 
of his brother officer, scanning the scout 

" I don't know," was the reply. " He 
comes to the post once in a while; gets a 
lot of stuff, mostly ammunition; never stays 
or stops to talk; always rides that same big 
bay mare." 

The stranger dismounted at the door of 
the store and entered. He had scarcely 
passed out of sight when an Indian sneaked 
up cautiously and began to examine the 
horse, paying particular attention to her 
feet and her tracks. 

" What do you suppose that buck's up to ?" 
queried the captain. 

"He's getting points so that he can trail 
the animal," was the reply. 

" Look out ! By gracious that was neat." 

The exclamation was called forth by 
the action of the horse. The Indian, in his 
investigations, stooped and picked up her 
foot, presumably to examine the shoe. 
There was a quick move, a thud, and an 
Indian rolled over on the grass with a 
crushed skull. 

Two or three white men ran up and the 
owner of the horse came out of the store. 
When he saw the dead brave, a smile 
lighted up his set face as he patted his 
horse's neck. 

"Another one, eh? Fan, that's right; 
keep up the work, old girl. One more 
scratch on the rifle breech makes 181." — E. 
R. Collins in Texas Siftings. 


Absolutely Pure. 

A cream of tartar baking powder. High- 
est of all in leavening strength. — Latest U, 
S, Government Food Report, 



JuLT 19 1803 

^ATROJ^S Of JiuSBAj^E)^. 

The Secretary's Column. 

By A. T. DmvBv, Secretary State OranKe ol California. 

A new supply of rituals and National 
Grange Digest, of latest edition, has recently 
been received. Orders have also been sent 
for a small supply of " Grange Melodies." 
We liave a lew copies of the " National 
Grange Choir" on hand, also of "Glad 
Echoes," the songbook used mostly at the 
last State Grange. 

Master E. W. Davis, in a recent note dated 
July 2d, has written some thoughts which I 
think all Patrons should read and try to an- 
swer soon and well: 

" The work of the State Grange is already 
beginning to demand some time and thought 
from those who have the good of the Order 
at heart. " The spring campaign " has been a 
dignified and intelligent one. Good results 
are sure to come from it. It was aggressive 
enough to command respect, and dignified 
enough to hold the order on the high mental, 
moral, social and financial plateau to which 
it has won its way by 25 years of honest 
work. For my patt, I am well pleased with 
the total results, and am fully convinced that 
many seeds are yet in the Grange farm that 
will germinate soon. Bro. Overhiser writes 
that he will probably be able 10 do some 
" field work" about the ist of August. 

Bro. Walton reports times very busy, but 
thinks that right away after harvest there 
will be some new Granges up there. 1 
would much like to see our Order's banner 
floating in Yolo, Lake, Tehama, Humboldt, 
Fresno, Stanislaus, Kern, Napa, Los Angeles 
and San Diego Counties. Can we plant it 
there thrs summer? If so, in what way, by 
whom and at what expense?" 

I. C. Steele, P. M., writes from Pesca- 
dero that crops are fine in his locality. He 
expects to visit San Francisco on the 12th, 
and will then forward to Washington his 
quarterly report as Treasurer of the State 

From Nebraska. — J. R. Cantlin, Secre- 
tary of the State Grange, writes from Web- 
ster, Neb., saying that the Patrons in that 
State desire to organize a life insurance as- 
sociation for the benefit of members, and 
desires us to send a copy of the " Patrons' Re- 
lief Association" constitution, and other pub- 
lications relating to the organization, to 
which request we have liberally responded. 
Further, Brother Cantlin suggests that 
Wheatland, the P. O. address of his brother, 
D. L. C, who has lived there 30 years, 
would likely be a good Grange locality. 
Happy to inform Brother Cantlin that 
Wheatland Grange has recently been re- 
organized, and we hope that his brother 
will soon become our brother if he is not al- 
ready within the Grange circle. 

Grange Home and School.— The 
Grange is like unto a well-regulated family 
home, where father, mo;her, sister and 
brothers sit down and exchange ideas 
and thoughts for their mutual benefit. The 
young boys and girls ol the farm should be 
encouraged by all means to come to the 
Grange, and every opportunity should be 
given them, to advance them, to educate 
them, in order that they may be fitted and 
qualified for usefulness, honor and respect. 
The Grange is a good school for the young, 
and the older ones can be benefited by 
the teachings of the Grange. I would very 
much like to see every boy and girl who 
live on farms in this county all members of 
this or some other Grange, and it is my 
opinion the mission of the Grange will not 
be filled until that has been accomplished. 
— E. Greer before Sacramento Grange. 


The Legislative Committee ol the National 
Grange has just issued ao eight-page circular set- 
ting forth the different acts of Congress for appro- 
priating means for establishing and maintaining 
Agricultural and Mechanical Colleges, Experiment 
.Stations, etc., with a large amount of statistical 
facts and information ol experience gained in this 
and foreign countries. It is prefaced with the lol- 
lowing, offered by A. Mes?er and adopted by the 
National Grange, November, 1891: 

Whereas, A large proportion of the agricultural 
colleges of this country are closely connected with 
cl issical institutions, with the funds and appro- 
priations from the General Government paid into 
and disbursed from a common treasury ol the com- 
bined institutions; and 

Whereas, Owing to a variety of Ciuses incident 
to such connection, the number of agricuUural 
students in these combined institutions is reduced 
to a minimum, thereby rendering the munificent 
donations Irom the General Government lor agri- 
cultural education practically worthless, so (ar as 
direct agricultural and industrial education is con- 
cerned; therefore 

Resolved, That the National Grange respectfully 
ask Congress to pass a law requiring the different 
States, where combined classical and agricultural 
colleges exist, to separate the industrial from the 
classical departments and establish separate and dis- 

tinct agricultura and mechanical colleges in other 
localities, with separate Boards of Trustees, direct- 
ors, officers and teachers, that the true intent of the 
laws 01 Congress establishing agricultural colleges 
and experiment stations may be fully carried out, 
namely, the higher education of the rural popula- 
tion. And we further ask that all appropriations 
now paid to the combined institutions, and all un- 
expended funds heretofore appropriated by the 
Government for establishing and maintaining agri- 
cultural and mechanical colleges, shall be trans- 
ferred to such separate and distinct agricultural and 
mechanical colleges as may be established in the 
several States. 

{Resolved, That the National Grange Legislative 
Committee be requested to bring these resolutions 
10 the attention of members of Congress at its com- 
ing session. 

The object of the circular is to awaken interest in 
the matter and urge the establishment of colleges 
devoted to agriculture, etc. 

Copies will be mailed free to tho'^e applying to the 
Secretary of the State Grange. 

Agrionltnral Fairs. 

state Fairs. 

state. place and SEC'y. DATE. 

Oregon, Salem, J. T. Gregg SepL 12-17 

California, Sacramento, Edwin F. Smith. Sept. 5-17 

Washington, Spokane Sept. 19-24 

Nevada, Reno, C. H. Stoddard 

Western Washington Industrial Exposition, Tacc- 


District Fairs. 


1— Oakland Aug. 8-13 

2 — Stockton 

3— Chino, J. D. Sproul 

4 — Petaluma, Dr. Thos. Maclfay 

5— Santa Clara. George H. Brjgg . .Sept 26-O.t 1 

6 — Los Angeles 

7— Salinas City, J. J. Kelley 

8— Placerville, Thos. Fraser Aug. 23-27 

9 — Rohnerville 

10— Yreka 

11— Sierraville, Fred Blinman Oct, 3-7 

12 — Lakepori, H. A. McCraney Sepi. 27, Oct. 1 

13— MarysviUe, G. R. Eckart Aug. 28-Sept. 3 

14— Santa Cruz, Oscar L. Gordon 

15— Bakersfield. J. J. Kelly 

16— San Luis Obispo, J. H. Barrett 

17— • I. J. Rolfe Aug. 23-28 

18— Independence, C. W. Craig Sept. 27-30 

19 — Santa Barbara. H. B. Barstow 

20 — Auburn, F, D. Adams Aug. 30-Sept. 3 

21 — Fresno. J. M. Reuck 

22— Escondido, G. M. Dannals Sept. 21-24 

23— Concord, F. L. Loucks 

25 — Napa, D. L. Hackett 

26 — lone, C. T. La Grave ?epl. 27-30 

27 -Rfdding, H. R. Hod.(jn 

28— Sin Bernardino 

30— Red Bluff, H. R. Hook 

31 — Huenerae, T. H. Merry 

32— Santa Ana, W. A. Beckett Oct 3-7 

33 — Hollister, A. D.Shaw Oct. 11-15 

34 — Susanville, C. E. Emerion Sept. 3-7 

35 — Merced 

36 — Vallejo Aug. .. 

37 — Lompoc, W. I. Nichols Sept. 27-30 

— Glenn Co. Willows, W. V. Freeman . .'\ug. 9-13 
*-?tock exhibit and races will be at GlenbrooV, and 

pavilion exhibit at Nevada city. 



rate of interest on approved security in Farming Landa 
A. 8CHULLER, Room 8, 420 California Street, San 

Unitarian Literature 

Sent tree by the Channino AimiiiAaT of the First Unita- 
rian Oburch, cor. Qeary and Franklin Sts., Baa Fran. 
Iioo. AddreM Mrs. B. F. aiHdlD(8 u ahovs. 

The Earliest Yellow Freestone Known. 


Tlie Best Peacli Know a for Early Ship- 
ment East. 

Reasonable prices to dealers and canvassers. For 
particulars apply to 

W. W. SMITH, VacaTlIIe, 

A. T. FOSTER, DlxoD, 

Or, I. H. THOMAS & SON, TUalla. 




SEASON 1892-3. 

Warranted tree (rom all disease, true to name, and 
noiue grown. 

Nuracties at Napa, near R. R. Depot Residence of 
proprietor at Sausal Fruit Farm, ^i miles north ol Napa. 




CULTURE ^^cf.t"*"-'".?""?- ' I?}??- P^'^i'i"' 

A Practical Treatise by T. A. Garei 
givmg the results of long exierl- 
mce in Southern California. 19fl 
pages, cloth bound. Sent postpaid 
at reducea price of 76 eta. per couy. 
UKWKr FOB. 00.,Sa) Market, 8.r. 



CAPITAL $1,000,000. ASSETS $3,000 000. 



(Patented Feb 28, 1888 ) 

Specially Prepared for Drying Grapes and Other Fruits. 


Pnt DP in Rolls containing 1000 spare feet, or io Reams of 480 Slieets— 24 x 36. 




Trial. Why suffer from the bad effects of the La Grippe, Lame Back, Kidney and Lirer 
disiase. Rheumatism, Indigestion, Dysi^peia, any kind of weakness, or other diseases, when 
Electricity will cure you and keep vou in htalth. (Headache cured io one minute.) To 


free. Prices, $3, 96, $10, and (16, if satisfied. Also Electric Trusses and Box Batteries, 
('oets nothing to try tbem. Can be regulated to suit, and guaranteed to last for years. A 
Belt and Battery combined, and produces sofhcient Electricity to shock. Free Medical 
adviee. Write to-day. Give waist measure, price and fall particulars. 
AgADts Wanted. Addresa DR. JCOD, Detroit. MIoh. 


LiGHTNiN£ Baler. 

Capacity, 41 Tons per Day. 

SOCIETY FOR 1890 AND 1891. 




No trampiQS. No forklDg trozn the St^ck. No cattlns of Stacks Necessary. Too 
can sit at a hundred-foot stack and bale It without a move. It makes the best bale In 
the market. Tou cao put 10 tons in a car. The forkins ftom the stack is all done by the 
horses. The baler can tarn out more hay In less time and In better style than any other 


Pacific Wheel and Carriage Works, 

== J. F. HILL, Proprietor. == 
Office and Factories, Nos. 1301 to 1323 J St., SACRAMENTO, CAL. 


Jdlt 9, 1892 


"P ARMEUS, Fruit Q-rowers, goME ^ eekersi 

The members of the Kern OouDty Land Company 
have a national reputation for wealth, business and 
financial ability. These facts set the matter of reli- 
ability at rest. The company's capital stock is 

They have 400,000 acres of arable, irrigable lands 
upon which the sun shines almost constantly; and 
their enormous irrigation system renders them in- 
dependent of the annual rainfall. 

A clear title; rotation, variety and certainty of crops; 
easy terms; availability to persons in moderate 
circumstances; ground ready for the plow — no stones 
nor thistles; good society; schools; churches, etc., are 
a few notable attractions of this region of country. 

Kern is the largest county in the San Joaquin 
Valley. It has the finest climate for curing and 
drying fruits, etc. 

The 400,000-acre territory of the Kern County 
Land Company is the pick of the county. 

Its area is 5,184,000 acres. 

Has the largest irrigation system in America. 

The home of the peach, French prune, pear and 
raisin grape. 

Planting and harvesting can be carried on every 
month in the year. 

No rocks, hills or stumps on the land. 

A failure of crops is unknown on irrigated lands. 

Kern county fruits take the first prize at the State 

Land can be made to pay for itself in less than three 

Grows more alfalfa than any other county in Cali- 

The advantages of good soil and plenty of sun, 
which occur in the Kern Valley, would have been 
of little avail but for the third and all-important 
one of an abundance of water from never- failing 

Through 300 miles of maiu canals, and 1,100 miles 
of laterals, the great Kern river furnishes enough 
moisture to slake the thirst of the 400,000 acres al- 
ready referred to. 

Drought is out of the question. 

The system has been constructed in the most care- 
ful and scientific manner. Some of the canals are 
125 feet wide and six feet deep. 

For further particulars address 


S. W. PERQUSSON, Agent, 

The Best Article is the Cheapest. 



Best, Purest and Most Effective 
Insect Powder on the Market. 



hotels, restaurants, saloons, 

Btorea and offices may be kept free 
from all troublesome insects. It is 
now regarded as a necessity in most 
of the principal hotels In the United 
States, and wherever it has been in- 
troduced it has given complete sat- 
isfaction. Owing to an increased 
production of Pyrethrum flowers, 
from which this valuable article is 
made, and their Improved tacliities 
for reducing them to powder, the manufacturers have 
this season made a material reduction In their prices. 
Send your orders to the 

Buhcli Mmi and Uanabchm;; Co., 



10, 12 and 14 ft. 

Cheaper than any 
First-Claes Mill in 
the market. 

Every On* 

No bearings, no 
springs, no wheels 
to get out of order. 
The simplest mill In 
the world. 

Agents Wanted 

TRDMiN, HOOKER & CO., San Fraflcisco or FresEO 


Hay Baler ? If sn, da yon usb out Patent 

si.«ir.QR0SS HEAD^^ 



The Washburn & Moen Mfg. Co. 

San Francisco Office and Warehouse 
8 and lo Pine Street. 



Fly-Wheel Walking Beam for Pnmplng I.arge Qaantlties of Wate 

Send for Catalogue and Price List. 

F. W. KROGH & CO.. 51 Beale Street, S. F. 

BK.ia-c3-s OA.i^K.iAa-E CO., 

We are now positively closing out regardless of cost our entire stock of First Class 

Extension Top Carriages. Surreys, Phsetons and 


220 and 222 MISSION ST.. - - SAN FBANOISOO 

DEWEY & GO. nii^'e^^T^^ri^ii ' } PATENT AGENTS. 


Incorporated April, 18T4. 

AnthorUed Capital $1,000,000 

Capital paid np and Reserve Fund 800,000 
Dividends paid to Stockholders... 780,000 


A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Man^et 


Qeoeral Banking. Deposits received, Gold and Silver. 
Bills of Bbcohange bought and sold. Loans on wheat and 
country produce a specialty. 

Janoarv 1. 18B2 A. MONTPKIXIRR. M»n»ir«? 

ERY CO., i-Assme, MiciL, j 

for CatnloKnes of 


«Jlii«« Milk <"aii«, JVevcrl 

ICiiNt, Water 'J'aiiksof steell 
pliito, evcrlastinif. Cream 
without Ice or with loo. We 
want agents everywhere. 
jiiKCutlh prices. 



The .standard IMarblne 
IHSertnt and prleei. Illnstrated Catalogue (res. 
JAMUiS iilNitUUXH, Ast.. 87Marl£et St. S.P'. 



f AC[Fie f^URAb PRESS. 

JcLT 9, 1892 

j0Cgricultural JJotes. 


Contra Costa. 

Large Yield of Wheat.— AiHioch Ledger: 
Harvealiug is progresatug rapidly, lu liie 
neighborhood of Brentwood and Byron, nearly 
hall the grain is already harvested, and we 
hear the most encouraging reports from that 
section. Grain is turning out well, and in fact 
the yield is much better than the most sanguine 
expected. A yield of a ton to the acre is said 
to be a common thing, and we learn that in 
many instances a much larger yield is the rs- 
sult. Lo Welch, who farms in the immediate 
vicinity of Brentwood, is said to have harvested 
2700 pounds to the acre. There is no use in 
talking, the Marsh Grant land is not only the 
natural soil lor cereals, but the farmers of that 
section are about as good as can be found in 
the State. Such an immense yield of grain in 
a comparatively dry year is unprecedented, and 
speaks volumes for "the industry and intelli- 
gence of the farmer and the quality of the soil. 


The West Side. — Selma Enterprise: The 
recent consummation of the de..! by which the 
Sunset irrigation district has secured 3000 cubic 
feet of water and other concessions from Cheape 
and Terrin and the Sunset Canal Company, is 
the beginning of a stupendous enterprise that 
will require great engineering ability and a 
broad estimate of financial possibilities. The 
district comprises 300,000 acres of land fertilized 
by the lervid sunlight of eons of summers. It 
is proposed to build a reservoir covering 14iK) 
acres to hold water for use during times of 
scarcity. The soil is said to be hundreds of 
feet in depth and of exhaustless fertility; the 
water abundant and the title perfect. The 
great west side is destined to be the arena where 
the full value of the Wright law is to be tested. 
If there is a region in the world where coop- 
erative irrigation should be made a success, it 
is the west side. 

Peactical Views on a Raisin Combine. — Cor. 
Fresno Expositor: There is probably not a 
grower in Kresno who does not wish that a 
eombination might be made which will enable 
the growers to get 4i, 5 or 51 cents a pound for 
their raisins. There is uo disagreement as to 
what is desired, but there are some different 
views as to whether or by what means it may 
be attainable. In the first place, the growers 
should be reasonable. The price should not be 
arbitrarily sttt, without regard to the natural 
laws of trade. If so, it will fail. The price 
which growers must figure on must be based 
on the wholesale prices in the Eastern markets 
as they exist, j aking them as a basis, the 
prices which growers shall ask here should be 
proportionately lower. The growers should 
not calculate on causing the Eastern prices to 
advance, for that would be an uncertain thing 
to count on. * • * • The packer 
buys of the grower at 5 cents a pound. He 
pays 1 cent for packing, li cents for freight, 
and sells to the wholesale man at 7i cents a 
pound. When the grapes have reached New 
York they have cost the packer 5 cents pur- 
chase price, 1 cent packing, li cents freight, 
equal 7i cents a pound. He sells them at 7i 
cents. This is a profit of a quarter of a cent a 
pound, or a ton, or $50 a car. If this is not 
considered enough he would have to buy of the 
grower for a little less. Let it be insisted again 
that ihtse figures and prices are not given as 
the actual ones but merely as something near 
what may be found the true figures. 

Wool Sale at Ukiah. — Democrat and Dis- 
patch: The Ukiah wool sale was field June 
Htu. Eight hundred aiid siiiy-seven bales 
were sold. The general prices paid ranged from 
19i to 20i cents per pound. A few choice lots 
from Willits brought 21 cents, and Baechtel 
Bros, of that place received 21i cents per pound 
for their exceptionally fine clip. The prices 
« ere lower than those of last spring, although 
the wool was finer. 


Reclaiming Sagebbcsh Land.— Adin Argu»: 
What was a sagebrush pli,in a few vears ago is 
n iw pretty thickly settled with people who are 
endeavoring to improve and cultivate their 
claims. Most of these people are unable to 
make extensive improvements, and are, there- 
fore, compelled to labor under difiSculties. Mr. 
Auble's farm is midway between Aidin and 
Bieber, and is composed of about 200 acres of 
swamp land and a large body of rolling sage- 
brush land. It is well under cultivation, and, 
with his stock, he uses and sells all that he can 
roduce. Mr. Auble is an energetic and shrewd 
usiness man, and is becoming ore of our most 
prosperous farmers. E. Kellogg's place, of about 
300 acres, is rolling sagebrush land, most of 
which has been cleared and produces yearly a 
large crop of grain. He has a windmill which 
furnishes water for irrigating his garden. Wind- 
mills are the only water supply now afforded, 
and of course there is but little water furnished', 
compared to what could and ought to be used 
to make large crops. Grain is much in need of 
water now, and it will be a grand thing for 
such portions of Big valley when some irriga- 
tion system is established. 

San Bernardino. 

New Orchard Acreage.- Chino Champion: 
While the planting of orchards on the Chino 
ranch this season has been overshadowed by 
the magnitude of the beet industry, it has nev- 
ertheless been no inconsiderable item. Without 
any particular boom in the plantng of orchard 
trees, a good healthy growth has taken place in 
the acreage set. All kinds of deciduous fruits 
especially, have made splendid progress, and 
this spring olives have taken the lead. The 
total acreage of trees on the Chino is now about 

as follows: Oranges 102, prunes 152, peaches 22, 
apricots 1<, olives 54, walnuts 81. figs 56, pears 
15, mixed 116— total 611. 

Sugar Beet Notes.— OAawpion; On Tuesday, 
July 5, will commence tlie work of harvesting 
this year's beet crop on the Chino ranch. It is 
intended to have a good supply on hand at the 
factory on the following Monday, when it is 
hoped to commence working them up. There 
aie 4000 acres of beets on the ranch this sum- 
mer, of which about iiOO acres are now ready 
for harvesting as soon as they can be reached. 
The rest of the fields will mature in succession 
during the next three months so as to keep the 
hHTvesting force and factory continuously at 
work. One of the grandest agricultural sights 
in California is these broad level fields of beets 
approaching maturity, perfectly clean and with 
good stands. The tonnage is going to be very 
satisfactory, and the qunlity of the oeets so far 
as tested is extraordinarily high. Almost with- 
out exception the farmers on the ranch this 
year are feeling sanguine of the profits on beets. 
There are many fields that will yield 18 to 20 
tons per acre, and the present indications are 
that the average percentage of sugar in the 
beets will not fall below 15, and may go to 18. 
That will give a crop thnt cannot be equ. led 
for profit by any other farm product grown in 
one season. The industry is of the verv first 
importance to Southern California, and will 
most certainly enrich the communities where 
it is Introduced. Hundreds of men have had 
steady employment here since the first of the 
year, and through harvesting a large force will 
be needed, so that a man can have employment 
here practically the entire year. Many farmers 
are building up for themselves homes here who 
came in without any means to draw upon, and 
who have devoted their time almost entirely to 
beet growing. This year's crop will start many 
out on the road to independence. 

San Luis Obispo. 

Hay, Grain and Frdit Notes.— S. L. O Trib- 
une: The hay ciop has all been secured in good 
order and is being placed in shai)e and con- 
dition for future use. Hay baling is progress- 
ing, and, by the looks of things, the crop will 
soon be blocked up. There are three hay 
presses now at work and another one is ex- 
pected to come into the valley ere long. A few 
of the ranchers have started their headers, and 
by another week harvesting will be in full 
swing. The barley crop is about all harvested 
now and a few have started on their wheat 
crop. The fruit prospect for this season 
throughout the Creston country will be on the 
slim order. Late frosts and other climatic 
changes have had the tendency to despoil the 
trees of their fruits. The grape crop, however, 
is reported all right and bids fair for a gooa 
crop yield. 


Hop Pest.— Sacramento News: Hop growers 
on the American river yards are very mach 
alarmed over the sudden appearance of myriads 
of red spiders on their vines. Some yards have 
already been seriously damaged, and it is be- 
lieved that unless something i^ done to stop 
the ravages of the insect, many promising fields 
will be ruined. F. V. Flint regards the situa- 
tion as serious, and advises spraying without 
delay. He broneht specimens of vines infested 
by tlie pests. The leaves have the appearance 
of being burned. The spider inhabits the under 
side of the leaves and weaves a close web. The 
insect is well known in England, where it not 
infre(iuently injures and even destroys tons of 

Red Spider and Hops. — Sacramento News: 
Much uneasiness is felt among the local hop- 
growers on accoant of the reappearance of the 
red spider on the vines. The insect appeared 
about this time last year and caused much 
alarm, but no serious results followed. A few 
acres pf vines were injured and some destioyed. 
The bop was more advanced than at the present 
time, and the injury was confined to the burrs, 
which were then just opening. It now appears 
that the spiders have been reinforced and have 
appeared in larger numbers and over a more 
extended territory. The American River dis- 
tricts are the only ones reported as infested so far, 
and active measures have been taken to destroy 
the peat. The yards of Brewer, Whittenbrock and 
Gerber Bros, have suffered most seriously, and 
they have already had spraying apjiaratus con. 
structed and are showering the pestiferous 
spiders with solutions of sulphur, acid and 
water. The spray pump is attached to a wagon 
on which is a tank holding 300 gallons. The 
liquid must be thrown upward from near the 
ground, as the spider inhabits only the under 
side of the leaf. 

Santa Clara. 

Fecit Crop Notes.- San Jose Mercury: A 
tour of investigation among the canneries by a 
representative of the Mercury recently brought 
out the information that thn outlook for alarge 
pack this season is promising. The first crop 
of strawberries is about gone and no more are 
expected in very large quantities till the middle 
of July. Tlie gooseberry and pea crops are re- 
ported to be fair. This season J. Z. Anderson 
has shipped about 25 carloads of cherries East. 
The pear crop is expected to be unusually large, 
especially the Barllett variety. The reason for 
this is that a great number of trees have come 
into bearing this season. The crop of Winter 
Nelis pears will be medium. The apricot crop 
will be about the same as last season. Apri- 
cots, pears and peaches are expected to be ready 
for canning about July 10th, and then the rush 
will come. The prices for green fruit have not 
been established as yet, because there is an 
abundant supply of fruit in sight, and the ten- 
dency of the handlers is to await the condition 
of the market before fixing prices. The Fruit 
Exchange which has recently been organized 
will help to fix prices this year, as the mem- 
bers of it control the majority of the fruit 
raised in this county. It is certain that a much 

larger percentage of fruit growers than ever be- 
fore will dry their own fruit this year, and it is 
a pleasing fact that none of them are looking 
around for buyers — that dav has practically 
passed, thanks to the Fruit Exchange and the 
cooperative dryers. Now the producers are on 
a fair way to control the markets, and before 
another season goes by they will have the busi- 
ness entirely in their own hands. No matter 
what the state of the Eastern crop, the Califor- 
nia product will not be affected by it. Our 
products are more varied and in every way 
superior, and the consumers will demand them 
in preference to all others as long as they are 
to be had in the markets. No country in the 
world can compare with California in fruit- 
grow^ing, and no other section can compare 
with Santa Clara county. Such a thing as 
overproduction is impossible. The market is 
extending and will continue to extend faster 
than the amoant of product can increase. 
When every available foot of soil in Santa 
Clara county is devoted to fruit-growing the 
returns to the producers will be as great, if not 
greater, than at the present time. 


First Cabload of Fruit Sent from Shasta 
Co.— Redding Democrat: The first carload of 
green fruit that has ever left Shasta county for 
the Eastern market left Anderson on June 27th. 
Al Smith, proprietor of the Anderson flour 
mill, says between 50 and 60 carloads of green 
fruit will be shipped from Anderson this season. 
That is news that will encourage and make the 
fruit growers of Shasta county smile. All the 
shipping fruit around Anderson has been con- 
tracted for at good prices. 


Grain and Fruit Notes. — Oakdale cor. Mo- 
desto Herald: The harvest is now well under 
way, and judging from several samples of the 
new wheat crop which have been exhibited to 
our dealers, the quality is inferior to that of 
last beason. The reason given for the shriveled 
appearance of the kernel is that in many field« 
the crop was blighted by the extreme hot wave 
about the first days of June. The greater por 
tion of the crop through this section will be 
harvested this season by combines. » » • * 
The many fiourishing orchards and vineyards 
extending along the Stanislaus from Oakdale 
to the vicinity of Langworth have put on a 
rapid growth this season, but the fruit crop, as 
a rule, is light. These orchards and vineyards, 
as enumerated by the writer a few mouths 
since, contain about 500 acres. This statement 
includes the area planted to trees and vines in 
and around Oakdale. A. V. Stuart has made 
several shipments of peaches lo San Francisco 
recently. He will start up his canning and 
drying establishment within a few dvys. 


Fruit Notes. — Y'uba City Farmer: Every day 
large loads of fruit are seen coming lo town for 
shipping or to the canneries. Local shippers 
are kept busy handling ihe choice boxes of 
apricots, peaches, pears, plums and apples, and 
the hundreds of active employes at the two 
canne-ies handle an enormous quantity of 
fruit per day. At the orchards there is work 
for all, and besides the numerous pickers and 
packers, a large portion of the fruit is being cut 
and dried on the grounds. This is principally 
in apricots, the peaches not yet being ripe 
enough to dry to any great extent. We notice 
many women, girls and boys from town going 
out to the orchards and earning good wage.-( 
cutting apricots. The work is not disagreeable 
and the young folks have a good time, besides 
earning a snug sum by their labor. The work 
at the progressing lively and from 
ten to twelve tons of apricots are being packed 
daily. The plant has evei^ convenience and 
new improvements for putting the fruit into 
the cans in the best possible shape and quickest 
time. The apricot pack will close some time 
the fore part of next week, and no work on 
fruit will be done then until the peaches are 
ready for canning, which will be about the 
middle of the month. The peach pack will be 
quite large and the quality of the fruit was 
never better. On the drying ground a large 
number of trays are spread out, covered with 
apricots that were too soft for canning but in 
prime condition for drying. The drier will be 
run all through the season. 


Summer Pruning.- C. J. Berry in Tulare 
K7n«: I take the ground that the first and in- 
evitable resnlt of cutting any tree is to do it a 
direct and irreparable injury; that pruning 
either root or top destroys existing balance and 
makes necessary a readjustment of the func- 
tions of the root and foliage, causing a suspen- 
sion of growth and, as a final result, a smaller 
tree than if it had gone unpruned. Pruning 
for growth I characterize as absurd. Some peo- 
ple prune to make trees bear well. Tbere is no 
doubt it does make them bear, for it is an 
accepted fact that anything which threatens 
the vitality of a plant causes it to make an 
effort to reproduce its kind. The only reason, 
then, why pruning does make a tree bear is be- 
cause it threatens its vitality. We complain 
loudly of the rapid increase of those hostile in- 
sects and dangerous diseases which now attack 
our trees and plants. In my opinion, the 
prevalence of both is due almost wnolly to the 
low vitality and disarranged circulation caused 
by our defiance of the laws of nature. In 
attempting to improve upon nature we have 
got so far removed from her that, continually 
thwarted, she is unable in her own chosen and 
proper way to control those diseases and in- 
sects; so the duty devolves on us, with what 
success, satisfaction and profit, each can an- 
swer for himself. 

A Large Lemon Obchabd. — VIsalia Delta: 
The Kaweah Lemon Company has filed articles 
of incorporation in the County Clerk's oflSce. 
The capital stock is |72,000, divided into 240 

shares of the par value of $300 each. The 
whole amount of the capital stock has been 
actually subscribed equally among the direc- 
tors, "rbis company fias purchased 120 acres 
of fine citrus land in J. W. C. Pogue's ranch 
at Lime Kiln, Ten acres have already been 
set out in trees, and 110 acres will be planted 
next season. The Lisbon variety will be 

A Grape Grower's Views.— Hanford Sentinel: 
C. M. Blowers, the well-known vineyardist, 
does not attribute the falling of grapes from 
vims this season to any disease whatever, but 
says it is due to the cold weather in the early 
part of the season. When the warm weather 
came on, the vines took an extraordinary rapid 
growth. The sap came up freely, and as a con- 
sequence the first crop of grapes that had set 
were partially thrown off. Some of his best 
vines have the smallest burden of fruitage. He 
says the vines are growing at a very rapid rate 
this season. He is a careful obs rver and not 
given to imaginary theorizing, and his opinion 
is reliable. 'The early summer was an extra- 
ordinary cool one for this climate, and the 
shortage in the first crop of raisins is doubtless 
due to that cause, as Mr. Blowers says. 

Selling Second and Third Crop Grapes to 
WiNEMEN. — Hanford Journal: A large number 
of the farmers and fruit growers of Selma held 
a meeting last Saturday to consider the proposi- 
tion of the establishment of a distillery in that 
town to use up the second and third crop of 
grapes. All ttiose present agreed to sell their 
second and third crop of grapes to a distillery 
in that town at $7 per ton. About 5000 tons 
were desired by Williams, Brown & Co., who 
are going to establish the distillery, and 3000 
tons of this amount have been secured. 


Sespe, June 28th. 

To THE Editor: It is pretty dry here. Last 
year we scarcely had our usual quantity of rain; 
so also of this year. Hay is of excellent qual- 
ity, but it is light. It is all cut and mostly 
baled or stacked. We raise little but barley 
hay here; some few patches of alfalfa. On 
moist bottom ground corn is looking well, but 
on dry upland, like miue, it will not make a 
crop. Beans are growing finely, but for the 
most part I think the crop will be light. Not 
nearly so many planted this year as last, in this 
county. Fruit trees and fruit doing fairly well 
I believe generally; where irrigated as they are 
on the Sespe river orange and other trees are 
growing finely. I have a small garden on the 
Sespe which I irrigate and which of course 
looks finely. " They" are boring and getting 
oil all around me — think some of turning iny 
farm into an oil producer. There are a number 
of derricks in sight, across the Santa Clara riv- 
er, oil being pumped from some of them. 

8. P. Snow. 

Sales of New Crop Lima Beans. — Ventura 
Frte Press. One of our largest growers, \Vm. 
Shiells, reports that he has contracted part ol 
his new crop of limas at 2i cents per pound 
and that he refused to contract his entire crop 
at that price. We understand from several 
prominent growers that buyers have been quite 
numerous during the past week and $2.35 has 
been freely offered and refused. Most holders 
are firm in their views of from 2i to 3 cents and 
we doubt if anything less than the latter price 
would buy any quantity. In view of the small 
acreage planted and the probable light yield, it 
would seem as though they were good value at 
even present prices, and we venture the predic- 
tion that no limas will be sold for less than 2i 
cents for the next 12 months. 

Rabbits Increasing as Coyotes Decrease. — 
Ventura Democrat: Deputy Assessor Webster 
was over on the Cuyama last week on official 
business. He says the settlers are cursed 
with swarms of rabbits that are destroying 
everything in the shape of foliage or vegetation 
in sight. The presence of these pests in count- 
less numbers is ascribed largely to the coyote 
scalp law. Since the latter animals have been 
hunted and killed for the bounty offered for 
their scalps, the rabbits have multiplied in such 
numbers as to threaten the destruction of crops 
in every section of the county. The enactment 
of the scalp law looks to us very much like 
jumping out of the frying pan into the fire. 


CoDLiN Moth in Western Obeoon.— Eugene 
Register: The destructive little codlin moth is 
already at work in the apples, and the chances 
are that by the time the winter apples are ripe 
the codlin moth will have them pretty well 
eaten up. An inspection of almost any apple 
tree will show that where two apples touch 
each other the codlin moth has begun his work 
and is boring into them. So far as we can learn 
but little spraying has been done in the coun- 
try to dispose of these pests or to check their 
destructive work. Something must be done to 
rid the orchards of them or in a year or two the 
apples will be worthless. 

Fruits for the World's Fair.— Eugene lieg- 
ister: TheState Horticultural Society is actively 
at work making arrangements for the display 
of Oregon products to be made at the World's 
Fair at Chicago next year. Last January a 
committee was appointed to take charge of 
the matter, and it announces that it has just 
received a shipment of nearly a carload of 
glass jars in which to put up the fruit for the 
exhibit. These are made especially for exhibit 
purposes. They are of all sizes, from one 
quart to seven gallons, and when filled with 
Oregon fruit will certainly make a very elegant 
exhibit. The committee is now ready to re- 
ceive fruits of all kinds, with which to fill 
these jars. It is not only desired that the very 
best of all kinds that are grown in the State 
shall be thus secured, but that all parts of the 
State shall be represented. The name of the 
grower, with the address, together with the 
name of the fruit, will be placed on each Jar. 

JuLT 9, 1892. 

f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 



= FOR THE = 




=== OF" = 

H'rom September 5th to ITth.. 

California's Capabilities are Beyond Comparison. Let Not Apathy Prevent Their Being Exhibited. 
The State has Appropriated Over $5000 for Premiums for Soil Productions. 

REMEMBER THAT THE GREAT COLUMBIAN WORLD'S FAIR opens in May of next year. Hence, all agricul- 
tural exhibits must be collected this year. 

The State Board of Agriculture stands ready to assist the producer, and by gathering your exhibits and showing them at home at 
the State Fair, you can take advantage of the cash awards to assist you in the good work. All exhibits shown at the State Fair will 
be kept free of storage until their removal. BEGIN WITH HARVEST. 

MERCHANTS AND PROPERTY-OWNERS in each county are interested as much as the farmer, and should lead in the 

Do not overlook the chance of getting money to remunerate you, right here at home; it is to be given away at the State Fair of 
1892. Come and get some of it. FREDERICK COX, President. 

Send for Premium Lists. • EDWIN F. SMITH, Secretary. 



for $76. 

$125 JOB. 

Ouaranteed for 
One Tear. 






WMtewasli Your BarDS and Fences! 

Do Eithar Snocieggrnlly. 
Catalogue and teetimon'als sent by mall. 
No. 6 Sppar Street. San Francisco. Cal. 

J. F. HouoHTON, President, J. L. N. Bhkpaiid, Vice-PreB. 
Ohas. R. Btory, Seo'y, R. H. UAorLL, Qen. Ag't. 

Home MDtnal Insnrance Company, 

Bf. E. Cor. Califonila and Smnaome Sta., 

INOQBPORATKD A. D. 1864^ FrmaelMO. 

Lonea Paid Since Ormnlzation $3,175,7(9 11 

Aweta. January 1, 1^1 |67,5U 19 

Oapital Paid Up In Gold 300,000 00 

NET BTTRPLU8 over ATMltUiU 173 901 10 





Beat mmt StroBsaat EzpI«alTaa tm tka World. 

The only Reliable and EfiSdent P owde r for Stamp sad Baak BlaatlBK. Railroad Contractore and Fanner 
usa no other. A> olhera IMITATB omr eiani Powder, ao do they Judaoo, by maBaraeturlav 
an Inferior article. 

The Giant Powder To. having built Blask Powder Works, with all the latest improvementB, at Clipper Gap, Flaoer 
County, known as T li R CI.IPPBB olTer tbia powder and guarantee it the best. 

CAP* and FUSE at I.owaat Batea. 

THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY, 80 California St.. San Francisco. 



or ALL 

Sewing Macbines. 

simple In Construction, Ll^ht 
Running, Hobt Durable and Com- 

Visitors always welcome. 


948 Si 946 MARKKT ST.. 8. F. 

Oldest Muaio House. 



as O'Fu-rell St., 8. F. 



JuLT 9, 1892 


Laying Linoleums.— While it is difficult 
to follow a system in fitting oilcloths and 
linoleums, a few cardinal rules must be ob- 
served, and we venture to suggest them. In 
cutting linoleum from a diagram allow an 
inch at the ends. If it is not to be laid at 
once allow also a fraction on the width, for 
shrinkage is probable both ways. Get the 
diagram correct to the fraction of an inch, 
so that if cutting must be done for center- 
pieces or register holes it can be done before 
the cloth is laid on the room. Tack lino- 
leum after butting the edges evenly within 
an invisible brad, say four inches apait, and 
if possible line the edges with an adhesive 
paste. Get the floor smooth by dressing the 
planks. Do not try to even it up by laying 
strios of paper lining over sinks in the floor. 
Nothing but a jack plane will serve. The 
future service of the cloth will depend upon 
the floor being perfectly smooth. A nicely 
laid linoleum needs no binding, but should 
binding be desired for sake of appearance, 
use one half-inch brass binding. Let lino- 
leum, like oilcloth, lay face down several 
days in the store before fitting it. Another 
reason for having the cloth made perfectly 
ready for the apartment is to avoid scratch- 
ing the baseboard with surplus cloth, and the 
certainty of cutting the ends untrue. The 
balance of the detail must be left to the skill 
of the layer. We offer no antidote for blis- 
ters and puffs which appear in the center of 
sheets of linoleum and oilcloth. The manu- 
facturer comes in there. The seller had 
better lie low, and hope that Mrs. Jones will 
not put much stress on that "little swell," for 
he is powerless to help it.— Carpet and Up- 

Egg and Milk. — Take a fresh egg, break 
it in a saucer,and with a three-pronged fork 
beat it until it is as thick as batter. Have 
ready half a pint of new milk sweetened 
with white sugar, stir the egg into the milk, 
and serve it with a piece of sponge cake or 
slice of tost. It is considered very light, 
nourishing food for an invalid. Some prefer 
the yolk and white of the egg beaten sepa- 
rately. The yolk should be beaten till it is 
very light and thick, then pour it into the 
sweetened milk; afterward beat the white 
till it will stand alone, and add gradually 
half a teaspoonful of white sugar; pile the 
white on the top of the milk and serve as 

Orange Custard Pudding.— Boil a pint 
of new milk, pour it upon three eggs lightly 
beaten, mix in the grated peel of an orange 
and two ounces of loaf sugar; beat all to- 
gether for ten minutes, then pour the cus- 
tard into a pie dish, set it into another con- 
taining a little water, and put it into a mod- 
erate oven. When the custard is set, which 
generally takes about half an hour, take it 
out and let it get cold. Then sprinkle over 
rather thickly some very fine sugar, and 
brown with a salamander. This should be 
eaten cold. 

Cheese Fritters. — Slice thin half a 
dozen large, tart apples, and prepare half as 
many thin slices of cheese. Beat up one or 
two eggs, according to the quantity required, 
and season high with salt, mustard and a 
little pepper. Lay the slices of cheese to 
soak for a few minutes in the mixture. 
Then put each slice between two slices of 
apples, sandwich style, and dip the whole 
in the beaten egg. Fry in hot butter and 
serve hot. 

Potato Soup. — A quarter of a pound of 
butter, three large onions peeled and sliced 
small; stew in a stewpan until brown; stir 
frequently. When ready have peeled three 
or four dozen of medium size white potatoes, 
and slice them into the stewpan with the 
onions and butter. Pour sufficient boiling 
water over for the amount of soup desired. 
Let them boil for two hours, and then strain 
through a sieve in a soup tureen. Season 
with salt and pepper. 

Fruit Muffins.— Mix equal parts of 
well-cooked graham flour, B. oatmeal and 
water, and bake in muffin rings for 20 min 
utes, or until the cakes will slip through the 
rings without sticking. While hot, split in 
halves; on one half place ripe fruit, lightly 
sprinkled with sugar, then immediately cover 
with the other half. When all are thus fruit 
covered, set in a warm place for ten minutes 
before serving. 

Pineapple Trifle.— Pick a pineapple 
into small bits with a silver fork Make it 
quite sweet, and let it stand until the sugar 
is melted. Mix with it as much dry sponge 
cake, crumbled fine, as it will moisten. Bake 
half an hour and cover with a meringue. 

Gipsy Pudding. — Cut stale sponge cake 
in thin slices; spread with apple jelly. Put 
together like a sandwich, place them in a 
deep dish, cover with boiled custard. Serve 
very cold. 


// / \\'Vi 

ffyfj 1 \ 

BAGS, 1 

1 7c 

standard Calcutta. | 
Cartage added, 50c too. i 

U/ r 


1 ^\ 


^ standard Painted, 8%. 
GALV, 4M- 

Vou think it's about time to try a C-ash House 
i tbat f odon I clotely market cbaDges 


1 416-418 Front St, S F. 


NE Low Price 

To .1st ami Talc. 
Kquality to all, antf. no mtirrpre- 

Front Street, 

uters of fail) ill' 


We o»n send you one of our 


Which Is the result of years ot figuring to make the best 
harness ever known for the money. It is made from oak 
atock, hand stitched and finished by skilltul mechanics, 
handsome full nickel or Davis hard rubber trimmings. 

Just the Harness for an Klegant Tnrnont. 

They sell here for $26 00, and harness not as (rood is 
often sold lor $36.00 tn retail shops It harness is not as 
represented, money will oe refunded. 

Liebold Harness Co. 

ItO HoAIlistar 8t., San Francisco. 

Collar and Hames. Instead of Breast Collar 
92 00 extra. 

Ple'se state If you want sintrle strap Harness, or folded 
style Harness, with tracea double throughout. 





Calves, Yearlings and 2-year olds 

Baden Station, San Mateo County, Cal. 
Only three-fourths mile from terminus of the S. P. 
and San Uateo Electric Road. 

Save $40.00 on New $140.00 


We will deliver, free ol 
.freight, to any i>olnt 
Iwest of the Rocky 
jMountalns, perfectly 
new 814 grade, cusb- 
. . Ion tire. Referee 
Safeties, hlehest grade, for fit 00. Usta Free. 

A. W. GUMP &, CO.. Dayton. Ohio 


On first class country real estate, in sums of t6000 and 
over. 'Give full particulars. Addrees 

454 Ninth Street, - (. akland, Cal. 


The German SayiEgs and Loan Society, 

526 California Street. 

dividend has been declared at the late of five and 
one-tenth (6 1-10) per cant, per annum on Term Deposits, 
and four and one-quarter (4^) per cent, per annum on 
Ordinary Deposits, payable un and after FRIDAY, July 
1, 1892. GEO. TOURNY, Secretary. 


nia Street, corner Webb; Branch. 1700 Market Street, 
corner Pi^lk.— For the halt year endine with SOth June, 
1892, a dividend has been declared at the rate of five and 
one.fltth (5 1.5) per cent, per annum on Term Deposits, 
and four and one-third (4J) per cent, per annum on 
Ordinary Deposits, free of taxes, payable on and after 
FRIDAY, 1st July. 1892. LOVKLL WEHTK. Cashier. 

Myrobolan or Peach, 100, 3-B ft., $20; t-7 It., $26, 
Bartlett Fear on Pear, a-7 ft., SM. This stock is grown 
on finest soli, is warranted A KSOI.UTEl, Y FKKE 
from Insects ot any kind. ORDER NOW to secure 
best stock. Liberal discount on large lots. We lajport. 
as usual. Nursery Stock from Europe, Austra'ia and 
Japan. Send (or Catalogue. Mention if in trade. Ad- 
dress H- H. BEROER & CO., Minetaonth and 
Polaom Sts.. Han Praocisco. Established 1878. 


If you want to I now about Califor- 
nia and the Pacific Htatea.aend for the 
the best Illustrated and L<.'a(ling Farming and Horticultnral 
Weekly of the Far West. Trial. 60c for 3 mos. Two sample 
copies, 10c. EeUbUshed 1870. DEWEY PUBLISHING 00 
320MarketSt., B. F. 





Singing Schools. 
Clubs, Conventions, Etc. 

Victory of Song. 

L. O. Emerson's latest and best work, 192 pages ol 
Glees, Part Songs, Choruses, Anthems, Hale Quartettes, 
etc; with Ruoimentary Exerolses, Lessons in Note Read- 
ing, Hints tn Regard to the Use of the Voice, Articula- 
tion, Pronunciation, etc. Price 60c, (6.00 per dozen. 

Emerson's Anthems of Praise. 

A new book containing nearly 100 choice Anthems, 
Price $1 00; $9.00 per dozen. 

Gabriel's Anthems. 

Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press 
Patent Agency. 

A deservedly popular collection. Price, Jl.OO; tO.OO 
per dozen. 

Emerson's Easy Anthems. 

Od>> ot the best selling collections. 80 cents; $7.20 
per dozen. 

Emerson's Choice Anthems. 

Ur. Emerson's choice- of the best 61 anthems ol the 
of the last decade. Price, $1.00; (9.00 per dozen. 

American Tune Boole. 

By Dr. Lowell Mason, assisted by 600 teachrrs and 
choir leaders. A complete collection ol the tunes most 
widely popular, with the most popular anthems and set 
pieces— in fact, the cream of all other books. Price, 
$1.E0; $13.50 per dozen. 

Oow's Collection of Responses 

and Sentences. 

By Howard M. Dow. Price, board?, 80 cents; $7.20 
per dozen. Cloth, $1.00, or (9.00 per dozen. 

(Any book sent postpaid upon receipt of retail pri<e. 
When o-dtred at dozen rate transportation not prepaid.) 


463-163 WashlDgtou Street, Bosteu, Masi. 

Writing us before placing your orders for 


Writing us before placim 


Our goods are thoroughly reliable and our 
prices are as low as the lowest. 

EcllpHe Wood Wlieel mUla. 
Huatler Wood WUeel Jflil Is. 
Beloit Steel Wheel IMIIIh. 
Ansle ic Tubular Steel Towers. 


(Mention this paper ) 


Notary Publla 



Mo. BSC OKlUornla Btraet, 

Telephone Ro. I7M, SAN nAHCISOO, OAL, 

Our U. S. and Foreign Patent Aoenct 
presents many and important advantages \n i 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of long 
establishment, great experience, thorough sys- 
tem, intimate acquaintance with the subjects ol 
inventions in onr own community, and our 
naost extensive law and reference library, con- 
taining ofiBclal American and foreign reports, 
Sles of Bcientifio and mechanical publications, 
etc. All worthy inventions patented through 
Dur Agency will have the benefit of an illnstra- 
tion or a description in the Minii'o and Scikn- 
riFio E.S.S.- We transact every branch of 
Patent business, and obtain Patents in all ooan< 
tries which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
Issued to inventors on the Pacific Ooast have 
been obtained through onr Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new iuventiona. Our pricrs 
are as low as any first-class agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for Pacific 
Coast Inventors are far superior. Advice and 
Oircalars free. 

DEWEY Ss CO., Patent Agents, 
■2iO Market St., Elevator, 12 Front St., S. F. 
Telephone No. 6.58. 

Protect Your Trees from Sunburn, Boren. 
Rabbits, Etc., by Using 


(Patent ajiplied (or) 
TO a CT8. F£R TREE. 

It is the only Perfect Tree Protector, 
and ie belnf^ used by many of the 
Largest Growers In the United States. 
Wateriiroof, adjustable and convenient. 
Saves time and trouble and expense. 

Write for samples ot above; also tor 
samples and catalogue 


Easy to apply— ju'rt the thing lor Hoo«es, Baros, loe 
Houses and Outbuildings— Durable and Cheap. 


80 «n<1 3« FirKt >*tr«>et. San Fr«r>ci»ro. Cal. 

The Excelsior Frnit Tree Protector 

!^ Manufactured by 


Paper Dealers, 

401403 Sassoie St. 

4 Tow 


ItST' Delivered at roar U. U. Kt-atioo &od ample time fm 
baildlnir aod tenting ai>ox¥e<l beforo acceptanoa. 

OSGOOD & THOMPSON, Binghamton. M. f 

Twenty-tive per cent cheaper than any other on the 
market. Send for Catalogue. 

C. H. LINDEMANN, Agent, 



Positively Maae t« My Order (or California Trade. 
Lowest Prices. 
Snrrles, BugKlea. Carrla^aa, Fhaetona, Carta. 

Osliorn Mowers, Self-RaMng Mm k Binders, 

Drapers, Glidln Wire, All Kinds rarm Im- 
plement*. Hardware. 

JOHN CAINE,369EI Dorado St., Stocktotu 

JULT 9 1892. 



^mki' birectory. 

Biz Udcb or less In this directory at 60c par line per month. 


F. H. BOBKB, 626 Market St., S. P.; Registered 
HolsteiDs; winners of more first prizes, sweepstfckes 
and special premiums than any herd on the Coast 
Pure registered Berkshire Pigs. All strains. 

JBBSBY8— The best A J. C. C. Reeistered Herd Is 
owned by Henry Pierce, S F. Animals (or sale. 

P. PETERSEN, Sites, ColusaCo., Importer & Breeder 
of registered Shorthorn Cattle. Young bulls tor sale. 

JOHN liYNOH, Petaluma, breeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns. Young stock for sale. 

WILD PJjOWBR stock FARM, Fresno Co. 
A. Heilbron 6, Bro., Props., Sic. Breeders of thorough- 
bred strains and Crulkshank Shorthorns; also Registered 
Herefords; a fine lot of young bulls in each herd tor sale. 

OHARLES B. HUMBERT, Cloverdale, Cal., Im- 
porter and Breeder of Recorded Holsteln-Frlesian 
Cattle. Catalogues on application. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, Breeder of Shorthorns. 
Dealer in fresh Cows, Beef Cattle and Sheep, 

PBROHBBON HORSES.— Pure bred horses and 
mares, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, for sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake Co., Cal. New cata- 
logue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

lor Sale, Bonnie Brae Cattle Co., Holllster, CaL 

J. H. WHITB, Lakevllle, Sonoma Co.. CaL, breeder 
ol Registered Holstein Cattle. 

Cattle. H. A. Mayhew, Niles, Cal. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac Co. , CaL , Importer and 
Breeder of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs. 

PBTBR SAXE A SON, Llek House, San Franotaso, 
Oal Importers and Breeders, tor past 21 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holstein and Jersey Cattle. None better. 


O. BLOM, St. Helena. Brown Leghorns a specialty. 

Light Brahmas, Black Langahans, Buff Cochins, 
Barred Plymouth Rocks Black Ulnorcas, White Leg- 
horns. Settings, $i.EO. Uann's Bone Mills, Creosozone. 

Cal. S. C. White Leghorns, W. Holland Turkeys, 
Toulouse Geese and Pekin Ducks and Guinea Pigs. 

CaL, send for Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

JAMBS QUICK, Patterson, CaL, Breeder of Pure 
Bred Poultry of Choicest Vaiieties and Best Blood. 

JOHN McPARLINO, Calistoga, CaL , Importer and 
Breeder of Choice Poultry. Bend tot Clrcolar. Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Plga 

B. G. HEAD, Napa, Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 


O. B. DWINBLLB, Breeder of Shropshireani Shrop- 
shire-Merino cross-bred rams, Fulton, Sonoma Co., CaL 

F. BULLARD, Woodland, CaL, Importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sbecp. Premium Band of the State. 
Choice Bucks and Ewes (or Sale. 

B, H. CRANE, Petaluma, CaL. breeder and importer. 
South Down Sheep; also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, CaL, Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Crossbred 
Merino and Shiopshire Sheep. Ramj tor sale. 


WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire figs. Circulars tree. 

TYLER BEAOH, San Jose, CaL, 
Ihorsnghbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs 

brssder ol 


quarters, Wm. Styan, San Mateo. Cal. 



One and a half miles northeast of San 
Leandro, Alameda County, 


Every Facility for Breaking Colts Properly. 

Rates Very Reasonable. 


0II.BX;RT TOMPKINS, Proprietor, 
P. O. Box 140 San Leandro. Oal. 




a stamp (or cur new iUustrated 
catalogue o{ Wool Growers' 
Supplies and a free copy of the 
only Illustrated Sheep and Wool 
Journal published. We sell 
Shepherds' Crooks. Shears, 
Dockers, Slacks, Twine, Wool 
Boxes, Bells, Marks and a hun- 
dred other articles needed by 
every sheep owner. Send to-day. 
O. 8. BURCH & CO., 178 Mich- 
igan Street, Obicago. 

Intending to Retire from the Breeding of Trotters, because I cannot find 
time to give proper attention to them, I am offering my 

At the Salesyard of KILLIP & CO., Corner Van Ness Avenue and 
Market Street, San Francisco, on 

Wednesday. August 10. 1892. at 1 1 A. M. 

KILLIP & CO. will Conduct the Sale and Issue the 



Dictator 113. 

lookootT™^ ^^^'^Ido^v: 


^ADINA ^addikLs^, 

I, 4 in the 2:30 list. 


Bl f, (otled^ 
1890. I 

_ ^NCONDAY lO.OOoi "^^Zr.^'^^' 

/'Nutwood, Jr (by Nut- 


< hjcy Patchen (dam o 

(, Jas. Madison, 2:17J) 

BET MADISON f •'^^^s madhon 17,909, 2:173 {t^^7^rous.. 

Bl f, foaled 1S91. 


IAbbokford 707, 219i. 

' j Alpha Med u» (Dam of 
(, Katy S.) 2:25. 

tW The Stcck ^111 all be at Salesyard a few days before the sale for examination, 



Prize Herd of Southern California. 



P. O Box 686 liOS Angeles, Oal. 

X3;OI_iST3I3I3Nr-ir"ItIElSI-^3Nr 0-£LTTIjE. 

Registered Herd Book Stock of the Aaggie.Netherland, Nep- 
tune, CIttden, Artis and other (amilles. None better. 

Of the Coomassie, Alphea and other choice strains. 

Poland-Ohina and Berkshire Pigs. 

I'O'CrijiTinr— Nearly all Varieties. 

Third Edition PGULTKY & STOCK BOOK, 60 cents 
by mail postpaid. Thirteen years experience on this coast. 



Importer and Breeder of 

English SMre, Cljdesdale, Percheron and Goacli Horses. 


Stable, Broadway and 32d 8t«., Oakland, Cal. Address Box 86. 


Genuine only with RED 
BALL brand. 

Recommended by Qold- 
smith, Marvin, Oamble, 
Wells, Far^o & Co., eto., etc. 

It keeps Horses and Cattle 
healthy. For mlloh oows; 
it Increases and enrlohea 
their milk. 

6X8 Howard St., San 
Franelsoo, Oal. 

A. T Dewey 
W. B. EWKB. 
Geo. H. Stroko. 

jDewey 4 C o.'s Scientiflc Press Pat ent Agency {^TseT'' 

Inykntors on the Padflc Coast will find It greatly to their advantage to consult this old, experienced, first-class 
Agency. We have able and trustworthy Associates and Agents in Washington and the capital cities of the principal 
nations of the world. In connection with our editorial, scientific and Patent Law Library, and record of original 
cases In our office, we have other advantages far beyond those which can be offered home inventors by other agencies 
the information accumulated through long and careful practice before the Offloo, and the frequent examination of 
p;ttents already granted, for the purpose of determining the patentability of Inventions brought before us, enables 
aa often to give advice whUh will save Inventors the expense ol applying for Patents upon Inventions which are not 
lew. ClieaUn.of .advlas wdI free on reoelpt ol postage Address DSWKT fe CO., Patent Agent«,.220 Market Si , 8. F 


WILMANS BROS., - - FroprletOFB 

Successors to 

Breeders and Importers of Thoroughbred 
French Merino Sheep, 


Address correspondence to J. M. Lathrop, Agent, 
Newman, Cal. 



W, A. SHAFOR, - • Middletown, Ohio. 

Twelve Years Experience. Imports will arrive from 
Rngland in July. Order Early. Get your neighbors to 
join. Order car lots bv (rAlfi^ht. flav* RYprnRq nh«reea. 


Porteons Improved Scraper 

Patented Arril 3, 1883. 

nted pril 17, 1383. 

Mannfactnred by G. LISSENDEN. 

The attention o( the public is called to this Scraper 
and the many varieties o( work o( which It is capable, 
such as Rcilroad Work, Irrigation Ditches, Levee Build- 
ing. Leveling Land, Road Making, etc. 

This implement wiil take up and carry Its load to any 
desired distance. It will diatrlbute the din. evenly or 
deposit its load in bulk as desired. It will do the work 
of Scraper, Grader, and Carrier. Thousands of these 
Scrapers are in use in all parts of the country. 

ti" This Scraper is all steel— the only one manufac- 
tured In the State. 

Price, all Steel, four-horse, $4 0; Steel two-horse, $31. 
Address all orders to U. LI8SENDEN, Stockton, 


I have two 2.year-old Shorthorn Bulls, mostly red. 
In good order, and the price delivered on cars or ship 
in San Francisco, is 280 each— are thoroughbred but 
can't pedigree, hence the price. 

Lick House, San •^ranclaco, Oal. 



ary Surgeons, London, England. Late Veterinary 
Surgeon in the United States Army. Veterinary Con- 
tributor to the " Paclflo Rural Press." The diseases of 
all Domestic Animals treated on Scientific Principles. 
Special attention given to Chronic Lameness and Surgical 
Calls to the country promptly attended to. Telephone 
No. 4667 

MONEY Make Some t" 

By using the Pacific Incubator 
and Brooder, which will hatch any 
kind of eggs better tlian a hen. In uni- 
versal use. Gold Medal wherever ex- 
hibited. Thoroughbred Poultrj 
a<id Poultry Appliances. Send 
8 eta. in stamps for 82-page catalogue, 
with 30 full-sized colored cuts of thor- 
oughbred fowls, to Pacific Incuba- 
tor Co., 187 Castro St., Oakland, Cal. 



Itia Myrtl* Mtreet, «akIaH« C»L 

Send Stamp for Circular. 


conRCfiucutly the price of eggs Is arlvancing. Every one 
phould now feed Wellington's Iu)i)rove(l Kgg hood regularly 
if they desire to have eggn to sell wlieu thuv reach high 
prices. Get it of any MKRCIIANT or of rrrprietor, 
B. F. WKLLINGTON. 425 Waehlugtou Ht, San FranciBCO. 


f ACiFie f^uraid press. 

Jilt 9 1892 




Horse Liniment 

Is certainly the best preparation of Its 
kind In the market. Ranchers, Stock 
Raisers and Horse Owners of every 
description will tell you that It does 
sood work every time. 

__, H. H. Hooil & 90HB, Stockton, Cal.— GKiTTLi- 
ra: In kngwer to your Inquiry, would Btate that I used 
your H. H H. Lliilmont on my Holland prize-winning 
cow, " Lena Henlo," for a wrenched shoulder, and It re- 
lieved her very much. Shecalred the neit day, and while 
■till suBertng from the sprain gave the lar^ceet authen- 
ticated quantity of milk ever elven on this coast (lOJ 
gallong per day), showing conclusively the great relief 
received from your remedy. I consider it a necessity in 
my stables, and when away from home feel perfectly 
eafe, as Inexperienced men can do no barm with it, as 
they can witb the more powerful blisters. Respectfully 
yours, FRANK H. BURKK, 

Breeder of Reiiistered Holstelns and Beikshires. 
Menlo Park, Cal., January 22d, 1889. 





Acme AQtomatic Safety Engine. 

. With Patent 


ViBB Oil as Fuel. 
3, and 4 Horse Power 


Developed at 

only Nominal 


These Driving Pous s src in Oeoeral Use by 

BIATHEN. f ir JUrine Pnrposts 

ACKStI ITHS, f .r Ulowers, D.-ills and Michinery. 

■BUTnHKRS lor Meat Cutters, Grindinj, Cojking 
S u<:age, Rendering Lard by Steim. 

DAI KYM EN, for Cream Separators Churns, W rkerj, 
Pumpin^r, Cut' n; Feed and O in ting Orain. 

FaUIT GROWER*, for sawing B x Material, Op- 
erating Dryc'S, Pumpiig Wa'er, Grinding Tools. 

OKOCERS. forCoOce an I Spica Mil s, Roasters and 

GRAIN BUVERS, for Cleaning and El'vst neOra'n. 
FARMER^, fir Cutting and S-.«amin^ Feed, Cle nlng 

and Grinding 0-ai^, Sa*in( Wood Pumping Water, 

Churning, Grinding Tools, Elevit Grain and H iy. 

Lathes, DrIlH, Planers, GrinHatone'i, Emery Wheel^ etc. 
PRINTKK8, tor Presses, PaporCutteri a id Kiev t ts 

And Ua -y Other Purposes t o numerous to m ntion. 

only oll-burnini; Engine made that will succeisfully run 
an Electric LVht. 

You will never know how cheaply it runs, nor how 
well i ; opentes, u til you give one a t lal. Write for 
further information. 


3 & 5 Piont Street. San Francleco 
848 N. Main St., Los Angeles. 141 Fr )nt St., Portland. 


Paper Manifactnrers and Dealers. 


Lining Paper of every description for Dried 
Fruit Boxes. 


Manilla and Straw Paper in Rolls and Shi^ets. 
Manufacturers of " Basle " Paper Bags. 

*ie 01«» nfr«»t.. Han Wmnt^imon 


Is one of the most c-mplete Inventions for drying 
Raisins and Pranes by steam in 24 hours— other 
fruits less time. No sulphur or pota«h used. Retilns 
all syrup, Juloe and flavor In original purity. Capacity 
dries from 75 lbs green Iruit to 20 tons. Send for circu- 
A M'F'Q CO., 847^ S. Sp-Ing St., Los Angeles, C*I. 


Golden Ital. 

Ian Que<;ns. 

. r\ ; " — ■— — . T<ated,S2.00 

each; untested. flM each. L Hives, $1.90 each. Eoofa V 

Soove sectious, $6.00 per 1000. Dadanfi comb foundation 
and 66capound. Smokers, $1.00 each. Globe Tells. <1 DC 
MOb. Ito. WU. BTYAN * HON. Ban Mateo. OaL 



Warebouee and Wharf at Port Coata. 


Monay advanced on Oraln In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Fnll Oarsoes of Wbeat fumlabed Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO OBSERS FOR GSAIH BAGS, A^cultural Implement*, Yf&goju, Orooerlct 
and Merchandise of every detcriptlon solicited. 

B. VAN BVBBY, Manager. A. M. BaLT, Assistant Manager. 

No story need b« told of the C}'Olone or of the number that bavs been sold. They o«d be seen worklnf io 

every Inhabited put of the Pacific Slope whilst hundreds are exported every year. 

The Cyclone mill Is not an experiment, but acknowledged by all who have used It to be the most powerful and 
durable mill on the market. 

It Is simple In construction, has no cogs or complicated gearing to get out of order. Has only three principal 
bearings, heavily ImhbiteH boxes and self oiling apartments. 

The wheel and vane of the Cyclone (which are the meet durable parts of any solid wheel mill) are made strong 
and of well seasoned wood flolshed with the best lead and oil which neither blister In the ran not is consumed by rust 

Send tor Illustrated Catalogue to 

Pacific Manufacturing Company, 

Manufacturers and Jobbers of Windmills, Pumpa, Tanks, TUBULAR 
WEILL TOOLS, Pipe. Pittinsrs. Bto.. Fltc 




Guaranteed more Durable withnnt oil than other 
mills that are oiled. 
Practically these mills require no attention. TruJif a Gem and 
tvorth itH tvfiffht in gold. It combines beauty , Btr*'ngthf 
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erected and is sold on its merits. In fact it is the Lest mill on earth. 
They are geared back three to one— the wheel making three rev- 
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wind or breeze. 'I'he mill is made entirely of Steel and Cast Iron. 
Kach one of otir Gem Wind Mills is warranted. If not satibfac 
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SEND FOR Catalogue-Mailed Free. 

We also carry 

Pumps of all kinds, Tanks, Pipe, Fittings, Hose, etc. 


312 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Mann's Green Bone Cutter 


Patented Juno 16, 188«; August 30, 1889. Canada Patent, Jane 12, 1390. 

WK WARRANT this machine to cat Dry or Green Bones, meat, gristle and 
all, by Hand Power, without clog or difficulty, or MONEY KEFUNDED 

will make them 26 per cent more fertile, and increase the vluor of the whole flock 

These Cutters are endorjcd by all the leadine Calltornla poultrymen. Send for a 
Catalogue describing all sixes of Cutters and coDtainlng vaulable information in reUtion 
to feeding green cut bonea 


Pacific Ooaet Agente. PETALUMA, OAL. 

S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

Free Ooach to and From the House. j. bbokbb. Proprietor. 

Coimni^^ioD )ierchapt3. 


Commission Mercl\antJ 



Qreen and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Oonalnnmenta. 
808 4 810 Davii St., San FranoiMf 

[P. O. Box 1986.1 
MTConilgnmentu Rolleitad. 


SOI, 608, 506. 607 & 609 Front St., 
And 800 Washington 8t, SAN FEANaSOO. 



.\Nn WO'tL. 




General Commission Merchants, 

810 Callfomla St.. S. F. 
Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchans*. 

tS'Personal attention given to sales and liberal advancM 
made on oonalgnir.ents at low rates of InterML 


Commis sion Me rchants. 


418, 416 & 417 Waeliln«ton St., 

(P. O. Box 2099.) SAN FRANCI900. 

laaTABLUHU 1864.1 



Se 01»y street and 38 Oommerclal StreM 
■aa rKAaooHw, Oal. 

W. C. PRICE & CO.. 



Con ignments and Correspondence Solicited. 
P ompt Sales and Q lick C>Bb Returns is our motto. 
219 and eel DaTi* Htrept. Han rraorlsco. 



And Dealers In Fralt, Prodnoe, Ponltry, Qame, bn 
Hides, Pelts, Talluw, etc, iS! Front St., and HI, Hi 
926 and 2S7 Waahinglon St.. San Francisco. 


Hay Prenes made by the Celebrated Pren 

WIDE WE3T (All Steel) PRE^. 








I • •■■■-Uilf/mne, C/tcMn;. Pump. 

■ ■II ning. Wind&Steam Uaoh'f. Encyclopedia ISa. 

■ ■ ■■ ■■■■The American Well Works. Aurora, UL 

U-i3S.CanalSt.,CHICAGO,ILL. ( . ., 
Ki.u Stukt. DALLAS, TEXAS. ( ' 

Jolt 9, 1892. 

f ACIFie f^URAio f RESS, 


Market Review. 

San Francisco, July 6, 1892. 
General trade was Interrupted by a two-day holl 
day, from which It has not fully recovered at this 
writing. A large number of business men is still 
absent (visiting at the various summer resorts), and 
will not probably return before the close of the week. 
By the IBth ot the current month, it is claimed, busi- 
ness win have resumed its normal condition, when 
far more active tknes can reasonably be looked for. 
Harvest work is being vigorously pushed in all parts 
ot the State under favorable circumstances. Crops 
are averaging larger than had been estimated, so 
that, with good crops, as a rule, and the outlook 
promising for remunerative prices, we should have 
more prosperous times. The money market con- 
tinues to favor borrowers with firtt-class or gilt-edged 

Foreign Grain Review. 

London, July 4 —The Mark Lane Express says: 
English wheats are dull and 6d to 63 lower; foreign 
6d lower. It Is estimated that 3,000.000 quarters of 
foreign wheat and 100,00; tacks of ttour have been 
placed in warehouse. M*ize is weaker; oats have de- 
clined 3d, white American selling 17s. Rye is firmer; 
beans and peas 6d cheaper. At to-day's market, 
flour was weaker; English was in better demand 
than foreign. There was but little buslnees in bar- 
ley; grinding borts dropped 6d. There was a fair in- 
quiry for maize; rouud corn fell 3d; other borts are 
unchanged. Oats and barley are lower. Beans and 
peas are neglecled. 

Grain Futures. 


The following are the closiug prices paid for wheat options 
per otl. for the past week: 

June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. 

Thursday 63O7 d tisOS d BsOSic' BaOSid 6809 d 

Friday SsOTid 6s06Jd 6s07id 6sl8Jd 6su82d .... 



Tuesday GsOS d 6806Jd 6B07Jd esCSJd 6809)d 68S9id 

The following are the prices for California carzoes for off 
coast, nearly due aad prouipt shipments for i he past week. 


O. O. P. 8. N. D. for P. S. 
Thursday ..3483d 34s3i 31s3d Easy. 

Friday 3483d 34s3d 3483d Weaker. 



Tueiday 34sed Negl< cted 

To-day s cablegram Is as follows: 

LivitKPooL. July 6.— Whkat— Not much in demand. 
California spot 7s; off cost, 34s; just shipped, 34s 
nearly due, 348; cargoes off coast, quiet but steadjf; 
cargoes on passage, not much demaud; Mark Mane 
wheat, slow; French country markets, under Intlu 
ence ot fine weather, markets cheaper; weather in 
England, fair with showers. 

New York. 

The following shows the closing prices of wheat for the 
past week: 

Day. July Aug Sept. Oct. Nov. 

Thursday 143i l41i Wi 

Friday 143i 143i 144 145i .... 



Tuesday 1435 143i 144i 14E4 .... 

The following are to-days' telegram : 

New York, July 6.— Wheat— 85%c for July, 85?4c 
for August, 89c for December and VS%c for May. 

Chicago. July 6 —Wheat— 78%; for July, 7814c for 
September aLd 80J^c for December., 
San Francisco. 


Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer 
'92. Aug. Sept. Oct. Dec 

Thursday, highest 137S 

" lowest J37 

Friday, highest 137i 

" lowest 136S 

Saturday, highest 

" lowest 

Monday, highest 

•* lowest 

Tuesday, highest 1365 

lowest 136J 

The following are to-day's recoided sales on Oall: 
Morning Intormal -Seller 1892, 100 tons, §1.361 
Jl.Sei ^ ctl. Regular Sesfion.— Seller im, lUO tons, .'S1.36J 
21t0, $1,364; 230O. S1.368. Bujer December, 100 tons, S1.40J 
100, «1,4CS; 100, $1.4 3 %! ctl. Afternoon. -Seller 1892, 180u 
tons, S1.3 i: llOU, ijl.36}. Buyer December, 401) tons, $1.40i; 
September, 100 tons, per ctl. 


|at the same prices. It is estimated that SOOO bales 
have been taken for this country. The advance in 
London will influence greatly American markets, 
particularly prices in Ohio and Michigan wools, com- 
petitors of Australia. Some large sales in Cordova 
wool are reported. Otherwise carpet wools are quiet. 

General Remarks and Statistics. 

Produce Receipts. 

Receipts of produce from all sources at this port for 7 
days ending July 5, '92, were as follows : 

Flour, qr, sks 31,235 

Wheat, ctU 110,57i! 



Bran, sks , . . 
Buckwheat *'..., 
Chicory, bbla . .. 

Hop', " 

Wool, " 2,657 

Hay, ton a,213 

Straw, " 100 

Wine, gals 144,078 






Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer 
Aug. Sept. Oct. Dec. 




Thursday, highest 92| 

" lowest 92s 

Friday, highest 9/4 

" lowest 924 

Saturday, highest 

" lowest 

Monday, highest 

" lowest 

Tuesday, highe»t 921 95| 

" lowest 9l|t 95| 

The following are to-dsy's recorded sales on Call: 
Informal. -Seller 1892, new, 100 tons, 91Jc. Regular Ses- 
•ion.-Seller 1892, new, 600 tons, 918c; 100, 9IJc per ctl. 
Afternoon.— Seller 1892, new, 100 tons, 9 Jc; 400, 91So; 300, 
91{c per ctl. 

Markets by Telegraph. 

California Dried Fruit. 

New Yobk, July 4.— The remaining raisins are in 
few hands. Five hundred boxes of common layers 
brought $1 10; good to prime three-crown bags are 
worth 4J4c and 5c. The proposed dictation of prices 
for new crop which reach us is deemed untimely and 
injudicious. The Coast has efiectively pushed Spain 
aside, but with her natural inclination to regain her 
commercial position the 2%c duty on her product 
might not prove a severe handicap if domestic grow- 
ers overweight their opening prices. Buyers doubt 
the short apricot crop rumors and are loth to pay 9% 
and 10c free on board; still the inquiry is strong at 
the close and points to early materialization. There 
will be little sun-drying of North Carolina or Georgia 
peaches this season; also few Eastern cherries. 
Eastern Wool Markets. 

New Yobk, July 1. — Manufacturers are buying wool 
more freely, though none of the leading markets can 
be called active. New wools are being bought in 
from the West at much higher prices than manulac- 
turers are willing to pay, while the whole tendency 
Is toward advance. Mauulacturers will not accept it 
unless the quality of wool is superior to that of last 
year. At the old prices sales would now be large, for 
the majority of the manufacturers are short of stock. 
The supply of new wools which is now in the East- 
ern markets is large and is steadily increasing. There 
Is a good demand for Texas wools. Territory wools 
are coming along more freely and sales are larger. 
There Is a quiet trade in pulled wools. New lamb's 
wool is beginning to come forward. Receipts will 
steadily increase during July. Dealers have only 
light stocks. Pulled wools are holding quotations 
firm, as mauulacturers wiU need all now on the mar- 
ket: A good strong demand is noted lor Australian 
wools. London sales prices have been advanced 
from 5 to 10 per cent on fine Merinos and Jcrossbreds. 
Prices abroad are higher relatively than here. Wools 
which are now being sold here cannot be duplicated 

Barley, " 66,460 

Rye, " 642 

Oats, " 2,482 

Corn, " 3,89i 

•Butter, •• 1,077 

do bis 82u 

do hbls 17 

do k> gs 32 Brandy, 

do tubs 259 Raisins, bxs 

doibxs 125 Honey, 

tCheese, ctis 953 Peanuts,sk3 

do bxg 191| Waluuts " 

Eggs, doz 28,3C0 Almonds " 

do " Eastern 108,500lMuata!d " 

Beans, sks 5,667|Flax " 6,468 

Potatoes, sks 16,3S7 1 Popcorn " 

Onions, " l,949lBroom com, bbls 

•Uverl'd, 269 ctis. t Overland, — ctls. 

Engrllsh Hop Crop Notes. 

W. H. & H. Le May, in their London circular Juue 
20, say: The low temperature of the last week has 
seriously checked the growth of the bine, and it has 
now a very yellow and sticky appearance, and in 
many gardens is still only half way up the poles; fly 
has increased in the Kent and Sussex plantations, 
and there is a sprinkling ot lice to be found in all 
gardeuk; many districts of these counties, Worcester 
and Hereford, are in a black blight. It Is easy to find 
from 20 to 200 fly on a pole in most gardens. Surrey 
and Hants are in about the same state as Kent and 


Mark Lane Express, Jane 20th, says: The present 
promise lor the United Kingdom, allowing for di- 
minished area under wheat cultivation, is for a crop 
about one million qrs. smaller than that of last year. 
The barley seems to have made very satisfactory pro 
gress of late, and on the fine malting barley soils of 
Suffolk and Essex should be a remunerative yield. 

English wheat lor May had an average of 31s 3d. 
being a fall of 9s. 2d. on the twelvemonth, and of 
lid. even from that very cheap year 1890. Since 
January 1st of the present year the fall was about 
tour shillings. The iirst fortnight of June has seen 
a further retrogression of lOd. on the qr. in the 
country and of 7d. in London, where a mean value 
of 31s. 9d. Is now quoted against 32s. 4d. formerly 
obtained. Value seems to be ebbing at a rale which 
will. If not checked, give us a June wheat average 
of under 30s. per qr. as in 1889, a year of depression in 
summer prices for which parallel has to be sought 
outside the nineteenth century. The last two days 
of trade, Friday and Saturday, aflord some slight 
hope that the downward movement will go no lur- 
ther. There are no large reserves in farmers' hands, 
and if these reserves are held from now over harvest 
—even if only half of them are— the gravity of the 
present situation will be greatly mitigated. The 
following special table has been prepared to help 
the reader to estimate what further supplies of the 
three chief Imported staples are likely to come to 
hand during the remainder of the present cereal 
year. Of the wheat afloat, the Califoruian will not 
all come to hand bpfore August 31, but against this 
may be written off the shipments under contract 
from the Atlantic ports for July by steamer. These 
will arrive during August, and will come into this 
cereal year's figures, but they cannot yet be indi- 
cated in precise statistics;— 

grain afloat on JONS 16 POa SIX YBABS. 

Wheat. Maize. Barley, 
qrs. qrs. qrs. 

1892 2,556,000 455,000 114,000 

1891 2,839,000 444,000 157,000 

1890 2 '25.5,000 525,000 127,01.0 

18S9 l,320,oOiJ 498,0 6 156,00) 

1888 2,258,000 420,000 141,000 

1887 1,824,000 385,000 100,100 

This extended comparison enables us to see that 
the wheat now afloat is. if a large, at least not an un- 
precedented quantity, that the expectations of 
maize are as nearly as possible an average, and 
that the floating quantity of barley must be consid- 
ered small, 

Beerbohm gave an estimate on the Indian wheat 
crop making it materially less than had been antici- 
pated. Estimates hitherto made a decrease in the 
crop of 25 to 30 million bushels, but bis estimates 
to-day showed a decrease of 64,000,000 bushels in the 
crop in India, which would reduce the total to 191,- 
000,000 bushels. The average is about 240,000,000 
bushels. Some doubt was cast upon this owing to 
the fact that the Indian shipments for this season 
have been nearly as large as they were for the cor- 
responding time last year The total from April I up 
to date amounU to 16,400,000, against 17,080,000 for 
the corresponding time last year. 

The decrease in stocks has been quite rapid all 
over the world, and a well-known Liverpool au- 
thority, the Commercial Trade Journal esti- 
mates that the decreas» in the world's vis- 
ible supply In June will be 40,000,000 busb- 
els. The crop outlook abroad is fairly good in 
nearly all countries. None of the advices indicate 
a heavy outturn and a few a serious deficiency. 

In the local market wheat held strong, notwith- 
standing Saturday and Monday were holidays. Yes- 
terday buyers entered the market and paid an ad- 
vance in the country on last week's quotations. More 
deep sea vessels arriving, combined with several 
chartered vessels' lay days being about out, were 
important factors in our market. It is now authori- 
tatively asserted that the crops in the United States 
will not be much if any larger than has been esti- 
mated by the Rural Press. In this State harvesting 
is well under way, and the outturn is proving to be 
larger than was expected. The grain also averages 
plumper than the outlook promised three weeks ago. 
I'here are many localities where the grain is shriv- 
eled and the grade poor, but these are the exceptions 
rather than the rule. Advices from Eastern Oregon 
and Eastern Weshington are confirmatory of a light 
yield. Although an Increased acreage had been 
seeded, yet the outturn will be below that in last 
year. The grade will also be poorer. 

On June 21st, the Oregon Crop-Weather Bulletin 
reported as follows (since that date no change for the 
better has taken place): As a rule, in Wasco, Sher- 
man, Gilliam and Morrow counties, the wheat pros- 
pects are poor. "The prospects are gloomy," write 
several correspondents. Fall grain is cast saving in 
these counties. It is estimated that two-thirds of^ the 
wheat in these four connlies will not make over one- 
half a crop, and the other one-third will not make 
hay. In Umatilla county, north and east of Pendle- 
ton, the crop is in a fair condition, but not an aver- 
age; to the west of Pendleton, it is almost a failure. 
In Union and Wallowa counties, the crop is better 
than in any other of the counties; but yet in these 
two counties It is not au average. In Baker, Malheur 
and in all counties south of the Blue mountains, the 

firain was more or less Injured by frosts and the dry- 
ng winds, si> that, while the hay Is an average crop, 
the oats and wheat are poor. Rye Is generally a 
pretty good crop. Sheep-shearing is about completed, 
and most of the sheep have been moved to the sum- 
mer range in the mountains. 
The bears on 'Change succeeded In shading the 

barley market just before the Fourth, but on yester- 
day (I'uesday) prices were advanced under stronger 
buying. The heavy receipts in June were for deliv- 
ery on last season's contracts, but as the grain went 
into strong hands, dealers and buyers in general 
were not able to secure any at lower prices. The 
crop in Oregon and Washington will not be as large 
in this year as it was in 1891. Crop advices from the 
Central Slates are conflicting, but the general tenor 
is that they will be short when compared with the 
crop in last year. In both France and England, the 
crop does not promise to be an average yield to the 
acre, and as the supply of old will be light, it is 
thought free importing will be necessary to meet the 
requirement. The ouiturn in this State promises to 
be larger than it was in last year, with the grade 
generally better. 

Oats have held to steady prices. Receipts have 
only been fair, while the demand has been fairly 
active. The impression prevails that prices will 
average higher in the season of 1892-93 than they did 
the past season. 

Corn ruled dull and easy throughout the past week, 
but at the close the market appears to be steadying. 
The crop in the States east of the Rocky mountains 
will be quite short, and higher prices are among the 

Rye continues dull and in buyers' favor. 

Corn was oflfering freely to-day at a decline 
Samples of Utah corn for shipment were exhibited 
which caused the decline. 


The market held to firm prices throughout the 
week. The light receipts of bran and middlings 
caused the market in them to clean up, while ground 
and rolled barley and feed meal went off fairly 
well. The home comsumplion and shipping demand 
appears to be enlarging. 

Now that the new storage season has been entered 
and the Fourth passed, a more active demand should 
set in soon. The crop in the southern part of the 
State is short; in the central counties it is fair, and in 
the northern counties it is fairly large. In the coast 
counties the crop ranges from fair to large Western 
Oregon and Western Washington will have good 
crops, but east of the Cascades it will be light. The 
consumption in this State is enlarging. 

Dairy Produce. 

The receipts of butter, cheese and eggs at San Fran- 
cisco in May were as follows: 
Sources. Buttor, lbs. Cheese, lbs. 

California 1,517,500 

Oregon 16,600 

Eastern 277,100 


Totals 1,811,200 

January 502,200 

February 622 550 

Mtrch 1,188,700 

April 1,793,050 

May 1,713,100 


802, 90J 

Eggs, doz. 


Six months 7,630,800 3,517,500 2,759,839 

During the first six months in 1891, the receipts 
aggregated as follows: Butter, 7,031,100 lbs.; cheese, 
3,249,-.iU0 lbs.; eggs, 2,560,032 dozen. 

Butler shaded off the past week, with the closing 
barely steady. The lateness of the season for packing 
and a decreasing outlet are against sellers. Eastern 
advices are favorable to the holding interests, for the 
output of the dairies are said to be less up to July 1, 
than it was during the corresponding term in 1891. 
While a few brands of Californian sell at an advance, 
in a small way, on our outside quotations, yet to 
quote the prices would be deceiving in a dull and 
weak market. 

Cheese has held steady for choice to gilt-edged full 
cream, but for poor to fair the market has ruled In 
buyer's favor. The market, taken as a whole, is 
steady, with a firmer undertone. 

The strong selling competition between receivers 
of Eastern eggs appears. to be giving way. The market 
is cleaning up. "As Is" Eastern eggs are still poor 
sellers, but candled, and the packs of several well- 
known reliable packers are firmer. California eggs 
are firmer, with the market cleaning up. It looks 
now as if the market will soon do better. 


Berries and currants are said to be better in qual- 
ity and of larger general average size than for two 
or more years past. Prices have been quite remu- 
nerative in consequence of the improvement in qual- 
ity and size, combined with barely an average crop. 
Currants are going out as are gooseberries. Long- 
worth strawberries are scarce. 

In tree fruit the market holds to good prices. Like 
berries, the fruit averages better in quality and of 
larger size than for two or more years past. Cherries 
are going out. Oregon advices report that we need 
not expect many cherries from that State, as the 
crop is short; the same advices are received regard- 
ing prunes and other tree fruits. Bartlett and Dear- 
born seedling pears are In fair receipt, and when 
suitable for shipping fetch quotations. Apricots are 
selling well, with canners running chiefly on Peach 
and ^^oorpark. Royals are taken chiefly for table 
use. Hale's Early peaches are coming in larger and 
better in quality. Duane's purple plums are in heavy 
supply and sell for less money. Apples are slightly 
lower. The first cantaloupes and watermelons came 
In on Tuesday from Q. W. Thlssell Jr., Winters. The 
watermelons brought 82.50 * crate and the canta- 
loupes 50c each. M. Farrell of Vacayille, sent In on 
Tuesday the first white nectarines. They sold for 
$1.50^ box. Canners and dryers are contracting at 
the toUowlng figures, prices being regulated by 
quality and location: Bartlett pears, 830@40 per ton; 
plums, 820@27.60; peaches, $37 50@50; nectarines, 830 
@35; apricots, 825@37.50; prunes, 835@45. Some Claim 
that slightly higher prices are paid for choice In 
favored localities. 

For raisins in the sweat, the range of prices is 
placed at i)4@o%c. With very few second and third 
crops cured, the grapes ought to average better than 
ever before and fetcn better prices. Poor raisins do 
not pay to market. 

For grapes previously quoted, contract prices are 
said still to hold good. 

There are a number of inquiries from England 
about prunes. Dried apricots are meeting with a 
good demand, and, as for that, all new crop dried 
fruits are being inquired after by Eastern buyers. 
The market is strong. 

The fruit market to-day was stronger. Dealers 
look for an active shipping demand to-morrow and 


Seasonable vegetables are coming in quite freely, 
causing more shading in prices. Early varieties are 
scarce, and when the quality U good, ihey fetch 
higher prices. Considerable complaint is heard of 
vegetables received by rail being more or less un- 
merchantable owing to extreme heat. At the closi' 
the weather is cooler, and it ought to come to hand 
in belter condition. 

Red onions are very low. The average price paid 
is n% cents per sack. Sllverskin are easy under few 

Potatoes have held up well, although at the close a 
weaker feeling set in under freeraceipts and a selling 
pretsuro to save expenses. A better shipping de- 
mand is expected to set In from Texas and other de- 
mand States. This year the potatoes in the central 
and northern counties are fair, but in the southern 
counties, buyers say they are, as a rule, poor. 
Live Stock. 

The consumption of all kinds of meats is light in 
this and neighboring cities, ow'L.g to free supplies 
and lower prices for fruit and vegetables. Hog prod- 
uct has advanced, which ought to create a better de- 

mand with farmers for mutton sheep, calves and 


The poultry market cleaned up during the holi- 
days, and that now coming to hand finds a ready 
market at an advance in prices. It is said that two 
carloads of Eastern are due to arrive at the close of 
the week. It is claimed that these will be placed 
without disturbing values much. There is a great 
scarcity of choice, well-conditioned poultry. 

A very strong bear pressure on hops continues to 
be made by dealers. So far as we are able to learn, 
this pressure is not warranted by crop advices, but 
perhaps it is done so as to buy cheap, well knowing 
that better prices are apt to rule. 

Wool continues to move ofl" freely. A lack of as- 
sortments is severely felt. Eastern advices indicate 
better prices; notwithstanding, manufacturers con- 
tinue the practice of buying in a hand-to-mouth way 

New crop honey is coming in more freely, and bet- 
ter prices rule. The crop throughout the United 
States, it is now claimed, will be short. 

Hams are higher, and bacon and lard are strong 

Lima beans are advancing. Contracts for new 
crop have been made in Ventura county at 2li cts 
per pound. The crop this year will be light. 

From reliable advices up to June 15, the following eum- 
mary tonnage movsment is compiled: 

-In port—, 



23.212 1 19,761 

r~On the way—. 

1892. 1891. 

San Francisco 252,129 319,209 

San Diego 12,715 25,279 

San Pedro 9,131 12,715 

Oregon 57,098 29 275 

Puget Sound 28,003 27,869 

Totals 359,076 414,337 

•Engaged for wheat, 1892, 47,724; 1891, 25,4u9. 
The statistics of produce exports from this port from 
July 1, 1891, to July 1, 1892, compiled from the most reliable 
sources aggregate as follows: 


Wheat, ctls 12,835,424 

Flour, bbls 1,070,517 

Barley, ctls 1,110,471 

199.752 61.655 


General Produce. 



Bayo, ctl 2 00 @ 2 15 

Butter 2 50 @ 3 06 




Bmsll White . 
Large White. . . 


ffid Petti<,blk eya 3 (lU 
Do grfpn 1 51) 

2 20 @ 2 70 
2 00 (g 2 20 
2 00 @ 2 10 
2 30 @ 2 55 
2 20 @ 2 45 
2 45 ® 2 45 
3 30 
2 75 

Extra choice In good packages (etch an advance on top 
qaotatlouB, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 
Wednesday, July 6, 1892. 

Do fair 1 seiQ — 

Oommon 1 33i@ — 

Sonora 1 33M 1 40 


1891 Choice to Ex. 25 @ — 
fair to Good... 22 # — 

?itra, OityMiUs 4 65 @ 4 75 
DoOountryMillB 4 50 @ 4 75 
iuperhne 2 75 <g 3 10 


Walnuts, OaL &> 4 (a — 

Do Choice 

Do paper shell. . 
A^lmouda. sft shI. 

Paper shell 

Hard Shell 


Pflcans small. . . ^ 

Do large Hi® 

PeanuLs lAa 

Filberts 10} @ 

Hickory 7 @ 

Chestnuts lli@ 


Sllverskin 40 @ 65 

Early Ro.<e, ctl . 55 (g 

Do NLlea 1 30 @ 1 40 

8pUt 4 50 @ 5 50 

OaU Poor to fait,tt) 15 @ — 
Do good to choice 17 (3 — 
Do Uiltedged... — § 20 
Do Creamery rolls — @ 20 
Do doOiitedge.. — <g 21 

Eastern — m — 

Oal. choice cream 
Do (air to good 
Do cllt edged.. 

Do skim 

Voung America 

Oal. •' as is " doz 

Do catdbed 

Du c oice 

Do fresh laid . . . 
Do do selected . . 

Outside prices for selected 
hirge e'.^gs and inside prices 
for mixed bizes— small eggs 
and hard to sell. 


7 ^ 

- & 
5 @ 

- <3 

18 m 

21 <fb 
23 @ 
25 (u 

Bran, ton 17 50 @18 50 

reedmeal 26 00 @28 60 

ar'd Barley.... 21 00 S23 00 

SUddlings 20 00 ca21 50 

Oil Cake Meal.. (^25 00 

Manhattan Food $ cwt. 7 50 

Wheat, per ton. 11 00 @ — 

Do choice ©14 00 

Wheat and OatalO 00 gll2 00 

Wild Oats 10 00 @ 

Cultivated do. .10 00 @ 

Barley 10 00 @12 00 

Mfalfa 8 DO @in OO 

New Wheat ....10 CO (912 50 
D) Wheats Oat 9 00 @ 11 

Do Oat 6 00 @10 00 

Do Alfalfa 7 CO @ 9 00 

Straw, bale .... iO <g 50 

Barley, feed, otl. 3-|# 

Do Ohoioe 925f 

Do Brewing 1 00 @ 

Do do Choice... 1 05 @ 
Do doGUtedge.. 1 10 @ 
Do ChevaUer.... 1 05 @ 
DodoGlltedge.. 1 45 @ 

Buckwheat — @ 

Oom, White.... 1 274(3 
Vsilow, large... 1 22iS 

Do small 1 27m 

Oats, mllllug.... I 60 @ 
Feed, Ohoioe.... 1 45 @ 

Do good 1 37i@ 

Do fair I 3im 

Surprise 1 66 <g 

Black Oal — (3 

Do Oregon 1 32i@ 

Gray 1 32J(S 

ttye 1 20 m 

wheat, milling. 
Gilt edged.... 1 47i@ 

Da Choice I 4.^ M 

Do fair to good.. 1 41}^ 
Shipping, oho'oe 1 40 @ 
Do good 1 38J3 


1 40 

1 60 

6 @ 

7 @ 
10 (s 
12 @ 

11 @ 





_ 75 

Do fio in boxes. 75 (oe 1 15 

Peerless 65 « 85 

Do in box s 70 (a 1 00 

Garnet Ciiilies 6U {w 90 
Kurbank Seedlings 60 @ 83 
Do do la boxes. 75 (3 1 15 

Hens, doz 7 50 @ 9 GO 

Roosters.old.... 6 50 w 7 50 

Do young. 7 50 ^10 00 

Brollera, small. . 2 50 C<« 4 00 

Do large 5 00 @ 6 09 

Fi7ers 6 60 @ 7 50 

Di'cks 4 00 @ 5 00 

do, large 5 60 @ 6 00 

do. extra large 6 50 (» 7 CO 

Geese, pair 1 60 (a 1 75 

Goslings — <a - 

Turkeys. Gobl'r. 19 @ 21 
Turkeys, Hens.. 16 @ 19 
Manhattan Egg 
Food ^ cwt. . . 11 60 @ — 
□al.Bacon,be'Ty,!b 10i@ — 

Medium 11J§ - 

Light 13 (d) - 

Lard 9}g 12 

Oal. Sm'k'dBeof 1U@ - 
Ham8,Cal salt'd lli@ — 
do Eastern... 14^^ — 

Alfalfa 9 (3 12^ 

Olover, Red.... 14 @ 15 

White 20 @ — 

Flaxseed 2 00 (§ 2 35 

Hemp 3i& 4 

Mustard, yellow 3i@ 4 
do Brown .... 3 ® 3i 
Sprino, 1892. 
Humb't &Men'cluo 17 @ 21 
Sao'to valley. .. . 1*^^ ~ 
S Joaciuin valley 11 @ 16 
Cala'v & F'th'U. 16 @ 21 
Oregon Eastern. I2i@ 19 

do valley 18 @ 23 

So'n Ooaot. def . . 10 @ 12 
Nevada (State). 15 @ 1? 

HONEY.— 1892 Crop. 
WhiteOomb,2-lb 8 W 11 
White extract'd 
Amber do 
Beeswax, lb.... 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

Uboloe selected. In good packages, (etch an advance on the 
<l lotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 


Limes, Mex .... 4 00 @ 5 00 

Do Oal — ® — 

Lemons, box.... 1 60 (» 4 00 

Do Sicily 5 00 @ 6 00 

Oranges, Seed- 
lings 1 25 2 25 

Do NavslB 2 60 @ 4 60 

Oranges frosted and poor 
sell at a decline of 5U 
per box on the above quota- 

Strawberries, per chest— 
LoDgworth... 7 00 (8 8 00 
Sharpless .... 6 00 7 00 
Gooseberries, lbs 4 00 @ 7 00 
Raspberries, cli. 5 00 « 7 00 
Ourrants chest 6 00 (8 7 00 
Peaches, box... 60 @ 75 

Do iu bkt 60 «« 80 

Bl'kbotries W ch 4 00 G 00 
Figs, blk box... 50 Ot 1 00 
Do White do... 25 @ 75 
Apples, com. bx 60 @ 1 00 
Do Red Astra- 
Chan 1 00 (3 1 35 

Prunes. "Tragedy 65 @ 85 
Plums. Duane's 
Purple 70 @ 1 00 

Wednesdav, July G, 1892. 

Seedling 1 00 1 25 

Do Bartlett.... 1 00 @ 1 75 
Apricots, pr box 30 W 60 

(to, per It 

Cherries, box 

Black 75- 


Beets, sk 

Carrots, sk 

Okra, dry, lb.... 
Parsnips, ctl. . . . 
Peppers, dry, lb 
Do green, box. . 

Turnips, ctl 

Oabbage, 100 lbs 

Garlic, lb 

Hquasli, Sum, bx 
Tomatoes, box. 
Peas, green, sk. 
String Beans.. 
Oucuinbers. box 

do Buy 


Egg Plant, tt). . . 
Green Corn. sk. 
Do sweet ^ sac^ 
Doswt Bay J) (iz 

H @ 


70 ® 1 00 

— M 1 OU 

60 a - 

15 § - 

- @ 1 25 
10 # — 
55 @ 


Continued on next pa^e. 


f AClFie f^URAlo PRESS. 

JULT 9, 1892 

Live Stock. 


emu M. s ^ ' 

Gnu fbd. extn * ^ ' 

Fljrt qu»ll»f * <e ■ 

BMond quality — « - 

Thirl quBllty 3J@ ■ 

Bulla aul 'hin Oowa...3 a - 

Raoae. heavy 4 10 ■ 

I>o Mght S @ ' 

Dkliy S A - 


Weiheri J ®- 

EwM Jig- 
Do 8prl«g 8 <S— 


Light, W lb. ceoM H"! — 

Medium BJ# - 

Heafy 6 « - 

Sort <|<a - 

Keederi ** * " 

-tbiek Ho«B. Si® - 

Grain and Wool Bags. 

OalcuMa, ipot 7 @ li 

Wool Bags S8 

Auction Sales of California Fruits. 

At New York. 

June Two carloads: Monlagamet Apricots 
tiii- Royal, $l.'2a<al.30; Aleiander fsaches, *1.36(rt 
1 78;.'St. Callierine flums, il.',b. Royal Hative, ri.25 
®2 75. Some fruit overripe aud sold for less. 

June ».— Two earload*: Royal Apricots sold for 
»Sc,@*l.eO; Uontagai»et AprlcoUi, 83 45; Alexauder 
i'eache8. |l.S0(a2.85; Royal Anne Cherries. $2 l(iiq)2.20; 
RepHblicau (Jnerries, J2.S&: Koyal native Plums, 
J2.40(a2.45; Clyman Pltimg, #2.U0. tiroes sale ol both 
oan, $S,51U. 

Juae 30.— Two e*rload5: Royal Apricots. S1.30@ 

I. 35; Atexander reaches. $1.35@1.50; St. Catherine 
Plums, S2.65(»2.75; Royal Hative Plums, 82.40. Some 
Irult which arrived in bad condition sold for less. 

June 80.— Three carloads: Rsyal Apricots, 70c® 
«2.e6; Alexander Peaches, l.lSg»1.75: Tragedy Prunes,. 
H6.05: Koenig Claude Plums, 8^.40; Boyal Hallve 
Plums, »2.57; Figs, $J.oO. Oross sales of three cars, 

July 1.— Five carloads: Royal Apricots, 75c<3,»l,25; 
Mocrpark Apricots, $1®1.10; Alexunder Peaches, 

II. 20^1 S«; Tragedy Prunes, fl.30<a3.65; Royal Uative 
Plums. $2 U5to)2 DO; Figs, 83.60; (flyman Plums, 82.06. 
eroas sale ot live oais, $6,0*7. New York dispatch 
roads: Rainin<4 very hard; weather bad. 

July 2.— Three carloads: Koyal apricots, 81(31.35; 
Alexander peaches, 81.30(g!l 90; Garland peaches, 
81.64; Hale's Karly peaches, $l.!iU; Briggs' Early May 
peacuea, 81.65; St. Catberiire piums, S3; Simoui pruues. 
§6 4u; Koyal Hative plums, 8;J.10®3.23; Peach plums; 
8S.45; Callforuia ligs, 82 *.@2.75. 

July 6. - Three carloads: Peach plums, $6 60; 
Tragedy prunis, 81@6.50; Jackson plums, 82.70; 
Blacktigs, 83.75; Apricots, $1.05®2.6.^; Royal Haiive 
plums, f2.05 (^8U. 

At Chloaeo. 

June 29.— Two carloads; Royal apricots, 81.10®1.20; 
Alexander peaches, 81.35(0)1.50; Hale's Early p<»aches, 
81.26; Briggo' Hed May, ^1.25; Garland, 81.14; Koval 
Hative plums, 82.30; St. Catherine, 82 35; Brunswick 
tigs, 81.60. Some fruit lu bad order sold for less. 

June 29.— Two carloads: Koyal apricots, 75c@$l. 75; 
Alextader peaches, S1.20@il; Koyal Anue cherries, 
81 2t)®l 70; Clymau plums, (f2.26; Tragedy prunes, 84® 
4 06; Blaokbirries. HOC. ; figs, 82: Abauuance plums, 

June 30.— Six carloads: Goodell Refrigerator Car 
No. 16,266 sold for 8:),732 gross. Black Republican 
oherries lu this car sold for 81.85@2.50; Ruyal Anne 
cherries, 8l.65®2.'2&; plums, 81.86. Prices realized for 
other varieties of fruit were as follows: Apricots, 
81 10@2; peachiis, 81.25@1.60; Cherry plums, 81 3.. tor 
lo lb boxes, 76c. for half boxes; MaduUue pears, 81,40® 
1.6j; Tragedy prunes, 8-'-30(a>3,»0: Koyal Hativo plums, 
8'2®2.ija; clym&u plums, 81.66; Barllett pears, 84. 

June 30.— One carload: Alexander l eaches, 81.40; 
Early peaches, $1.60; Briggs May peaches, 81.20®1.2G; 
Cherry plnms. yl t>u; Peach apricoie, 81.03; Koyal 
apricots, 81. Some fruit overripe sold for less. 

July 1. Two carloads: Tragedy prunes, 83.85; 
Alexander peaches, 81.'2u®1.50; early May paaches, 
81.2&@1.40; CMrland peaches, 81.40; Koyal apricots, 
»1.10®1.4U; St. Catherine plums, 8'2.85. 

July 1.— Two carloads: Alexauaer peaches sold 
for 81.20^1.6}; McKevltt's Barly peaches, 82.&£; Koyal 
Hallve plums, 82.69@2.7U; pears, 81.55; Koyal apricots, 

Juiy 3 — Three carloads: Royal ApricoU, 90c@81. 30: 
Alexander peaches, 81.'26®81.6U; Figs, 81.00: Koyal 
Hative I'luuiS, $2.30®;i:.90; VNashingtou pluias, 83.76; 
Peach plums, 82.00(913 75; Barilett pears, 84; Tragedy 
pruuKS, 82 'U®3.4d; apples, 81.10. 

July 2. — Two carloads: Cherries averaged 81-95 per 
box; Alexander peauhts, 81.30.^1.46; Hale's Early 
peagbes, 81.40^1.37; liJariy May peachas, 81.'26(c[)1.30; 
Koyal apricots, $1®1.35; Smith's Triumph apriculs, 
tl tii; Newcastle aprioots, 81. u5; Moor^ark apricots, 
81.30(3)1.58; Cherry plums. 82.10; Bartleit peats, half- 
boxes, 82; California hgs, 81 53; Black ligs, 81.45. 

July 6.— Two carloads: Royal apriculs, 8i. 15(^1.38; 
Triumphs, 81.30; Moorparit apricots, 81.15(3»1 4U; 
Alexauder peaches, 81 3}(3)1.60; Hale's luirly peaches, 
81.36(81.60; St. John peaches, $3(^.25; Karly Craw- 
fords, $8.30; Koyal Hative plums, 82.49(32.55; Peach 
pltims, 83 85(^3 <)5; Duaae s Purple plums, 83.'25; 
Mt. Catherine's. 82.46®'2.9£i; Tragedy pruues, ^®3.26; 
BtkTtlett pears, 83.40; Figs, 81.«5($1.&0. 

July 6th.— Four carioacls: Bartlett pears sold at 
je.ixgS.SS; Clapp'B Favorites, 83.50; Beurre Uiffords, 
kalf boxes, 81.40®!. 65; Royal apricots, 81.16(^1.86; 
St. John p«ach«a, 82.46®3.26; Alexander peaches, 
fl.aO®1.60; Haie's Karly peaches, 81.86; Figs, 81.60; 
Peach plums, 82.60®3.36; Iragedy prunes 82.76®3.55; 
Plums, 83.46; Tragedy prunes, 82.76®S 56, Koyal 
Uatlve Piums, 81.y5®2 25 for very smau stock, while 
ffood size stock bronchi 82.40®2.50: Purple iiuauts, 
8'i.GO; Moorparkaprlcots, 81.15(3)1.26; Governor Uarlan(i 
peaones, 81.30. 

At Minneapolis- 
June 29th. — One carload; Plums sold lor 82- 

peaeku, 81.40(Sil.56; Apricots, 81.35(^1 45. 
June '29. — OB« carload: Royal apricots, 81 '20- 

Alexander peaches, 81.40; Hale's Early peaches, 81. lO; 

Cherry plums, 81.46; Centennial cherries, 81.'25; Royal 

Anne, 81.26. 

June 3). — One carload: Apricot* averased 81- 
peaches, 8l.'20@l.'26. 

July 1.— One earload: Peaches, $1.S5®1.50: Aprl- 
•Ots, il®l.l6; Plums, 82?^2.30; Figs, 81.20. 

July 5.— One carload: Peaches, 81.45®1.75- Anri- 
COW, 9ec«»l 15. -=> . V 

At Boston. 

Jane ».-Two earload*; Apricots averaged $l.s«- 
Peaches jl.Bfl; Koenig Claude pluma, «2.S7; Clymaii 
plums, 82.76; Tragedy prunes, 8t.25; F'lgs, ij3.r2. 

July 1. — One carload: Atrloots sold uj average 
»1.16@1.17; Peaohen, SI 77; Koyal Hative plums, «3 62 
tiroes sale of oar, 81,685. Weather bad. 

July 2.— One carload: Koyal aprioots, 81.'24@2 05- 
St. Catherine plume, *2 69®5; Simoul pruues, 87 25' 
Royal Uaiiva plums, 8i 49; Alexander peaches. $i 24 
j|2^6: Calilornla Ugs, 8!.»6@a.l5; Newcastle apricots, 

At Other Cities. 

St. Paot, (Minn.), July 1.— One carload: Royal 
Apricots, 81.10(^1.40; Alexander peaches, 81.50@1.76- 
Royal Uatlve Plums, S2.1O@'2.30; Tragedy prunes', 

Pbiladelpria. July 1 —One (Mirload: Soyal Uatlve 
Plums sold to average Clyman plums, 82.60; Koyal 
apricots, tl.50r Alexander peaches, 82. 

Kansas City, July 1.— One carload: Peaches, 31 GO 
^1.76; Aprici.ts, 81 60. 

Omaha, July 2, — One carload: Peaches. 81@1.60 
per box; Apticota, 8l.'20ttl.»0 per crate; Cherries, 81.60 
ei.76 per box. 

Testing Emery Wheels.— A mechanic 
recently learned a lesson about emery wheels 
by nearly getting killed by the bursting of 
one of them. The wheel was left running 
while he went out of the room on an errand. 
As he came back, a piece of the wheel came 
to meet him, passing within a foot of his 
head. Luckily no damage was done except 
to a window, the sash and glass of which 
went out of doors in company with the 
broken wheel. There is no need of having 
such a thing happen. Let a man take an 
emery wheel in his hand, place the forefinger 
of his left haud in the mandrel hole of the 
wheel, with a small wooden mallet (never 
use a hammer) tap the wheel lightly, and 
note the sound given forth by the blows. A 
crack can be quickly detected in this way, 
and if every wheel was thus tested when it 
came into the shop, and if the practice were 
followed up every time a wheel is placed 
upon the mandrel, there would be no acci- 
dents from broken emery wheels.— Wood- 

Cypress Timber.— Cypress timber grows 
very tall, straight and thick, in isolated 
patches or groups called " brakes," in the 
shallow swamps, lakes and bayous, usually 
in from one to five feet of water, and, under 
favorable conditions, attains an enormous 
size. The trunk is straight and without 
limbs often to a height of 75 feet or more, 
and large trees measure 120 feet in height 
and 25 feet and over in circumference about 
the base, which at the ground is often three 
or four times the diameter of the trunk. 
Authorities disagree as to the varieties, 
some claiming that there are three kinds — 
red, white or yellow, and black — while others 
claim that they take their names from the 
color ot their heart wood, which varies ac- 
cording to soil and conditions. The white 
or yellow variety grows largely in Arkansas, 
while the red and black varieties are found 
in Louisiana and other Gulf States. — West 
Coast Lumberman. 

India Rubber Pavement. — A German 
engineer has paved a bridge with India rub- 
bet, and the result has been so satisfactory 
that it is to be applied on a larger scale. It 
is found to be more durable than asphalt, 
and not slippery. "A sertion ol roadway,' 
says the Railway Review, " onder the gate 
leading to the departure platform of the St. 
Pancras terminus, London, has for some 
years past been paved with india rubber, 
and many people must have been pleasantly 
surprised at the deadening of sound when 
passing over it on wheels, and at the grate- 
ful elasticity to the tread when traversing it 
on foot." 

A SEWING MACHINE has been invented 
which stitches easily and rapidly through 
layers of leather five-eighths of an inch in 
thickness, this having been accomplished on 
a first exhibitory trial; in a second trial, 
stiiches were maHe evenly and rapidly 
through a piece of bird's-eye maple three- 
eighths of an inch thick, and in a third test, 
the still more remarkable feat was achieved, 
viz., that of sewing through a layer of brass 
one-eighth of an inch thick, placed between 
pieces of leather. — Manufacturers' Gazette. 

Glass Bricks. — For some time past, 
transparent glass bricks have been let into 
the walls to afford light at places where a 
window would interfere with the architec- 
tural plan. But now it is proposed to cast 
glass, not necessarily transparent, into large 
blocks for buildings. The material is prac- 
tically indestructible, perfectly nonabsorbent, 
and, therefore, damp proof in a manner 
which few bricks are, and in this way coarse 
glass of this kind could be made nearly as 
cheap as concrete, stone or baked clay. 

A DOG belonging to Hercules Tyrius was 
one day walking along the seashore, when he 
found and ate a murex, a species of shellfish. 
Returning to his master the latter noticed 
that the dog's lips were tinged with color, 
and in this manner Tyrian purple was dis- 
covered. The color was used in the robes 
of emperors and nobles, and the expression 
" born to the purplt " meant that the person 
was of high birth. 

Wb call attention of our readers to the adver- 
tisements appearing in our paj)er from time to 
time over the signature of Smith's Oash Store. 
This firm has a Targe country trade, and can be 
depended upon to fill all kinds of country 
orders promptly and at reasonable prices. 

Oar Agents, 

J. C. HoA(3 — San Francisco. 

E. G- Bailkt— San Francisco. 

Gko. W.lson— Sacramento, Cal. 

Samuel B. Cliff— Creston, Cal. 

MB8. Bkdck B. Lek— Tehama Co. 

Chab. E. Townsknd— Yuba and El Dorado Co* 

K. H. ScHABFELK-calaveraa and Tuolumne Co'i 

B. Q, Huston— MoDtaiuk. »«> »ai ■. 

Pasteurized Milk. — All methods of 
sterilization that are in use in this country 
have the disadvantage of giving to the milk 
the taste which is peculiar to boiled milk, 
and also of rendering it less easily absorbed 
by the body. In France and Germany a 
method has been adopted which accom- 
plishes the purpose without injuring the taste 
of the milk. Machines are in use in Paris 
and some other cities which will heat great 
quantities of milk to a temperature of about 
155° Fahr. for a few minutes, and then cool 
it rapidly to a low temperature. The 
method has been called the pasteurization 
of milk. It does not kill all the bacteria, 
but it does destroy so many of them that it 
greatly increases the keeping properties of 
the milk. Moreover, it almost entirely de- 
stroys the danger from disease germs in 
milk, since nearly all forms likely to occur 
in milk are killed by this temperature. The 
advantage of this method is that the tem- 
perature of 155° Fahr. does not give to the 
milk the taste of boiled milk, which most 
people find unpleasant, and does not render 
the milk difficult of digestion. These pas- 
teurizing machines have not yet been intro- 
duced into this country, and the opportunity 
exists for some one to develop a thriving 
business by furnishing pasteurized milk in 
our large cities. A little experience with its 
superior keeping properties, and a little 
knowledge ol its great wholtsomeness, would 
soon create a demand for it in America, as 
it has already done in the larger cities ol 
France and Germany. — Prof. H. W. Conn 
in Popular Science Monthly. 

Monte Vista Resort. 

This well established "Summer Resort " 0):eDed Hay 
'27th. A new feature of the present season is inci eased 
accommodatlnus > nil the opening ol a Medical Depart- 
ment Dr. Muuson, resident ph>Biclanof "Hotel Kay* 
iuoD'1," Pasadena, will spend the interim of said hotel 
seasons at Monte Vista. She is a meiical graduate c f 
wide celebrity In southern Cililornia, making cbrooic 
diseases a specialty, to which she bjngs all latest dis 
ooveriea Years ol study, and with one of the floest 
batteries ob this coast, she has become ao expert in its 
application to disease. Wondcrlul success attends her 
treatment ol (o-called incurable dtseises by discovering 
that their cause Is oltan.the chronic effects ol poison oak 
or ivy which the lully eradicates Irom the system. 

Parties desirous oi combining the tonic air ol the 
"Sierras" in the r '■ summer outing " with any needed 
medical skill, will please address: Mrs c. E Kinnrv, 
Maniger, or Da. M. F. HuxaoN, Physician, Dutck Flat 
Station, Placer Co., Cal. 


Bowens Academy, 

University Ave., Berkeley. 


Special university preparation, depending nol on time, 
but on proj;ress in studies. 
T. 8. BOWENS. H. A.. Haad Muter. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing ami Assaying, 
Open All Year. 
A. VAN DER NAILLKN, President. 
A8sa3rtng ol Ores, W, Bullion and Chlorlnatlon Assay, 
$2S; Blowpipe Assay, $10. Full course ol assaying, t60. 
ESTABI.ISHKD 1884 Send lor circular. 

Analytinal Cheiniiits aixl Aswayers. 

Angeles, Cal. We have fitted up the be.t laboratory 
In Southern Calilornia and are prepared to make Assays 
and Analyses ot all Metals, Minerals, Ores, Waters, Fer- 
tilizers, Etc. ASSAYING TAUGHT 


N} VaoanoMa Dat axd EvsHiiia Susioaa 

Ladles admitted Into all Departments. 
iVdHrem; T. A. ROBINSON. M A. PrmMent 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are requested to 
izamin its contents, terms ol subscription, and give it 
heir own patronage, and as lar as practicable, aid In 
circulating the journal, and making its value more 
widely known to others, and extending its Influence In 
the cause it laithfully serves. Subscription, paid in ad- 
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mailed lor 10 cents, if ordered soon enough. II already 
a eubsotiber, please show the paper to othe.s. 

BUSlNEbS OOLL-liiGlti, 

24 POST ST., S. F. 

College Instructs In Shorthand, Type Writing, Book- 
keeping. Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the 
English branches, and everything pertaining to business 
lor six lull months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Indivlilual Instruction to all our pupils. Our school hia 
Its graduates in every part ol the Stat*. 


R. p. HEALD, Preoident 

C. 8. HALET, Secretary. 


Notary Public. 



No. 580 Caltfornla Streat, 

Telaphnne No. 1740 SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 



The Benoit Cormgrated Boilers. 


This Hill has been in ase on this Coast for 10 ;earg, 


Four years in succeHSion, and has met with general lavor, 
there now being 

Over 250 of them in nse in California, Nevada and Oregon, 

It is the most ecouondcal and dnrable Feed Mill in use. 
I am sole manulacturer ol the Corrugated Roller Mill. The Mills are all 
ready to mount on wagons. 

Graiuland, Butts Co., Cal., June 9, 1887. 
Mr. M. L Mkrv— Dear Sir: We have used oue No 2 
Roller Barify Cruiher row lor eight years and ha\e us.d 
it steady during that tima; have crushed 45 toes a day 
and the Crubher is as good to-day as when it came out ol 
your shop. I am taiiBiled that it Is the best mill made. 
You may reconstruct this testimonial to the best advan- 
tage lor you and sign our names, lor you cannot over- 
rate the merits ol your mill. F. E. REAM, 


DuRDAM, May 21. 1887, 
Mr. M. L. Mirt— Dear Sir: In reply to yours ol the 
19rti, would say that I crushed Irom two to two and a 
hall tons (ler hour, but coulJ crush three and a hall tons 
11 my elevators were largo enough to carry the barley 
Irom the machine. The No. 1 machine I used at Grldley 
was run on a sock a minute, ana it we got b .hindwa 
could run through live tons ao hour and do goad work. 
The machine I use here is a No. Z Yours, 

thus far, and hope lor a continuance ol the same. 

I thank the public lor their kind patronage received 

M. L. MERY, Chico Iron Works, Chico. Cal. 


ABLE MIDDLE AGED WOMAN, with aome baalneM 
•zperlence. Address BOX Y, This Offlca 

Jolt 9, 1892 

f ACIFie f^URAto PRESS. 


Spontaneous Ignition ot Wood Pulp. 

Some interesting experiments were re- 
cently made in Boston by Edward Atkinson, 
to determine some questions relating to the 
spontaneous ignition of wood pulp. Accord- 
ing to an exchange, the experiments were 
made in an Alladin oven, with a thermome- 
ter to indicate the temperature. Two slabs 
of wood pulp were tied in the oven, one in 
contact with a loose iron shelf, the other 
without any contact. The first ignited at 
370, the last at 430 degrees. In two previ- 
ous tests, the oven was open when the ther- 
mometer reached 425 degrees, but the pulp 
did not take fire until the introduction of 
air, when it ignited instantly. In speaking 
of the matter, Mr, Atkinson says: 

" We have been able heretofore to imitate 
spontaneous combustion by putting animal 
or mineral oil on fibrous substances; we have 
tried experiments by mixing mineral or 
paraffine oil with animal oil to deiermine 
the exact point or proportion at which the 
parafifine or mineral oil will prevent oxygena- 
tion of animal or vegetable oil, but there 
has been no apparent means of making this 
oxygenation visible until the present test. 
This test may explain the cause of many 
fires. Heretofore there has been no knowl- 
edge of the ignition by rapid oxygenation of 
a highly heated substance, mostly carbon or 
almost pure cellulose, without any admixture 
of grease or chemical. It would appear 
that finely divided and moderately heated 
carbonaceous material, holding air in its 
pores, may ignite at a relatively lower tem- 
perature than ordinary wood. It would 
seem well, therefore, to avoid the use of 
sawdust for sweeping floors, and its storage 
near hot kitchens. Ice houses are known 
to be bad risks. A little gudgeon grease in 
the sawdust is said by some to explain the 

At the World's Fair. — Sunday's issue 
of the New York Herald contains an article 
on the World's Columbian Exposition. 
Speaking of the electrical features of the 
Fair the article says: Twenty years ago 
little was known of electricity outside of the 
telegraph. At this exposition it requires a 
building of nearly six acres to hold the 
different electrical inventions, and Edison 
alone will use up about an acre of space. 
An electricity firm of Berlin wants nearly an 
acre, and this firm has offered to spend 
$200,000 on its electrical exhibit Edison is 
getting up new matter for the Fair, and he 
proposes to show his kinetograph and other 
things which will be new. The exhibition of 
electricity in lighting and in power produc- 
tion will be shown in the different buildings 
in a way never dreamed of before. The 
electric plant of the World's Fair will cost 
more than $1, 000,000, and electricity will 
turn night into day. The electrical water 
display will surpass anything ever attempted. 
The great basin which runs from the lake to 
the Administration building will be encir- 
cled with electric lights, and lights will be 
sunk under the water, and the effect will be 
a lake of gold. The fountain will flow over 
electric rays of all the colors of the rainbow, 
and there will be search lights, arc lights 
and all sorts of electrical appliances, even 
the most wonderful fireworks operated by 
electricity and made to go off by the play- 
ing of the keys of a piano-like instrument, 
so that they will change at the will of the 
player and produce wonderful fire pictures. 

The Albert Medal. — Mr. Ediscu has 
been awarded the Albert Medal of the Society 
of Arts for the present year, in considera- 
tion of the distinguished services rendered 
by him to the progress of electric-lighting, 
telegraphy and the telephone. This medal 
was instituted in 1862 as a memorial of the 
Prince Consort, for 18 years president of 
the society, and is awarded annually for 
distinguished merit in promoting arts, 
manufacturers, or commerce. It was first 
awarded, in 1864, to Sir Rowland Hill, and 
among the distinguished men of science 
who have since received it are included the 
names of Faraday, Whitworlh, Liebig, 
Lesseps, Bessemer, Siemens, Armstrong, 
Thompson, Joule, Hofmann and Helm- 
holtz. In 1887 it was presented to the 
Queen on the occasion of her jubilee. This 
is the second occasion on which it has been 
awarded to an American. In 1884 it was 
given to Mr. (not, as is often stated. Cap- 
tain) Eads, in recognition principally of his 
great engineering works at the mouth of the 

The experiment of the killing of cattle by 
electricity will soon be tried at the Aberdeen 
abattoir, where the electric plant is now 
being installed. If the experiment proves 
that this manner of killing cattle has no bad 
influence on the quality of the beef, the ap- 
plication of electricity will hereafter be gen- 



X8O2. S-u.xxxaaaezr IWIee'tlxa.s<s. 

Pacific Grove Retreat A"8oci»tlon . June 16 

Young Men's Christian Aseociation June 16-20 

V. M. C. A. Excureinn, Bunker Hill Day June 17 

District Coaference Summer Encampment June 21-29 


California Annual Ck>nfeience M. E. Churcli Sept. 7-13, 

Cliautauqua Assembly June SO-July IJ 

W. C. T U. Scliool ot Metliods July l»-20 

Ui lsumtner Reunion Angust2-fl 

Itinerant's Club of the Calilornia Conference .Sept. 1-6 

THE MORAL AND PKUDENTI \L MANAGEMENT under tlie direction of Eminent Clergx mon and Citizeus of California, 
for Illustrited Fnldi r atd fuither information addrets HEV T. H. SINEX, Sup't. 





For Water Supply, Mining, Irrigating Purposes, Stock 
Ranches, Etc. 

Miide In Lengths De«lred from 16 to 30 feet. 

The Cut shows a Section of Three Joints 


In the manufacture of this Pipe, we use only a blgh grade o annealed 
Charcoal Iron of great tensile stren^h. 

The weight or thicltness of metal used, Is graded according to service 
required, and pressure to which the Pipe will be subjected. 

In a bath containing a spedal mixture of ASPBALTUIVI, PITCH and 
PETROLBUH, at a Temperature of 300° Farenheit. It thus 
receives a thorough coating, both inside and outside, rendering It Impervious 
to the alkalies of the earth, rust, etc., and Is practically indestructible. 

oc:>mi."CJC3r.^TEa3 moisr. 

Black, Painted and Oalvaolzed, for Roof and Sides of 







Also Fine Stock of Shade and Ornamental Trees, Shinbs, Palms, Roses and Carnations. 


Correspondence Solicited. 


Engravings made from photographs, drawings and original designs, for newspaper, book, card and job printing 
Engraved prints enlarged or reduced, cheaply and quickly. Also copies ot manuscript, legal documents, wills, 
contracts, signatures, portraits, buildings, machinery and printed documents reproduced with accuracy. Photo- 
graphs, stereoscopic views, etc., duplicated, enlarged or reduced. Slides for magic lanterns made from photographs 
lithographs, and steel or wood oogravlngs, etc. Satisfaction guaranteed. Agents wanted in all dtiee »nd In all 
towns. Address, for further information, DiwxT BNORAViNa Co., 220 Market St, San F-anclsoo. 


Cor. Jefferson & First Sts., Oakland, Cal, 



Superior to anything ot the kind In the market for 


Unequaled for Submerged Timbers. Red and Brown 
Paints for Roofs, Warehouses, Stables, Fences, 
Etc., mixed Ready for Use. Also, 
Sheathing Paper, Portable Cal- 
ifornia Mastic Roofing, 
the Best in the 

nAjvroH AjssT^ oittt, 


Teredo-Proof Pile 

This Company also Uanufaetures a Ualthlne 
Compound for 


The same Is a superior article for Preserving Harness 
rendering It Impervious to Moisture and 
keeping It always pliable and soft. 

Send to Factory, Jeffsrson and First Streets, 
Oakland, for Samples and Prices. 







EmbodyinK the Eijierience and Methods of Hundreds 
of Succesflful Urowera, and Constituting a Trust- 
worthy GiUde by which the luexperienoed 
may Successfully Produce the Frultg 
for WL lch California la Famous. 


Large Octavo-599 Pages, Fully Illnstratel 




1!80 Market Street, Elevator 12 Front Street. 







JuLT 9, 1892 






Perfection Altiined in Windmills. IToiselMs. Kan« Wa.^^^|iV6^^V*ils Stand. Self-Oiling Bearing* 


I am still furnishint' wlBdmills of this kind 
to San Joaqulo County for road epiinkllnir 

Regulation Perfect. Two Turni of Wheel— One Long bu'i J' 
Steel, or Galvanized Steel Warranted to Give 

>^^rk. Fans Made ot 
.^w. /action 


The superior poiots of) 
excellence of this Wind- 
mill are the tollowioit: ) 

1_WBREL —It is made of Steel and Iron, and when complete practically b.'coraet one piece. The pl>D of construction Is the best, 
mo«t simple and easiest put together nf any wheel of Its kind. It has twelve atm* no arranged that it is a marvel of strenKtb; these arms are 
connected to the two circles to which the steel fans are secured by rivets. At the center, the arms or spokes are spread apart sufBciunt dis- 
tance to form a truss on the plan of a bicycle wheel. Ibis wheel has been perfected titer much time spent ia consideration of the weak parts 
of other wheels of similar appearance, by one havine: many years of experience in the manufacture of wind motors. 

2— TURNTABLb AND PLAN OF MOTION.— The turntable is maae ( f one piece of gas pipe with a oast iron head, havInK a bearing each 
aide of the center, thereby making every part Arm and r ducing friction to a minimum. Most other wia''mill8 htve only a single bearing, 
causing friction, unus jal wear on the front tide of the lower box, and upper side o' t 'p box at rear, oauoing the gear to slip out of contact, 
breaka(;c of cogs, and much annoyance and expense. The wheel makes tivo revolutions to one long stroke of pump, giving the piston the most 
correct speed possible, taking all jerk from the pump and working parts of the windmill. Some windmills make a reduction of motion of three 
and a half to one, whi..h moves the piston of the pump so glow that when the leath trs become slightl . worn the pump will not lift wnter. 
It Is Dolnelesg when In operation. Tne wbeel (haft, and crai k shaft, are pUred horizontal to each other, thereby avoiding the possibility of 
journals wearing and allowing • he cogs to Blip, or break, on aocount of Increased play In journals. Provision is made fur taking up all s'ack 
caused by use. The plan of motion and construction Is such th«t It cannot well be described by words; it is simple, direct io action, and U 
pronounced by all a model of Cumpleten'as, Infjenalty. NentD***. Strength and Darabllity. The gearing is made broad-faced, 
and proportioned so that the w?ar is distributed evenljr over the whole surface ut said gearieg. The cogs are arranged so that three and 
never less than two are in contact, thus avoiding all possibility of breakage of cogs. 

3— THE VANE.— It is made of two arms of gas pipe to which the fan is securely riveted. 

4— REGULATION. — It is governed by my Patent Re)[al'*tinE Spring; which has been in use on my other windmills since 1885, and 
has never tailed to give satisfaction. The motion of piston being reduced, enables me to regulate the windmill so that it will stand up to a 

strong wind, getting all the work possible out of the mill, and at the same time overcoming that great ditflcnlty of jerking the pump, and consequent noise. Kemember the 
Hercal«8 la noiseless. . ^ . . j.j* ■ 

6-This windmill can be erected on a single post tower, two posts o' 'out posts as desired. I am also pieparad to (arnlsh 
towe's made of gas pipe, or steel. . , , ... » _■„ , „ ^ t ^ .j 

To responsible parses who oonWmpIate erecting a windmill, I will, on receipt of particu ars as to amount of water required, 
depth of w^l, height water will be elevated, etc., ship one ot my Herctiles Windmills on 80 days trial, agreeing to receive the 
return of same and paying freight both ways should It tall to be and do as represented. If desired, I can attach either my 
Improved Davis or San Joaquin wheel, without additional expense. ,.,„... w j . j j. . j » . 

In conclusion I will say that I am prepared to furnish any kin i of a windmill thaii may be desired, and feel assured that I c»n 
give my customers better satisfaction than any person in my line of b usiness, as my whole attention is given thereto. 

Improved Davis and San Joaquin Windmills. Tanks at Prices that Cannot be Beaten. 
Horsepowers, Pumps, Pipes and Fittings, Water Troughs, Etc. 

For farther particulars and prices address 

Agents Wanted, ireetinionials tarnished on application. 


Those mills are all doing excellent work. 






No Engineer! 
No Danger ! 

PACIFIC Cas or Gasoline Engines. RECAN Vapor Engines. 


Over 800 in Actual Use on this Coast, Running Pumps, l^oisting Works, 

IVIachinery of all kinds, and Boats. 









8WEKT PEA SEED FREE- We will mall, free, a packet ot Ulxed Pea Seed 
(our own (trowing) to each person who will send us the names and addresses of ten peo- 
ple who have K&rdens and are Interested in flowers, 

CALL A LILY BULBS WANTED.- Write us itating Quantity 
and Price, 

Have you a Plant or Fern in your home ? 1( not, send for some, 

We have choice 

DEWEY & CO. l'^„lf^SfiVSiS.'' l PATENT AGENTS. 




Send for Illustrated circular giving prices, sizes, capacity and testimonials. 

MOSHER. CHANDLER & CO., - - - 216 Front Street, Mannfacturen, 
G. G, WICK SON & CO,, - 3 & 5 Front Street. Selling Agents, 



"Greenbank" SS degre«s POWDERED OA178TIO 
SODA (tests 99 I-IO per cent) reoommended by tb* 
highest authorities In the State. Also C!ommoD Oaostlc 
Soda and Potash, etc, for sale by 

T. W. JAOKSON ft OO.. 
Haoufactaiers' Agents, 
No. 6 MARKET ST., • Ban Franolsoo. 


This Is the last year of Importing Oholoa TAHITI 
SEED. Tho» who need any should order Immmedi- 
ately. L. O. SBBSOVIOH CO., 

606 SanBoma St., 8. F, 

Vol. XLIV. No. 3. 


An Irrigation Flume and Tunnel at Riverside. 

Our illustrations have given from time to time glimpaes 
of the various methods adopted by Californians to bring 
water from distant sources upon arid lands, and thus trans- 
form them into marvels of fertility and production. Thus 
simple in theory has been the method of the foundation of 
many of the most prosperous enterprises in Central and 
Southern California. The practical application ot the 
method has been difficult, and, in many cases, has drawn 
heavily upon the resources of the capitalist and the engi- 
neer, but, fortunately, in most cases at least, the reward 
has been commensurate with the service and the sacrifice. 

The engraving on this page is not typical of the difficult 
in engineering, 
and yet it must 
be counted in- 
teresting to con- 
template the wa- 
ter crossing the 
depression in its 
flume, and then 
running through 
the brow of the 
bluff by tunnel, 
to flow again in- 
to flume or into 
hillside ditch, as 
the character of 
the surface de- 

The picture 
represents a 
point upon the 
main canal of 
the Gage Sys- 
tem at River- 
side, San Ber- 
nardino county 
which is one of 
the most import- 
ant and exten- 
sive system of 
canals in South- 
e r n California. 
Mr. Gage built 
the northern part 
of his main canal 
to irrigate some 

6000 acres of land, lying east of, and above the flow of the 
upper canal of the Riverside Water Company. He subse- 
quently purchased the tracts of land in Riverside, known 
as " Arlington Heights," and extended his canal along 
the foothills to a point about nine miles southwest of the 
business center of Riverside, thus enabling him to cover 
with water, an additional tract of some 6000 acres, making 
the entire area irrigable from this system some 12,000 
acres. The supply of water for this canal is taken from 
artesian wells and the Santa Ana river. The canal runs 
southwesterly for a distance of five miles along the banks 
of the Santa Ana, receiving supplies from artesian wells 
bored so that their waters will discharge directly into the 
canal. The course is still southwesterly along the blufl 
bordering the Santa Ana river valley; crossing several 
large arroyos with flumes, and piercing the proj ecting 
points of the blufi^ with some 16 tunnels, until it enters 
upon the plains of Riverside, nearly 200 feet above the 
elevation of the canals of the Riverside Water Com- 

After entering upon the plain, the canal runs in a 
southerly direction until it intersects the foothills, along 
which it closely follows in a southwesterly direction to its 

present terminus already stated. The water delivered by 
this canal to the lands along its course is distributed 
under the management or supervision of several corpora- 
tions having their own reservoirs and pipe lines. 

The development of wealth by this enterprise of 
Matthew Gage is one of the most interesting features of 
the progress of Riverside. Since its completion several 
years ago the productive area, population and prosperity 
of the region have been vastly increased. 

A Commendable Wobk.— The State Board of Horti- 
culture is about to make a very commendable efibrt, which 
we hope will yield satisfactory results. It is to prepare a 
comprehensive statement of the condition and extent of 


the fruit interests of the State. Secretary Lelong has sent 
out agents to diflerent parts of the State for the purpose of 
obtaining a correct estimate of the amount of fruit pro- 
duced in California. Prof Allen will take the central 
coast counties, extending from San Francisco to San 
Luis Obispo, west of the Coast Range mountains. R. H. 
Hewett will attend to the entire southern part ot the 
State. John Isaac will travel over the northeastern part 
of the State, the Sacramento valley and the counties east 
of the Sierra Nevada mountains. Mr. A. Oraw will con- 
fine his work to Humboldt, Mendocino and Del Norte 

Fbuit Studies.— Chemists Jaffa and Colby of the 
Agricultural Experiment Station at Berkeley, are proceeding 
with analyses of fruit specimens from different parts of the 
State. At present they are working Royal apricots from 
different parts of the State, so as to determine the compo- 
sition of the same variety grown in different localities. 
Afterward, prunes and figs will be taken up. The Uni- 
versity publications during the coming year promise to 
contain much of the chemical aspect of different California 

Fixing a Minimum. 

The idea upon which we favorably commented last week 
that the fixing of a minimum price by agreement among 
producers seems, upon further thought, to commend itself 
as perhaps the best first step to be taken toward coopera- 
tion among producers. We trust the more elaborate plans 
for cooperation will work themselves out successfully, and 
we believe some of them will do so, but where there is 
hesitation and distrust perhaps an agreement upon a mini- 
mum can be given wide support. If more can not be done 
at once, this act will certainly serve as a stepping stone to 
fuller understanding and cooperation hereafter. 

We are interested to see that this idea is favored by F. 

H.Buck of Vaca- 
ville, a large 
fruit shipper and 
drier. If cor- 
rectly reported, 
at a recent meet- 
ing in this city 
he said he did not 
believe a union 
of dried fruit 
growers practi- 
cable. If only a 
few of the driers 
workfd together 
nothing useful 
could result. 
Such a union 
would not con- 
trol prices, but 
would be the toy 
of the general 
market. If, by 
an agreement 
among driers, a 
minimum rate of 
sale lor the vari- 
ous grades of 
fruit could be 
established, no 
further union 
or organization 
would be neces- 
sary. No union 
could prevent 
from selling lor 

fancy prices if buyers could be found. But if a minimum 
was fixed and observed the Eastern buyers would be pro- 
tected, and there would be no possibility of ruinous under- 
bidding and cut-throat transactions. 

Of course, when a body of producers agree to refuse any 
price below a minimum to be afterward agreed uoon, they 
have perhaps only reached the outer borders of the ciues- 
tion at issue. What shall the minimum be ? may, after 
all, be a rock upon which the undertaking will fall to 
pieces. We hope not, however. The Fresno raisin pro- 
ducers will meet to establish their minimum on Saturday 
of this week and their success in that effort will be signifi- 
cant. The cost of producing a raisin has perhaps been as 
closely figured down as anything in our fruit production, 
and consequently a minimum can be more easily and con- 
fidently set than in some other lines of production. The 
first effort is well placed. Let us see what the Fresno 
people can do for themselves and for the State by their 
action on Saturday. 

In some portions of the Province of Quebec prayers are 
being offered for rain, while in other portions supplica- 
tions are made for a cessation of an excessive downpour. 


f AClFie f^URAb PRESS. 

JULT 16, 1892 


By The Dewey Publishing Co. 

Office, 220 Market St.; Sleval ar, 12 F ront St.. San JVancisco., Col. 

.ppearB, .11 " P*/"?? ,*? France" lO^o^th^ For «1 in «ly.nce. fl« 

5?on{L"tri AHp?iof /o^^ tt™minth», paid In .dvuce. each 60 cents. 

Midsummer Day Thoughts. 


I Week. 1 Month. 3 Mantlu 

$ .25 $ .50 

l.OO 2.50 

1.60 5.00 

_ 1 Year. 

» 1.20 «Jl-00 

' 6.60 22.00 

13.00 42.00 

Per Line (ag»te) 

Hall Inch (1 squwe 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesd^fjventng^ 

-~ SegtotereTaliTFJPMrofficelaleMnd^^ 

or by pereoual 1 

.General Manager 

Saturday, July i6, 1892. 


ILLUSTRATION.-The Gage c7nal Passing a Bluff by Flume and Tun- 
EDITORULS.-An irrigation Fi^^^^^ 
?„^i^ir He'Vay^wJ'lSrnHTnrra^^ An Indepen- 

TRR TRRIGATIONIST.— Excessive Irrigation. 46. 
pnni TRY YARD -Poultry and Eggs in the Petaluma Region 46 
^RTICULTURE.-How Fruit Growing Has Progressed on this Coast, 

Vfi Orange Growing- Lemon Culture and Curing. 47. 
FRlhT MfRKETlN&.-^he Santa Clara Fruit Exchange: The Trade 

ThV&o"me aRCLii-Her Exalted Station: The Colonel's Wife; How 
Wink a Farm; Apricots Are Here; A Rose Jar Recipe, 48; A Bnde s 
YOUNG'^FOlit^&TuMN.-Tonimy-s Lady's Slipper; Our Little 

AGRrcWURAL NOTE3.-From Various Counties of California, BO. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY.-Sundry Recipes 52. ^, ,,t^^a\^^" w> 

THE STOCK YARD. -Stick to Your Specialty; Sale ol "Doddies, 62. 
THE DAIRY.— On Calf-Rearing, 54. « 
PATRONS OF HCSBANDRY.-The Secretary's Column, 68. 



Wagons— Deere Implement Co. 
Fanning Land— Kern County Land Co. . 
fiSSes^ Carts, Etc.-Callfornla Wagon and Carnage Co. 
Shorthorn Bulls-Robert Aehburner, Baden. 

K Pre^aVTtiv^^Cartl^^^^^^^^^ Wood Preserving Co. 
• See Advertising Ooluvmt. 

The Week. 

We desire to call attention most prominently to an af 
fair of our own, to wit, the letters which should be mailed 
to UB on August Ist upon this subject: 

AUGUST —Fruit-Drying abd Raisin-Ccbino: Descriptions 
of all methods and appliances which are valuable either in 
sun-drying or machine-evaporating each and every kind of 
fruit; packing and marketing of products. 

There will be three prizes for competition on this sub- 
ject: First prize, $10; second prize, $5; third prize, one 
year's subscription to Rural Press. As we have pre- 
viously stated, these letters are not intended to be elabo- 
rately statistical or philosophical, but plain descriptions of 
how to do things by those who have themselves done them 
satisfactorily. Letters such as an inexperienced person 
would write for the information of those who are begin- 
ning are most likely to be widely useful. 

We are preparing for publication the July letters on 
fruit-packing and shipping, and hope to present them in 
our next issue. 

Feesno Farmers' Inbtitdtb.— The next meeting of 
the Fresno Farmers' Institute will be held at Sanger on 
July 20th and 2l8t. It is contemplated to make alfalfa- 
growing, and the products which can be produced thereby, 
a leading subject at the Sanger meeting. It is being 
clearly seen that the great valley needs the development 
of other branches than fruit production, and alfalfa-grow- 
ing has already yielded most satisfactory results. To dis- 
cuss these results and the means by which they are at- 
tained will certainly be most important and profitable, and 
will, we hope, draw out large attendance at the Sanger 
meetings. Other subjects will be the representation of 
the county at the World's Fair, the raisin situation, etc. 

Olydbsdale Outlook. — It is reported from east of the 
Rockies that there has been a decided improvement in 
the demand for Clydesdale horses during the past year. 
The active inquiry for Clydesdale mares during the past 
season has not been confined to beginners, but many of 
the oldest and most successful breeders have been liberal 
purchasers. The upward tendency in prices of well-bred 
Clydesdale stallions and mares gives increased confidence 
to breeders, who will not, for many years, be able to sup- 
ply the large and growing demand for Clydesdale horses 
of approved form and breeding. This manifest and grow- 
ing preference for home-bred stock is one of the most 
hopeful and encouraging indications for increased demand 
upoa our breeders for stallioas and mares at better prices. 

Heat and moisture are the span with which the plant 
makes the race. Neither of these is broken to go single, 
and the most disastrous results follow the attempt to thus 
employ them. Wise is he who can keep the two well in 
hand and pulling evenly. 

It is just at this time of the year that the garden shows 
most clearly how much the gardener knows and how well 
he puts his knowledge into practice. Nearly up to this 
time plants have been able to sustain themselves even on 
uncultivated soil by persistent root penetration; but now, 
from soil thus treated, surface evaporation, fed by capillary 
action, has drawn the moisture from such depth that all 
save tar-weeds and other such salamanders show their day 
is up. The aspect is more drear now than later, because 
the winds will whisk away the dead leaves, cast down the 
parched stems of the annuals, and clear tha decks for 
another season's action. The arid surface is swept and 
garnished with the neatness of desolation. 

How different is the aspect where heat and moisture 
have not been sundered, and how well rewarded the skill 
and diligence of those who preserve their union. The 
dark verdure of the alfalfa preserved by irrigation even 
on the driest soils, the rich foliage of well-cultivated or- 
chard and vineyard, contrast strikingly with the arid plain. 
Hardly less marked is the contrast between gardens well 
and ill kept. How to have one's residence in the former 
rather than the latter environment, is a pressing question 
in a land with a rainless summer. How shall the grass 
be kept green and the foliage and blooming season of 
plant and shrub be prolonged until the early rains bring 
new beauty to replace the old ? 

Irrigation is the art preservative in this connection, but 
the demand upon its services may be much lightened if 
one knows how to irrigate and how to prolong the effects 
of the act. Though much has been said and written of 
the ineffectiveness and delusion of constant inadequate 
watering, there are still many who stand flirting the hose 
nozzle in the air, throwing a tantalizing mist upon the 
leaves of plants whose roots are being parched and torn in 
a baked and contracting soil. Every day, possibly twice 
each day, the operation is repeated, and yet the poor plant 
gets as little relief as the famished traveler from a mirage. 
With wise husbanding of resources, the plant checks 
the exuberance of its bloom; later still, it cuts its leaves of 
smaller pattern in a vain hope that help will come. But 
the hope is vain; parched petioles relax their hold upon 
the stem, famishing buds perish ere they unfold. Still 
appear, with religious regularity, the rainbow tints in the 
hose spray in rising and setting sun rays; still the hum- 
ming-bird dashes through the mist in gladness; still in the 
heart of the gardener there is the approving song of con- 
science telling of duty faithfully performed. But all these 
joys are but mockery to the fainting, expiring plant. At 
last its distress is perceived, and in conscious innocence 
complaint is made of its perverseness in dying when so 
well watered. Evidently the trouble must be at the root 
the complainant declares. Evidently the trouble is at the 
root the pick-axe replies as it brings to light roots dry 
as whip-cords encircled with a clod hard as adamant. 

Too many of our gardens show how hollow and ineffec 
tive is what is called garden-watering. For all save the 
grass, it would perhaps be better if the hose nozzle had 
never been invented. If the price of the nozzle be in- 
vested in a hoe and the roll of hose be shouldered, with 
the hoe handle thrust through it, the plants will all smile 
as the purchaser comes through his garden gate. Let the 
hoe sink deep in the soil around the plant, and into the 
trench which runs from plant to plant, let the water flow 
until the ticker in the water meter beats the reveille. With 
the trenches full until the soil is deeply saturated, go and 
settle with the water company while the soil is drying un- 
til it falls apart freely at the touch of the hoe. Then with 
hoe and rake loosen the earth thoroughly below the bot- 
tom of the trench, so that it may not bake into clods on 
drying; fine and level the surface with the rake, and you 
have done more irrigation in a day than you could do in a 
thousand years with a nickel-plated nozzle. 

With one who thus irrigates, there also dwells usually 
knowledge of the value of a mulch. If it be but the pul- 
verization of the surface to a sucifiient depth, it will serve 
a good purpose, but to cover such a properly prepared sur- 
face with a fine litter of well-rotted straw or manure or 
lawn clippings is to greatly prolong the retention of mois- 
ture, and consequently to postpone the time when a second 
trenching and soaking will be necessary. On heavy soils, 
sand, sifted coal ashes and like coarse material act finely 
at a mulch, and lighten the soil by subsequent working in. 
On a sail well mulched, too, one can often use the tabooed 
nozzle, if he is so inclined, providing the aim be at the 
earth and not at the sky, and the discharge be large 
enough for thorough soaking, not only of the mulch, but 
the soil beneath. 

With adequate watering and mulching, the proper re- 
lations of heat and moisture can perhaps be better retained 
than in any other way, and planU thus treated will be the 
joy of the owner and the admiration of the neighborhood. 

The Butter Industry. 

The continued low range of prices for butter in our 
market causes surprise even to the best informed dealers. 
There cannot be the least question but the establishing of 
creameries has added largely to the output of choice to 
gilt-edged butter. The increase in the manufacture of 
better grades has been at the expense of the poorer grades, 
so that the increase in one is, to a great extent, neutralized 
by a decrease in the other. This but confirms a familiar 
law of trade regarding supply and demand. 

The increased supply of creamery butter on this coast 
has cut off very materially the supply we formerly looked 
to the Central States to furnish, and greatly, so far this 
year, to consumers' advantage. If we had to look to the 
States east of the Rocky mountains for a large part of this 
summer's supply of the more choice grades of butter, the 
price here would have been largely increased, for advices 
from the large distribution cities at the East are confirm- 
atory of a decided falling off in receipts. This decrease is 
said to be traceable to two causes, one of which was, during 
the spring months and extending well into June, the poor 
and also impassable roads in the rural districts, and the 
other to fewer cows milked. The heavy and almost un- 
precedented rains in the Central States made the roads so 
bad that it was next to an impossibility to go among 
farmers and gather cream. Now that the roads have im- 
proved, cream gathering has been resumed; and with good 
natural pasture for cows, the output of butter is very large. 
But it is conceded by the better informed that even with 
a continuance (which is not at all likely) for the next 
month or two of the present increase in the manufacture, 
the deficiency cannot be made good. In this opinion they 
are further strengthened by the accepted opinion that the 
general introduction of creameries has been followed by 
more thorough and scientific feeding, and also by testing 
the milk from each cow so as to keep only those whose 
milk gives the highest tests. This has been, and is still 
being done in European countries where creameries have 
taken strong hold. By this policy at the East there has 
been a weeding out of the poorer milkers, and they 
have not, as yet, been replaced, for it takes time to breed 
up to the standard now demanded by those dairyman and 
farmers who keep cows for all the profit that can be got 
out of them. This breeding calls for cows that give a 
good flow of rich milk and which also have carcasses and 
oflspring that sell at the highest figures in the open 

The decreased supply of butter at the East, while caus- 
ing market values to appreciate, did not cause prices to 
advance as high as they should with all else equal. Prob- 
ably one, if not the most important factor in keeping the 
market from g"ing as high as the supply and demand 
under ordinary circumstances would send it, is the in- 
increasing numbers of oleomargarine factories at the East. 
In Chicago alone there are six factories, whose combined 
product is estimated to displace the product of over 300,000 
cows. The Mercantile and Exchange Advocate, published 
at New York, in its issue of July 2d, claims that there are 
about 20 oleomargarine factories in the United States. 
The same authority boldly asserts, and the facts evidently 
bear it out, that under the present law there is a con- 
tinued increase in the manufacture and sale of the article. 
This should be accepted as proof positive of the correct- 
ness of assertions heretofore made that the present national 
law bearing on oleomargarine is in the interest of rich 
and powerful companies. With a large and steadily in- 
creasing output of the stuff in the hands of rich combines, 
the profits in dairying are threatened to be reduced to 
such low percentages as to draw the dairying industry 
down to the lowest standard of agricultural enterprises. 
With this inevitable result staring in the face all that are 
directly and indirectly interested in dairying, it seems the 
height of wisdom that more energetic measures should be 
taken to fight to a successful issue the manufacture and 
sale of oleomargarine as now carried on. 

Smith's Imperial Early Peach.— W. W. Smith of 
Vacaville kindly sends ua a sample of his new early peach 
bearing the above name. The origin of this variety was 
fully described in the Rural of August 1, 1891, and a 
photo-engraving was then given of a fruit-bearing twig. 
The peaches sent us this week run larger than those we 
had last year, and Mr. Smith assures us that this is true 
of the whole crop which the original tree bears this year. 
The value of the variety as the earliest good-sized free- 
stone, at least as compared with any of the old varieties, 
seems clearly established. How it will compare with Mc- 
Kevett's Early, which originated in the same valley, is 
still to be determined. Mr. Smith writes us that he began 
picking his Imperial Early on June 27th, and will finish 
this week. He has no Crawfords ripe yet. 


July 16 1892. 

From an Independent Standpoint. 

The attention of the country has been centered during 
the past week upon the little town of Homestead, Pa., 
near Pittsburg, where four thousand men employed in the 
Carnegie-Frick steel works are striking against a reduc- 
tion of wages. The strike began some weeks back in the 
usual way, the mills shutting down because the men re- 
fused to accept the wages proposed. Although a few 
watchmen employed by the company remained in nominal 
charge of the establishment, it has in reality been in the 
possession of the strikers, who have attempted to intimi- 
date the mill owners by threats of violence in case a move- 
ment should be made to start up with non-union workmen. 
This was probably the intention of the mill owners, or at 
least the strikers surmised it to be, and they announced 
ten days ago that they would hold the mills against any 
attempt on the part of the owners to occupy them. Early 
on Monday morning of last week a barge bearing two hun- 
dred Pinkerton guards, who, in the employ of the 
mill-owners, came up the river to the Homestead 
works and attempted to land. But a signal to arms 
was given before they reached the shore and the whole 
population of the town — men, women and children, to the 
number of twelve or fifteen thousand — began a defensive 
assault. Cannon which had been placed in position in 
anticipation of plans of the mill owners, poured hot shot 
upon the incoming force. Dynamite bombs, floods of 
burning oil and a hail of rifle balls added to the deadli- 
ness of the terrible defense. The tugboat which brought 
the barge to the landing was soon damaged and sought 
safety in flight, leaving its burden with its human cargo 
helpless and exposed to the fury of the mob. For eight 
hours the bombardment continued, and although the boat 
was housed in and protected on the inside by heavy steel 
plates, frightful havoc was done by chance shots through 
the port holes. The caged and helpless men tried to sur- 
render, but the blood of the strikers was up and it was 
several hours before they would respect a white flag. 
There was a brief conference, in which the Pinkerton men 
(whose loss in killed and fatally wounded was already one- 
sixth of their number) agreed to surrender and abandon 
their arms in return for safe conduct through the town 
and to the railroad station. The promise was given and 
the men filed ashore unarmed, many of them blood- 
stained and suffering from wounds. 

While the strikers were making such terrible havoc 
among the men imprisoned on the boat, the latter, though 
overmatched, were not wholly idle. They fired as best 
they could through the port-holes of their craft, and five 
dead and a greater number wounded among the strikers 
bore terrible witness of their prowess. This, of course, in- 
creased the rage of the mob, which lined the streets on 
both sides as the surrendered Pinkertons passed by each 
in charge of two deputies. The protection was not suffi- 
cient, for at every step in their march the mill-men kicked 
them and threw some of them down. From the dispatches 
of the day we quote: 

The unfortunate Pinkertons begged for mercy. Some had 
pistol-shot wounds in their heads, and three had had their eyes 
shot out. Several could scarcely limp along. Blood was run- 
ning in streams down their shirts, and they fairly yelled with 
pain. Fully 30 injured men were taken to the town hall. One 
had his eyes punched out by an umbrella in the hands of a 
woman. Sand was thrown in the eyes of others. Millmen 
struck the captives over the head and shoulders with rifles, in- 
flicting serious and, in some oases, perhaps fatal injuries. As 
the procession reached the Amalgamated Association building, 
the prisoners had to remove their hats and salute the flag. 
When they removed their hats, men and women hit them with 
umbiellas and sticks and abused them in every way imagin- 
able. There seemed to be a determination to kill the prisoners, 
and it was with the greatest difiBculty that the fiendish crowd 
could be restrained. The men were finally locked up in the 
rink, where they were to be kept for the night. Thousands, 
however, gathered around the building, and the wounded men 
were kept in a constant state of terror. It was a long time be- 
fore their wounds could be dressed. 

After this terrible scene, the frenzied strikers returned 
to the barge and set it on fire, and in the light of its flames 
held such revelry as only the stories of savage warfare can 
parallel. Taking the whole proceedings of the day to- 
gether, it was the most dreadful event outside of actual 
war ever witnessed in this country. 

By this frightful exploit the strikers were left in abso- 
lute possession of the works, and they announced that they 
would hold them until the owners came to their terms. A 
strict military organization was maintained, with a double 
line of pickets, and all persons not known to be in sympa- 
thy with them were summarily ejected. Several news- 
paper reporters were roughly handled and only escaped 
with their lives. The mill-owners called upon the General 
Government for a force to protect them in their rights to 
their own property, but the President referred them to the 
Governor of the State, who in turn referred them to the 
gberiff of the County who admitted himself to be belpleas. 

After six days of this sort of thing. Gov. Pattison on Mon- 
day ordered out 8000 State troops who to-day (Tuesday) 
took possession of the works. Realizing that to oppose so 
strong a force would be suicide, the strikers received 
the troops cordially and at last there is peace. 
The owners say that they will start up their mills 
with men who have applied for work, but the strikers de- 
clare that " the troops will not remain always," and that 
as soon as the force is removed they will wreak vengeance 
on the " scabs," and, of course, no man can say what the 
end will be, but the opinion is general that the spirit of 
last Wednesday will be the spirit of the future and that 
more bloodshed is inevitable. Gov. Pattison was elected 
as a " friend of the workingman " and it is believed that 
he will withdraw the troops as soon as there is an appear- 
ance of peace and the outcome is looked for with the deep- 
est concern. 

In the meantime, the matter has been taken up by the 
politicians, and the opponents of the protective tariff are 
attempting to make capital out of it. " Here," they say, 
" is a sample protected industry, and here is an instance of 
how the workingman's interests are served by Protection. 
He no sooner is established in his work and in his home than 
the mill owners, who are profiting to the extent of millions 
through his toil, cut down his wages and send hired thugs 
to enforce his unwilling labor." Of course, much of this 
is the baldest buncombe. There has been no attempt to 
compel the mill-men to labor at reduced wages. The mill 
owners have only claimed the right to replace the strikers 
with other workmen who are willing to accept the wages 
offered. These wages the owners claim to be fair when 
the state of the market for manufactured steel is consid- 
ered. They cannot pay more, they declare, aud make a 
pro6t. As a matter of fact, only ten per cent of the four 
thousand men employed are affected by the cut, and they 
are the highest-priced men on the list. From a statement 
made by Mr. Frick on Friday last, we quote: 

The skilled workmen in the Amalgamated Association worked 
under what was known as a sliding scale. As the price of steel 
advanced, so did the earnings of the men, and vice versa. 
While there was no limit to the advance, there was a point at 
which the decline stopped. Said Mr. Prick: " We believe that 
if the earnings can advance without limit, the workmen should 
be willing to follow the selling price down to a reasonable 
minimum, and instead of $25 as a minimum we fixed $23. The 
reason for this was that we spent large sums of money in the 
introduction of new machinery, by means of which the work- 
men were enabled to increase the daily output, thereby increas- 
ing the amount of their wages. Another point was the date of 
the expiration of the sliding scale. We asked that the date be 
changed from June 30th to December 31st, so as to enable us 
to make our estimates beginning January 1st, so that we would 
be enabled to make contracts for a year accordingly. The 
Amalgamated Association declined. The third matter was the 
proposed reduction in tonnage rates. We are prepared to show 
that in nearly every department, under the proposed reduction, 
the skilled workmen would make more than they did when the 
scale of 1889 went into effect. As a rule, the men who were 
making the largest wages were the ones who most bitterly de- 
nounced the proposed revision, for out of 3800 men employed, 
only 325 were directly affected by the reduction. Finding it 
impossible to arrive at an agreement with the amalgamated 
officials, we decided to close the works." 

On Thursday last Voorhees, of Indiana, introduced in 
the Senate a resolution for inquiry into the trouble at 
Homestead. Hale, of Maine, in replying, criticised Voor- 
hees for converting such a grave matter into partisan 
politics, defended the Republican party from the charge 
of the responsibility of the conflict, and assumed for the 
party and the policy of protection the credit of building 
up such great industrial establishments as those at Home- 
stead and Bethlehem, Pa. Palmer, of Illinois took up the 
defense of the resolution, and we give his remarks as in- 
corporating the views of the strikers : 

He maintained that the workingmen at Homestead, having 
spent their lives in their line of work, had the right to insist on 
the permanency of the employment and reasonable compensa- 
tion. At the time of the assault on them, they were where 
they had a right to be. He urged that some principle to solve 
the problem should be sought. If capital was master and the 
people were slaves, the country would be involved in anarchy. 
Palmer said that the presence of a Pinkerton force at Home- 
stead was in contempt of the authority of the State of Penn- 
sylvania. It was difficult for American citizens, whether in 
the right or in the wrong, to submit to being driven by an 
armed force. He maintained, however, that the citizens of 
Homestead were in the right, as, according to the principles 
of law which should hereafter be applied in the solution of 
such troubles, they had the right to be there. Those large 
manufacturing establishments would have to be regarded as 
holding property subject to the correlated rights of those with- 
out whose services their property would be utterly valueless. 
He conceded to them only the right to a reasonable profit on 
the capital invested in their enterprises. Manufacturing es- 
tablishments were, Palmer claimed, public institutions just as 
railroads were, because they worked for the public, employed 
the public, and because the men in their service became unfit 
for other service. While conceding the right of the capitalist 
to control his property and to a reasonable return for his in- 
vestment. Palmer claimed that the laborer had the right to 
permanent employment during .good behavior. Of course the 
laborer was compelled to submit to the exigencies of business. 
Where the profit* were small, the parties would have less to 


divide, and where they were large they would have more to 
divide. That, he maintained, was the law to-day, because the 
law was the perfection of reason. We talk about civil service 
law as applicable to Government employment. I assert that 
there is a law wider and broader than that, which gives to 
these men who have been bred in these special pursuits — as, 
for instance, in the service of railroads, or of these vast manu- 
facturing establishments — the right to demand employment, a 
right which can only be defeated by misconduct on their part. 

We have given much space to this matter, not alone be- 
cause of its exceptional interest as a public event, but 
because it promises to be related in an important way to 
the coming presidential campaign. Mr. Carnegie, the 
head of the Homestead establishment, is one of the leaders 
in manufacture in this country, and is among the prom- 
inent apostles of the Republican protective policy. In so 
far as there maybe in the Homestead affair any reflection or 
apparent reflection on the Protective policy, it puts a bur- 
den upon the Republican party; and the disposition of the 
Democrats to make that burden as heavy as possible is 
shown in Senator Palmer's speech. There will be an 
effort by Senator Palmer and others to put the Democratic 
party into line as the defender and apologist — as the poli- 
ticians put it, the " friend " — of organized labor and to 
force the Republican party into the opposite position. It 
is too soon yet to judge whether or not this effort will suc- 
ceed, but as a study in partisan tactics the matter is 
worth watching. Of course, so far as the politicians are 
concerned, there is no sincerity on either side 
of this controversy. Mr. Hale, who professes him- 
self so shocked at the attempt of Voorhees and Palmer to 
make partisan politics out of this sad affair is the man who 
only two weeks ago attempted to open up the presidential 
campaign by introducing in the U. S. Senate a grossly 
partisan resolution. He has a short memory. Looking 
at the Homestead business apart from its political aspects, 
and as we imagine the mass of plain people throughout 
the country will view it, the Rural sees two sides and 
two very serious wrongs. The mill-workers were wrong 
in taking possession of property not belonging to them 
and in attempting by violence to prevent the mill-owners 
from operating their works. There ought to be no contro- 
versy as to this proposition among reasonable men. The 
mill-workers were certainly wrong in their efforts to in- 
timidate the mill-owners and shamefully, cruelly wrong in 
their treatment of the vanquished Pinkerton men who fell 
helpless into their hands. On the other hand, the mill- 
owners were wrong in attempting to maintain their rights 
by the aid of a private mercenary army. They should 
have called on the proper authorities to protect them in 
their rights and not have resorted to lawless force. If 
they had followed this course, no fight would have occurred. 
The mill-workers would have yielded to the proper au- 
thorities a week ago, just as they have done in the end. 
The " Pinkerton guard " is not a legitimate officer. He 
is an illegitimate force which the rich assume the right to 
employ against the poor. His existence is a Public 
outrage because it is a reflection upon the regular authori- 
ties and a menace to equal rights. It is not surprising 
that the workingmen at Homestead and elsewhere regard 
these lawless hirelings with resentment and hatred, for 
they see in them the assassins of equality in citizen- 
ship. As to the rights and wrongs of the original question 
of wages we know nothing, and that is not the consideration 
at this time. 

The State Press. 

In commending the revivalist. Rev. B. Fay Mills, who has 
just closed a series of successful meeting's at Sacramento, the 
Bee casts indirectly some pretty severe reflections upon the 
methods of the ordinary modern revivalist. It says: " He did 
not burst forth upon our startled gaze a promiscuous black- 
guard and sacrilegious buffoon, nor depart a contemptible and 
convicted liar. He did not proceed at once to abuse the people 
of Sacramento, to sneer at the chastity of our women, and to 
shriek out that ou:- little girls who attended school are beer 
guzzlers and inebriates. He did not, before he had been here 
three hours, denounce the city as the vilest hellhole he had 
ever seen, and declare that Sodom and Gomorrah were capitals 
of cleanliness and chastity in comparison. In fine, he did not 
commence to lie and to blackguard the moment he opened his 
mouth, but he impressed all his hearers with an idea somewhat 
new to many of them — that a modern revivalist can be an 
earnest and a sincere gentleman, and that his Christianity loses 
no vigor because it is clean, d»cent and respectable. The Bee 
lifts its hat to Mr. Mills, and wishes him Godspeed in his work." 

iitockton Mail: " The manufacturer is no longer dependent 
on the jobber or wholesaler. The country is full of commer- 
cial agents, representing manufacturing houses which are sell- 
ing directly to retailers, and the railroads through the United 
States encourage this condition of things. In fact, the whole 
tendency of modern commercial methods is to eliminate the 
middleman. It is the law of civiHzed life to work in the direc 
tion of greater economy, and intimacy of communication 
brings the producer and consumer nearer together by a cross- 
cut which leaves the middle man and the profit-earner to one 
side. San Francisco is therefore in revolt to-day against an 
inevitable condition." 


f ACIFie f?,URAb f RESS. 

Jolt 16, 

Weather and Crop Bulletin for Week Ending 
July nth. 

The following report shows the condition of crops, as 
reported by voluntary observers from Susanville to San 
Diego, and by telegraph from Observer Franklin at Los 
Angeles and Observer Williams at Fresno to James A. 
Barwick, Director of the California Weather Service. The 
conditions show that, while all crops will not reach the 
average throughout the State, the quality will increase 
the price so as to bring the grower about as much ready 
cash as though the crop were larger, with prices low. The 
grain is somewhat shrunken in Kan Joaquin county and 
very much below the average in Monterey county. The 
wheat yield is not up to expectations in portions of the 
Sacramento valley, while other portions report a good 
. yield of good quality. 

The highest temperature during the week was 101° at 
Red Bluff and Redding, and the lowest 46° at Blocksburg, 
Humboldt county. There has been no rainfall during the 
week, which is the normal condition in the agricultural 
and fruit districts of the State. 

Lassen— SisawiWe— Haying has commenced, and the wild 
hay is a little below the average yield. Alfalfa is up to the 
standard. Vegetables are very good. The fruit is of a good 
quality, but not so heavy a crop as usual. Plenty of help for 
harvesting; the county is full of men, and wages range from 
$1..50 to $1 75 per day and board. Highest and lowest tempera- 
tures, 90° and 5G°; mean for the week, 69°. 

Humboldt.— JSureia— Haying is about finished, and waa a 
satisfactory crop in some portions of the county, while in 
others it was somewhat blighted from the hot north winds. 

Stocksburg— Highest and lowest temperatures, 96° and 46°. 
The nights are too cool for corn, but the grain is looking and 
doing well. 

Z>y?m«We— Early peaches are ripening, and fruit of all kinds 
will be short. During the forepart of the week the weath.r 
was hot, but the latter half was much more pleasant and 
cooler. Haying is about completed, with an average yield of 
good quality. 

Upper AffUlule—The grain crop will generally be a good one in 
this section, although some fields will be short. On account of 
the excessive rains in April and May, the fruit crop will also be 

Mad River— The weather still continues warm and dry, but is 
good for haying. Vegetables of all kinds are suffering for the 
want of moisture, as we are not having the usual amount of 
fogs. The sun rises clear in the morning and shines all day. 
There is no dew and fog of a morning until 10 or 11 o'clock, as 
is so usual in this vicinity, in consequence of which the grasses 
for grazing are drying up very fast. 

Shasta. — Redding— Haying has been completed, with the re- 
sults of a good yield of a most excellent quality, and the grain 
crop is a good one. The weather is hot and clear, but not more 
so than is expected and looked for at this season of the year. 
There has been more high wind than usual for the season up 
to date. The highest and lowest temperatures were 101° and 

Tehama. — Red Bluff— The crop conditions have been favor- 
able during the past week. The apricots have been gathered 
and dried. The yield, though not so large as usual, is better 
in quality and size. Wueat has not turned out any better than 
was reported last week, so far as heard from. Highest and 
lowest temperatures, 101° and 61°. 

Lake. — Upper Lake — The season is a peculiar one on account 
of such frequent spells of warm weather, followed by cool ones, 
although tlie average temperature is normal. Heading begins 
this week, and the grain is better than usual. The fruit crop is 
two weeks later than is generally seen in this vicinity. Grapes 
are improving daily and will yield a full crop. 

Ydba. — Wheatland — The weather has been favorable to all 
growing and maturing crops, with the exception of a little too 
much wind, which has slightly damaged hops. The yield of 
hops was not so good as was at first expected. 

Nevada. — Nevada City — Peaches are ripening fast, but the 
crop will be very short. What there are ripening on the trees 
will be of a much larger size than usual and of a better quality. 
Sunday was quite a cool day for so late in July. Highest tem- 
perature, 72°. 

Sonoma. — Healdshurg — A slight earthquake shock occurred on 
the 9th. The weather still remains cool, which has a retarding 
effect upon all growing and ripening crops. 

Forestville—'Pe&ches and blackberries are now ripening suf- 
ficiently for shipping to the market. The quality is good. 
Threshing will begin at once. The outlook for com is verv 
good in every particular, as it also is for all vegetabfes and afl 
growing crops. 

CoNTBA Costa.— CoTOuiaW-Threshing is well under way, and 
the grain is turning out nearly a full crop. The fruit is coming 
in in good shape. The Black Diamond Cannery is being run 
full time on apricots. It has been extremely windy during the 
entire week. 

Alameda.— The highest and lowest temperatures dur- 
ing the week were W and 61°. The weather has been cool and 
pleasant. Threshing has commenced. Apricots are ripening. 
The nights are quite cool. 

Pleajianton — Grain and volunteer hay has all been cut, and 
the second crop of alfalfa is now being harvested. The weather 
continues favorable for baling and threshing, which is going on 
at a lively rate. Hops are growing rapidly. 

Amador.— OZeta— Haying is over, with a fine crop of good 
quality. Threshing has commenced, but has not advanced far 
enough to tell whether the yield will be an average one or not. 

SiUter Creei— Harvesting "operations are about over in this 
section, and the usy-balers are at work. New hay is selling at 
prices ranging from $12 to $15 per ton. 

Sketiandoah Valley— I' eachea are ripe in this section of the 
county; while some of the fruit-growers have hardly any crop, 
others will have quite a fair yield of good quality, the fruit 
making up in size what it lacks in number, and the flavor is 

YoLo.— Capay Fai%— Fruit is now being shipped in large 
quantities to San Francisco. 

Black's— The harvest season is in full blast, and the farmers 
are quite busy. 

Esparto— LuTge shipments of wheat are being made from this 
point daily. 

The tule farmers of Yolo are feeling quite jubilant over the 
prospect of big yields of wheat, being the first successful crop 
grown on tule land in Yolo for several years past on account of 

Sacbamknto.— Sacranienio— The temperature during the week 
has ranged from 2° to 10° below the normal or average temper- 
ature, as deduced from records of many years. The highest 
and lowest were 96° on Thursday and 50° on Monday, the 11th. 
The normal rainfall is nothing, and there was no precipitatiori 
during the week. Haying and harvesting are over, and the 
bay and grain lie in the open field baled and sacked, some- 
thing that can be done only in the State of California. The or- 
chardists are busy getting ready for picking fruit on a large 
scale, 08 it has not been coming to market in any very large 

quantities on account of the backwardness of the season, which 
is at least two weeks to twenty days later than last year. 
Grapes are looking and doing nicely, and hops appear to be 
holding their own; but the cooler weather of the past week has 
been of no benefit either to hops, peaches, berries or grapes. 

Glenn.— TFiHoios— The wheat harvest is in full blast and 
turning out well, while the yield will be above the average. 
Peaches will be plentiful and of an excellent quality. 

CoLCSA.— WilliaiM— The weathe.- has been favorable for hay- 
ing and harvesting and for the ripening of the fruit crop. 

San Joaquin.— Zodi— Highest temperature, 97° on the 7th; 
lowest, 50° on the lith, with westerly winds prevailing. The 
wheat harvest is well under way, and the output is rather be- 
low that which was expected. In some fields the grain was 
shrunken. Berries and peaches are coming forward in good 
shape, but the yield will be below the average. Almonds will 
be a full crop. 

iStoc^<<wi— The weather for the past week has been unusually 
fine, the temperature bi-ing considerably below the average. 
Harvesting is progressing with all the haste possible, and the 
yield will be up to the expectations of the majority of the 

Stanislaus.— J/o(i««o— The farmers are quite busy harvesting 
their grain, and the output will be shorter than expected, but 
is of good quality; consequently, the loss in shortness of yield 
will be made up in the price as to quality. 

Monterey.- San Ardo— The weather for the past seven days 
has been very favorable to the fruit crop. Heading grain is in 
full blast, but the grain crop is very light. There will be a 
short crop of grain in this section of the county. 

San Luis Obispo.— .San Luis Obispo— The week has been a cool 
one, with light s utherly winds and light fogs, which is just 
what is needed for beans and other green crops. Harvesting 
and thrashing are going on at a lively rate. Highest tempera- 
ture, 78°. 

Fresno. — JFVesno— The weather has been favorable for all 
crops, and the grain yield is exceeding expectations. Apricots 
are about all gathered. There appears some sunburn on rais- 
ins, otherwise there is no change in the prospects from what 
they were last week. 

Los Angeles. — Los Angeles— The warmer weather during the 
past week has been very favorable to all crops. Fruit is ripen- 
ing quite fast. Early peaches, pears, plums and watermelons 
are in market in abundance. Apricot drying and canning is 
in full operation. The harvesting of the sugar beets has begun, 
and the crop is an exceedingly large one, of exceptionally good 
quality. Oranges are looking and doing well. 


Portland (Or.), July 12.— The weekly report of the Oregon 
Weather Bureau says: Cool and occasional showerj' weather 
has been of great benefit to growing crops. The grain crop has 
been considerably improved, and a better yield than anticipated 
will be secured. Heading has begun in Eastern Oregon and 
Jackson county. Hops are doing well, though lice are quite 

The Golumbian Features of the State Fair. 

Sacramento, July ii, 1892. 
To THE Editor :— The associated effort in aid of the 
annual exhibition of the State in this Columbian year has 
committed to this Section the matter of historical exhibits. 
Whatever success is achieved by this or any other Sections 
will be for the benefit of the whole State, and tend to en- 
large and stimulate the California exhibition at the World's 
Fair. Only the few can go to Chicago in 1893, but the 
many can see in California in 1892 a greater and more 
varied display, and of profounder interest, than ever 

At the State Fair in September this " Section " will en- 
deavor to conduct a historical exhibit. We have classified 
it above sufficiently to suggest to you its scope, and how 
valuable, satisfying and educating it can be made. All ex- 
hibits loaned will have the care of the State Board of Agri- 
culture and of this section, and be returned. No cost for 
transportation is involved. In every county, town and city 
something is possessed by one or more typical of one of 
the periods above scheduled. We wish to get into imme- 
diate communication with such people. Will you kindly 
make public this desire, and ask the people to address this 
" Section " at once ? 

Many things we will deem typical and valuable which 
the possessors may not; let them stop and think, however, 
that historical exhibitions are made up of many small 
things, generally, and that even a trifling object may serve 
to illuminate the civilization, history, trials, successes, 
failures, progress and triumphs in a period of California 
history. Will you kindly give rein to your public spirit and 
pride in our State, to make this matter public in your com- 
munity ? The time is short, and immediate action is im- 
perative. All communications should be addressed to F. 
M. Woodson, box 495, Sacramento. 


Chairman of Historical Section. 

Uses of Clods. 

Lower Lake, June 27, 1892. 
To THE Editor :— In the essay on clods, in the Rural 
of June 25th, they got the worst of it, and I come to the 

The changing and uncertain conditions of cultivation 
caused by the weather are such that no uniform course or 
theory can be exactly followed. The point is to attain the 
desired end in the shortest tim* and the least labor. 

First : Then I will presume it to be well-known that a 
hard, level, smooth crust on the surface is the most in- 
imical to the retention of moisture and for plant growth. 
Such a crust is soonest formed on smoothly pulverized land 
by a sudden shower, but if the clods are numerous and 
harrowed to the surface, no such crust is quickly formed. 

Second : When a clod or lump of earth is detached, 
capillary action between it and other portions of the soil 
ceases, the water is expelled, and ammonia and other fertil- 
izing gases are absorbed from the atmosphere. In this 
simple fact lies a part of the benefit in summerfallowing. 

Of late years my method has been to harrow the clods 
to the surface in the early spring. Then, when all prob- 
ability of more rain has past, grind and sled down the clods 
with a plank "rubber." I also leave fall-sown grain as 
rough and cloddy as possible; then no smooth and uniform 
crust is formed by the winter rains. Then, late in the 
spring, harrow or roll, or both. There is no danger of 

wheat or other plants being lifted out of the ground by 
freezing if cloddy and no uniform level crust is formed by 
the rains. C. P. Scraxton. 

Important Points on Artesian Wells. 

Miramonte, Kern Co., June 30. 

To the Editor: I have seen in many of the California 
papers, of late, notices of the Census Bulletin recently is- 
sued by that Department. 

Without exception the articles have been written after a 
very hasty perusal of the report and convey many false im- 
pressions to the reader. For instance the impression is 
given that the average capacity of California artesian well 
is for 18.63 acres, while the bulletin, which I have before 
me, states that is the amount of land being actually irrigated. 
And a» it further states that the average flow per minute is 
164 gallons it is easily seen that the average capacity is 
many times greater. 

My full knowledge on this subject is limited to Kern 
County. By a reference to the bulletin it will be seen that 
the average flow of wells in this county is 1072 gallons 
per minute and that there are 89 wells. This makes a total 
flow of over 90,000 gallons per minute, or about 5,500,000 
perhour. A daily total of 132,000,000 gallons. Itcanread- 
ily be figured that this means an irrigating capacity of fully 
100 acres per well. 

Again the papers state that as new wells are sunk they 
diminish the flow of the previous ones. This is true 
enough where the wells are shallow and hence with a 
limited reservior of supply, and where to amount to any- 
thing they are sunk in close proximity to each other. In 
this Artesian Belt there are perhaps less than halt a dozen 
wells that flow less than at first. In every case they are 
wells of very small capacity, due to bad management in 
sinking them. The decrease is wholly due to the sand be- 
low that runs into the casing, and from a low velocity of 
flow gradually fills up the casing instead of being forced to 
the top and out of the well. With these few exceptions 
there is not a well here that is not constantly, if slowly, in- 
creasing its flow, from the fact that the sand from below 
being carried out at the top, the underground channels are 
being gradually opened up more and more, permitting the 
water to come more freely. 

In this immediate district our wells will irrigate from 150 
to 1000 acres of land, excluding the above-mentioned de- 
fective wells. 

I regret to say that as yet but a very small percentage of 
that acreage is getting the benefit of the superabundant 
supply of water. We are growing, however. 

Geo. a. Raymond. 

Prizes tor Southern California Products. 

Los Angeles, Cal., June 25, 1892. 
To THE Editor: — The toliowing proposition has been 
received from A. Phillips by the Southern California World's 
Fair Association, wherein he oflfers to furnish a round-trip 
ticket to the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 
1893, to any one person living in either of the six southern 
counties who will produce for competition the best samples 
in quantities as follows: 
30 stalks of corn with ears attached (tallest). 
20 ears of corn of one variety (yellow). 
20 ears of corn of one variety (white). 
20 stock t)eets. 
20 sugar beets. 
20 turnips. 

20 onions (any variety I. 
S squashes (largest). 
30 pounds Irish potatoes. 
20 pounds sweet potatoes. 

The same to be delivered to the Chamber of Commerce 
in Los Angeles not later than the ist day of November, 
1892. Duplicate specimens of the vegetables are to be 
furnished the ist of August, 1893. All samples to become 
the property of the Southern California World's Fair Asso- 
ciation. The judges, to determine the awards, to be chosen 
by the association outside of its membership. Such sam- 
ples as are accepted will be exhibited at the World's Fair 
as Southern California products. 

The Los Angeles County World's Fair Committee makes 
the following offer of premiums to residents of the county: 
For best three sheaves of wheat, each eight inches in diameter and 

as tall as can be obtained, and best 100 pounds of wheat: 

First premium, $10. 

Second premium, $5. 
For best three sheaves of barley, each eight inches in diameter *and 

as tall as can be obtained, and best 100 pounds ol barley: 

First premium, $10. 

Second premium, $5. 
Grain should be cut as close to the ground as possible, 
and be cured kept in a dark place to prevent bleaching. 
All samples entered for competion shall become the prop- 
erty of the the World's Fair association, and must be de- 
livered at the rooms of the Chamber of Commerce on or 
before September i, 1892. A committee of three compe- 
tent judges, not members of the organization, will be ap- 
pointed by the World's Fair Committee. A large amount 
of grain, both in the sheaf and in the measure, will be re- 
quired for the display at Chicago, and it is earnestly hoped 
that all persons having good grain will enter it for compe- 

For further particulars, address the association at the 
Chamber of Commerce, Los Angeles. 

Thanks; Awfully! 

The Pacific Rural Press has been making some very decided 
improvements during the past six months. It has iiuprove«l 
greatly in appearance as well as in the quality of its contents. 
The editorials are especially readable— the writer having the 
knack of holding the reader's attention on the dreariest sub- 
ject. In the number of .Tune 25th. for instance, he writes over 
a column on the subject, " Where Shall the Clod Be? " A very 
prosy subject, all will admit, and yet he handles it in so 
sprightly a way that it is fascinating. The Rural is a fine 
paper, and every farmer and fruit-grower who takes pride iu 
his calling should read it regularly. It will pay.— Paso Bobleti 

Jolt 16, 



Roadside Trees for California. 

From an CEsay by W. R. Lyon, State Forester, at the last meeting of the 
Southern California Pomological Society. 

A naiton's advance in civilization is just as strongly indi- 
cated by its per capita plantation of trees as by its per cap- 
ita consumption of soap. More so in fact, as the results 
from soap are initantaneous and those from tree planting 
the outcome of patient toil and waiting, which necessarily 
implies the exercise of higher (acuities than those called 
into action to appreciate the tangible and immediate values 
of cleanliness. In no way is this faculty displayed to a 
higher degree than in the intelligent planting of roadside 
trees. The random planting of orchard, grove or wind- 
break is wholly commendable though it betokens no excep- 
tional prescience in the planter. It is a simple matter of 
cause and effect and he knows that in due time they will 
yield their fruits and products. He whose acumen prompts 
him to plant and build perfect highways, contemporaneously 
with his orchard, is not planting for random results. He is 
anticipating and minimizing the cost of transportation, in 
viting population and consequently enhancing the value of 
his property, present and prospective from the start. 

Most of us are lesponsible to our early training or rather 
experiences for the public inertia which prevails in the 
matter. To most of us reared outside of California, trees 
conveyed but slender ideas of their precious value. They 
were ubiquitous. No village street or county highway 
could be planned or opened that when completed should 
not embrace at least occasional shade trees. We took no 
thought of them, they required no planting, were there al- 
ways, and familiarity with them, if it bred no contempt, at 
least tolerated the vandalism of their occasional destruc- 
tion without much of a protest They were as common as 
air and water and could be wasted with equal impunity. 

The hegira from the Egypt of our youth has brought us 
to a land that teems with milk and honey, but lacking sadly 
in both trees and water. So precious the one, that we can 
hardly adulterate our milk with profit, so scarce the other 
that we will even contaminate the honey we have by plant- 
ing the pepper tree, whose pungent nectar the bees, despite 
our objections carry to their hives. This brings us face to 
face with the proposition of what we shall or shall not 
plant for this purpose. 

To this end and in order that our highways be finally 
crowned with success, we should adhere as closely as possi- 
ble to certain standards with which we will deal seriatim 
First it behooves us never to sacrifice the useful — the prac- 
tical to any sentiment for the picturesque, or to gratify a fad 
for any unsuitable tree. 

There are long avenues and driveways in Californii 
planted to our native fan palm which have been set for 
shade and their alleged tropical effect. A failure in each 
instance, as they yield but a minimum of shade when 
young, and at maturity practically none. Striking tropical 
effects are to be had with these plants where they are massed 
with groups of bamboos, cannas, bananas and plants of sim- 
ilar habit; but when arranged in long unbroken lines as they 
never naturally appear in the tropics, and in juxtaposition 
with the fruit trees and grain fields of the temperate zone, 
the result is mostly inharmonious, and a complete defeat 
of the original purpose. Conditions of soil and climate are 
other potent factors in determining what we shall or shall 
not utilize. 

In Northern California, indeed in any portion where the 
soil is heavy or clay-like, and where the annual precipita- 
tion reaches or exceeds twenty-five inches, any evergreen 
tree is contra-indicated. First, they furnish shade at that 
brief winter interval when we rejoice in all the sunlight we 
can get. Next, they prevent the rapid drying out of the 
street surface the constant aggravation of the evils of mud 
and mire. 

For Southern California, and where these conditions do 
not fiequently obtain, we universally favor evergreen spe- 
cies. For the benefit of those favored with fair rainfall 
and interested in highways that traverse adobe lands, it 
will not be amiss to here name three deciduous sorts that 
will prove satisfactory. The first is the Acacia of Constan- 
tinople {Albizzia Jiilebrrus). The others are the Spanish 
chestnut and the Texas umbrella tree. The first has the 
merit of more rapid growth, but the two latter have the 
commendable habit for the south of being very tardily de- 
ciduous; rarely becoming defoliated till January and nor- 
mally being in leaf again by April. 

The planter of deciduous trees enjoys advantages un- 
known to one who confines himself to evergreens. First, 
he contributes in no small measure to create that charming 
realization of spring which the bursting of bud and leaf 
always carries with it. Next he encounters few perplexing 
difficulties in the matter of selection, for of suitable decid- 
uous trees, both endemic and foreign, the name is legion — 
whereas the planter of evergreen species is restricted to 
very, very few — and many of those of still problematical 
value. Still, as we admit the general advisability of the 
evergreen for Southern California with it we will now deal. 
First, caution is demanded in the selection of kinds which, 
if given a helping hand to start and encourage their early 
growth, will quickly assume their own responsibilities with- 
out further solicitation on the part of the grower. Any trfe 
is obviously unfitted to this purpose which exacts either 
irrigation or cultivation beyond its first or second year. 

Irrigation is always a menace to the roadbed, and unless 
followed by cultivation is a reprehensible practice. The 
moment cultivation is had the utility of your sidewalks ate 
destroyed and the scheme of a perfect highway vitiated. 

These considerations would lead us to reject such beau- 
tiful and symmetrical trees as the camphor laurel and the 
magnolia foetida, both of which are being utilized to some 
- extent for avenue planting in Southern California. 

Few trees in the many de^iirable traits of hardihood, 
longeviiy, cleanliness and freedom from the attacks of pest- 
iferous insects or rodents are the peer of the former, or rival 
the splendor of the latter when in flower. They will, how- 
ever, fail to give maximum results unless copiously watered 
and, except upon lands bo.h naturally moist and well 
drained, must prove unprofitable. 

The immense family of conifers — any and all kinds are, 
or should be, utterly tabooed. 

The well-known hardiness and phenomenal growth of 
some of our native pines and cypresses has led many 
planters into undue enthusiasm, and I regretfully notice 
them planted in many localities for street uses. With but 
rare exceptions th*". habit of growth of the whole order is 
either columnar like the Italian cypress or pyramidal. 
The former, like the palms, supply no shade, hence 
obviously unsuitable; the others must sooner or later en- 
roach upon the sidewalk or driveway, and then public con- 
venience demands the removal of the lower limbs for a 
heie'ht of lo or 12 left; with the resulting destruction of any 
claim to beauty that the tree ever possessed. 

Only a few years ago I was questioned upon, afld en- 
thusiastically advocated the planting of an avenue to a 
coniferous tree— the Bunya Buiiya or famous and beautiful 
Araucaria Bidwellii. It was, however, to be a central 
alignment upon a boulevard of one hundred and fifty feet, 
with ampie room for the development of the trees; for 
cultivation, an irrigation trench, and abundant room for a 
driveway on either side. Upon a scale of such mag- 
nificence the objections made against the camphor laurel, 
magnolia and many conifers vanish — only holding upon the 
village street or ordinary country road of 30 to 50 feet. 
The planting of road trees is an operation that should take 
into consideration the far distant future — hence, longevity 
of species becomes a factors of prime importance. On this 
point we are at a serious disadvantage with the Eastern 
States and Europe where suitability of kinds has been 
tested for hundreds of years. 

We happen to know that the pepper and gum trees are 
long-lived, but of their behavior and appearance under ex- 
isting conditions here we know absolutely nothing that ex- 
tends beyond the short span of thirty years. How insig- 
nificant then is the sum of our knowledge of the hoit of 
exotics that we have been testing lately, our acquaintance 
with which does not cover over one-half that time. 

We are in a hurry for all things from riches down to 
shade, and from the seed planted to-day expect the de- 
veloped tree to-morrow. The policy dictated by the greatest 
wisdom and forethought, would indicate the planting of 
slow-growing endemic species, and satisfy the popular 
clamor for immediate results by interspersing them with 
short-lived, quick-growing sorts, which could be removed 
when their mission was fulfilled. 

Since we have rejected the great army of conifers and 
have conceded the general virtues of evergreens for 
Southern California, we are practically restricted to two 
native species which have a'-cidentally occurred on road- 
ways, long enough to guarantee their remarkable fitness. 
One IS the evergreen oak, the Querctes agrijolia — the other 
the native laurel, Umbellularia Californica. The endur- 
ing longevity of both is beyond dispute, and the habits of 
each as well known to-day as they will be a hundred years 
hence. We know that the former will thrive upon arid, 
gravelly soils, that the latter demands valley or. bottom 
lands of some little natural moisture. Both branch low, 
but pruning is no infringement upon their beauty. They 
should be extensively planted upon every bit of roadside 
where these conditions exist. Their somewhat tardy de- 
velopment is the only defect that can be alleged and it does 
seem somewhat strange that we should have gone 
wild in the pursuit of strange exotic sylvan gods to the 
neglect of these two species. From the standpoint of 
beauty as well as utility, the laurel stands without a peer. 
The species heretofore named dwindling into relative in- 

Two sons, however satisfactory, would result in a dis- 
tressing monotony if universally planted, and this paucity 
of native species is in a measure accountable for our ex- 
periments with exotics. 

Of them, our ignorance (for such pracical work as street 
planting) is voluminous; our knowledge, with the single ex- 
ception of the pepper and blue gum, is simply nil. These 
latter, except tor their rapid development and well-known 
endurance of drought and our extremest temperatures, 
would i}ot be tolerated an instant as avenue trees, nor will 
they be for even a day alter the determination of similar 
merits in ether species. This without slightest disparage- 
ment of the inestimable worth of the blue gum when con- 
fined to its legitimate uses as a wind break or fuel planta- 
tion. The pepper tree is even more objectionable. Its 
undeniable beauty and graceful drooping habit has furnish- 
ed texts for eulogists, themes for poets and inspiration for 
profanity to the luckless pedestrian whose hat is knocked 
off by the same pendulous branches or marred by its sticky 
exudations. So pronounced are these objections that 
municipalities have had to provide ordinances for their 
pruning — a never-ending expense and annoyance to the 
abutting owner. In many country districts, as intimated 
heretofore, the pungent nectar of their flowers is communi- 
cated largely and deleteriously to the honey made in their 

Another exotij evergreen that seems to be in popular de- 
mand is the Grevillia Robusia, or Silky Oak. I regret to 
say that I cannot get enthusiastic over it. Of unsurpassed 
beauty in early life, it speedily deteriorates, and by exces- 
sive defoliation loses caste as an ideal street tree. This 
defect can in a measure be overcome by a vigorous pruning 
every few years. Its brittleness in high winds is still an- 
other objection, although it was noting the subsequent 
vigorous growth upon wind-broken trees that opened our 
eyes to the beneficial results of judicious pruning. All of 
the feather-leaved acacias are, in my judgment, charge- 
able with a similar fault as the Grevillia — that is a deficiency 
of foliage and bad habit, which augument with increasing 
years. Furthermore, and like the Grevillia, the constant 
dropping of their foliage and -fruit pods is an objection 

for which their glorious wealth of fragrant flowers hardly 

So far, we have not proceeded much further than a 
sweeping denunciation of most of the trees in general use, 
and the question naturally follows, what can we plant Is 
there anything left ? Or, because of these alleged defects, 
must our highways and roadsides continue to remain in 
their present uninviting condition? Most unequivocally 
no, and the number left worthy of trial is indefinitely great, 
but I shall only name a half dozen of species which, experi- 
mental though our knowledge of them yet is, seem to offer 
less prospect for fu ure disappointment' than any yet ob- 
served. At the top of the list I would p'ace one of the en- 
tire-leaved acacias, the Blackwood, Acacia ?nelanoxylon. 
My preference is not based upon any sentimental enthu- 
siasm, but from observation of its behavior as a sidewalk 
tree for nearly 20 years. Quite unlike the feather-leaved 
acacias, it is at its worst in early life; its scantiness of foliage 
being noticeable until at four or five years and a he'ght of 
25 feet it begins to improve continuously, until at 20 years it 
forms a most imposing specimen of 60 feet, with a straight 
robust stem, crowned with a symmetrical and amply umbra- 
geous crown, invulnerable to ordinary ga'es, enduring our 
extremest frosts or heat. Its leaves are of good color and 
of a texture to which dust does not readily adhere, remark- 
ably free from litter, and last, but not least, not at all fas- 
tidious about soils or exposures, unless of extremest aridity. 
The fact that it is in common with the fam'ly subject to 
the attacks of the cottony cushion scale should be no de- 
terrent to iis planting, now that we have the means to keep 
that pest in subjection. Its severely formal habit is an ob- 
jection to its promiscuous planting upon winding country 
roads or such as climb hills or descend dales, but for the 
streets of most modern towns and villages which mainly in- 
tercept at right angles, it is most suitable, this feature be- 
ing in harmonious keeping with the plan, and the esthetic 
is enhanced, not marred. 

Next in point of importance, I rate a eucalyptus or 
rather four of them. Observation of them in Southern 
California under conditions not dissimilar from what we 
expect upon highways, only extends over six to ten years, 
and actual experience with them as sidewalk trees only 
covers about four years; yet our knowledge of the longevity 
of the genus and their phenomenal rapidity of growths is 
almost a temptation to plunge into heroics on their behalf. 
The four species are E. diversicolor and E. corynocalyx, 
E. hemiphloia and E. polyanthema. I group them in pairs 
because the behavior and appearance of each couple, ex- 
cept to the expert botanist, are identical. 

The first pair possesses round or uniform leaves in 
youth, gradually losing that character and assuming the 
long lanceolate foliage of most species, but never acquiring 
(unless crowded) the slender spindling habit of most of 
the linear-leaved species, such as the blue, red or manna 
gums — a habit difficult to suppress even with continuous 
heading back. Given ample room, and their tendency is 
to make a sufficiently branching and comoact head. 

The showy >ellow blossoms of the E. diversicolor are 
an attractive adjunct, and the flowers of both species are 
eagerly sought by bees and yield a most excellent honey. 
Both, when young, are more susceptible to frost than the 
blue gum, and may prove unsuitable to any point where 
the winter minimum ever falls to three degrees below zero. 
As an offset to this, they have successfully withstood ex- 
tremest heat and soils of excessive dryness, and though 
exceeded in rapidity of growth by some few species, are 
sufficiently fast " even for this nge of hurry. 

The other two species— jS". hemiphloia and E. polyan- 
thema — have success'uUy endured lower temperatures than 
the former, and seem as well prepared to stand excessive 
drought and heat as the others. They have not been so 
extensively planted, and hence our knowledge is still more 
limited; yet they give abounding promise for service in the 
future. In point of umbrageousness, they far outrank any 
eucalypti we have, and their round leaves (continuous 
through life), of a pleasing silvery gray color, form an 
agreeable contrast to the uniformity and sameness of most 
of the gums. Their cleanliness, freedom from insect pests 
and alleged therapeutic value, in addition to the merits al- 
ready dwelt upon, would seem to justify, despite our insuffi- 
cient knowledge of their future behavior, limited experi- 
mentation with them upon our highways. 

Briefly, I desire to speak of one more tree that I have 
had opportunity to observe during the past ten years, as 
isolated examples upon sidewalks and driveways in both 
Los Angeles and Ventura counties. I refer to the More- 
ton Bay rubber tree — Ficus macrophylla. Its only radical 
defect is a tendency to make a good deal of litter, but the 
atmospheric dryness of our climate, so uncongenial to the 
magnolia, just meets its requirements. If a relatively 
tardy development be considered a drawback, it can, or 
the effect of it, be overcome, as in the case of the laurel, by 
the interplantation of other short-lived, rapid-growing sorts. 

The jumbling together of a variety of species on any 
street or drive is to be deprecated. A better general effect 
is produced with few varieties. The planting should be 
uniformly one kind until a bend, turn or angle in the road 
occurs, when another species may be introduced with pro- 
priety. These suggestions are made in conformity with 
my ideas that road-making and road-planting are sciences 
that should not be followed out in a haphazard way, but 
that the building and planting of them should be in the 
hands of qualified experts, of whom a strict accounting 
should be exacted. 

Our present lack of system results as might be expected 
in many sections of the State, in having trails worse than 
no roads, unplanted, or if planted, incongruously or im- 
properly done. Still, so impressed are we with the ad- 
vantages that follow the planting of anything upon our 
thoroughfares, be it no more than a shrub, that, lacking 
anything like an intelligent system of road supervision, we 
must make the best of what we have, and urge upon every 
one the planting of even peppers or grevillias as a stride 
in the right direction, as an evidence of civilization, that 
will increase our material comfort and prosperity and ele- 
I vate us in the eyes of the world. 


f ACIFie I^URAId f ress. 

JULT 16 1892 

II[he XrR'^ationist. 

Excessive Irrigalion. 

An essay at the Farmers' Institute in Pomona. May 27 and 2S, by Mr. 
K. McLennan, foreman of the Southern California experiment station. 

There is a prevailing idea among a great many people of 
this State, especially the northern part of the State, that no 
good orchards or good fruits can be raised and grown on 
the dry lands and irrigated districts of Southern California 
without an enormous supply of water. This idea is erro- 
neous, misleading, and arises from the lack of sufficient 
knowledge of the country and of the conditions required to 
grow good orchards and good fruit. 

And from this idea arises the practice of irrigating too 
much and at all times of the year, which sooner or later will 
bring its own reward with it. 

While some irrigation when judiciously used is beneficial 
and even necessary, half the quantity used would be quite 
sufficient, and in a great many cases less would be better. 

As proof of this, one can see many good orchards planted 
here and there throughout this valley that never receive any 
irrigation whatever e.xcept rainfall from the sky, and yet 
these orchards bear large crops of the very best of fruits. 
They have a higher color and arc of a better flavor than 
those that are irrigated. 


This is generally practiced by unprofessionals and inex- 
perienced men, and I fear by some professionals too, who 
have no other object or motive in view than the money there 
is in the business. 

Their aim is to force the trees by irrigation, and raise the 
greatest number of large trees in the quickest time possible, 
and shove them on the market, often regardless of quality 
or variety; and generally, on account of their large size, 
they sell better than medium-sized trees that are not irri- 
gated but are decidedly of a better quality. 

When these forced trees are transferred from the nursery 
and planted in the orchard they are always found to be 
very slow in starting, many of them will die and a great 
many will start from the ground (where the older and more 
mature are always to be found). The result will be a very 
uneven and unsatisfactory orchard. 

At this stage of the game the orchardist takes it up 
and commences irrigating the trees as much and as 
often as he can get water to do it with, thinking that this 
will force them into bearing sooner than they otherwise 
would. This practice is a grave error, for they will not 
bear as early as they would if left more to the natural cli- 
matic conditions and seasonable changes of the year. In- 
stead of forcing them into bearing, they are forced to make 
unnatural growths and the result will be that they are over- 
grown, top-heavy, with poor root system almost swimming 
on the surface of the ground; and when the winter rains 
and storms set in many of them will be found totterrag over 
here and there throughout the orchard. 

Thus they are kept in a forced state of growth and ex- 
citement from the time the seedling? appear in the seed 
beds until the trees commence to bear, and very often after 

There is another evil attending too much irrigation that 
is not properly looked into. It impoverishes the ground by 
washing away the finer ingredients and materials necessary 
to feed and sustain plant life. 

By way of illustration, we will take a ten acre orange 
orchard with the trees planted eighteen feet apart each 
way. We now prepare for irrigation by running furrows 
along the rows two feet from the trunk of the tree, leaving 
a space fourteen feet between the furrows or irrigating 
ditches that is not to be irrigated. Then the water is run 
in the ditches at a distance of fourteen feet apart until the 
whole orchard is irrigated, and this is repeated every two 
months or oltener. 

The result of this will bs that an enormous quantity of 
plant food is washed away every year, and fertilizers must 
be resorted to before the trees have hardly time to come 
into bearing. 


Stone fruits should never be irrigated when the sap has 
commenced to move and circulate through the body of the 
tree, as they are at that time in their most delicate and 
sensitive condition and any sudden change at this time will 
chill the roots, the circulation will cease, or at least until 
the ground commences to warm up, when they will assume 
their normal condition and blossoms and wood-buds burst 
out all at once, and the ever-ready and eager wood-buds 
lead in the race, thus diverting the sap from their slower 
neighbors — the first buds — causing the blossom and fruit 
to drop, and a short crop will follow. 

Should the season be very cold and wet at this interest- 
ing period of their growth, different results may follow. In 
order to explain this it would be necessary to follow the 
course and circulation of the sap. Ttie sap ascends through 
the cells in the wood or body of the tree until it reaches the 
branches; there it will divide and circulate through every 
branch on the tree. On reaching the ends of the branches 
it changes its course and returns and descends on the out- 
side of the wood — between the wood and the bark— until 
the collar of the tree is reached. There it will meet an ob- 
stacle; the ground is cold and wet and perhaps the water 
is standing around the collar of the tree, and the sap being 
on the outside of the wood brings it in close proximity to 
the cold and wet ground, which causes the circulation of 
the sap to cease. The consequence will be the sap sours 
and ferments, the bark splits and the tree dies. 

This was the cause of so many fruit trees dying three 
years ago. 

The best time to irrigate stone fruits is after the stone 
hardens in the fruit and again immediately after the fruit is 

The aim in raising young and good orchards should be 
to let them grow more dependent on their own resources. 

In this way they will become acclimatized and will stand 
the climatic conditions and changes of the seasons better. 
Of course I mean that they should receive good and thor- 
ough cultivation, and when it will be found necessary to ir- 
rigate them they should receive a good, thorough one, but 
not often. The furrows should b? made as deep as possiole 
— the deeper the better; they let the water down deep into 
the ground and will draw the attention of the roots down- 
ward instead of up to the surface of the ground as they 
usually do. 

To the doubtful minds I would only say, look over the 
valleys of Southern California, note the vegetation growing 
there, plants, shtubs and trees of all descriptions and in all 
stages of growth, and aided by no hand but nature's. They 
too had a beginning and were small once; some are now 
large and old and still grow, blossom in their season and 
bring forth after their own kind. How much m^re, then, 
are we able to accomplish with good cultivation and a rea- 
sonable supply of water.'' ^ 

Ponltry and Eggs in the Petalama Region. 

Petaluma, July 6, 1S92. 

To I HE Editor: — I wish to give your readers an esti- 
mate of the total number of coops of poultry received at 
Petaluma for the year ending June i, 1892, that has been 
compiled. Of fowls there were 2696 coops (each coop con- 
taining 50 head) making 134,800 heads for the year; and 
the value per head would range from 25c to $1. This em- 
braces chicks, turkeys, ducks and geese. The total num- 
ber of eggs shipped was 1,432,908 dozen, which sold for an 
average of 27J cents per dozen. During the cheap season 
15 cents was an average price and the highest price during 
the last 12 months was 48 cents. Counting these a low av- 
erage rate, say 25 cents per dozen, the aggregate value is 
$378,227. This does not include the eggs shipped by rail 
from Petaluma, or from other points in the country. The 
grand total from Petaluma and Santa Rosa is 1,882,188 
dozen and valued at $470, 547. 

In an interview with the proprietor of the Incubator fac- 
tory, he gave me the following when I asked if poultry-rais- 
ing would pay. 

" Those of large experience concede that good hens will 
lay 12 dozen eggs per annum, but as a safe estimate let us 
take ten dozen as the average egg production for a flock of 
good, healthy hens. Prices of eggs in the San Francisco 
market range from 20 cents per dozen (the lowest) to 55 
cents or 60 cents (the highest), averaging 30 cents per dozen. 
Again let us be on the safe side and say 25 cents per dozen, 
which is very reasonable, since choice ranch eggs command 
from two to five cents per dozen more than those ordinarily 
sent to market. Now, if we sell ten d"zen eggs at 25 cents 
per dozen the proceeds are $2 50 per hen. After deducting 
$1 for feed, which is a high estimate, we have the neat little 
sum of $1.50 per hen per annum for eggs alone, to say 
nothing of what chicks can be raised. 

"The use of the Petaluma Incubators and Brooders set 
at rest this question as to whether poultry will pay." He 
said: " Returns are large and frequent. Capital is turned 
over several times during the year, and for the small amount 
of cash r«quired to start in the business we know of noth- 
ing that will pay as well. For example, do a li'tle figuring. 
Broilers sell allthe way from $4.5oto $10 per dozen, and it is 
estimated by those who have been long in the business that 
the cost of raising a chick ten to twelve weeks old is less 
than 15 cents. Now, this leaves a large margin for profit. 
The amount of money that one may make is only limited 
by one's capacity for conducting the business. The advan- 
tages of having a good incubator are that eggs can be set 
at any time so as to have broilers when they command the 
highest prices. Incubators never break eggs, leave the 
nest or breed vermin. Hens can be kept laying instead of 
sitting. The hatching can be done cheaper and more reli- 
ably with a good incubitor and not give a tenth part of the 
labor to look after it the number of hens would that are re- 
quired to hatch the same number of eggs, besides a great 
many othsr advantages well known to those in the busi- 

One dealer and raiser of poultry informed me that iie had 
li acres and had 400 laying hens that produced $1000 worth 
ot eggs and young chickens. The total expense was a lit- 
tle over $300 per year for food, a profit of $700 per year, 
but agreed all the feed should be raised also, if possible. 

W. A. Piatt has several incubators that ho'd 2200 eggs. 
He says that 75 per cent of the eggs will hatch out.. Then 
he will lose 10 to 25 per cent of the small chicks. After 
three years the hens should be sold, being best to sell them 
then. Chicks lay at five months old. The profit per hen 
will be $1 to $1.50 each per year. Good wheat being pur- 
chased at market price is the feed used; in fact, he says, 
"good feed is cheaper in the long run." This gentleman 
will double his capacity this year. He has 600 duck eggs 
in the machine now. 

A gentleman who lives within five miles of Petaluma 
gives the figures on what he has made off of 500 hens the 
past year. They are as follows: 

Commencing with 500 hens on the 1st of January. 1891, 
Sold 4,658 dozen egi?s at an average o» 30 cents a dozen . «1 397 40 

150 hens sold at ii.50 a dozen ' ' 68 75 

18 dozen broilers at $4.50 a dozen " si no 

Increased flock 100 pullets at il a dozen '.'.'.'.['.[['.'.'.'.'. 60 00 

Gross receipt* aTfin? 

Cost of feed for the year ■ * -nn nn 

Netprcfit ^.f. 

Which gives a proflt of $1.80 for each heii. 

The following article from the pen of A. Armstrong ap- 
peared in the Petaluma Courier: 

There is not millions in it, but it certaialy pays, and pays well in 
the district surrounding Petaluma, For a rain of small capital who 
has a liking for poultry, it is the best business he can follow, provided 
he locates near a cash market. Petaluma is par excellence in that 
respect. No barter in ours, You can sell one-half dozen eggs or 

1000 sacks of wheat and get cash every tim". I s^* an old gentle- 
man once bring his eg^s to market in bis coat-tail pocket, get his 
ca'h and go aw:iy fmilirg. 

Petaluma is new and always will be the greatest poultry district in 
our glorious Stale. Besides our own market town we are handy to 
.San Francisco. If you wish to ship your eggs it only costs 25 cents 
per case of thirty-six dozen eggs and casps returned free of charge. 
Petaluma fresh ranch eggs always sell above quotations. At a fair 
estimate there must tie in a ra^ius of fifteen miles from Petaluma 
clise to half a million hens in flocks ranging from 100 to 1500 hens. 
We consider there more clear profit in keeping twenty-five hens 
than one cow. We do not make $5 on a hen, but we do clear $1.50 
to $2 so per hen per year. How many men have I heard exclaim: 
" It It had not been for my chickens I would have run behind." And 
dairymen also say: "I make more money out of my hens than I do 
the cows." .-Xnd so it goes. Now to illustrate. In my own neigh- 
borhood, neighbor No. i kepps twenty cows and 500 hens. He says 
the hens beat the cows all hollow; his profit on hens last year was 
$800. No. 2 has fifteen acres of land, a family of four, keeps 400 
hens (no other income), lives and dresses well, has money to spend, 
rides in his carriage and enjoys life well. No. 3, your humble ser- 
vant, does not make an exclusive bu^ness of poultry, but keeps a 
flock of 300 hens on the side, gives them goorl care, and they cleared 
him $500 last year. But neighbor No. 4 has the model chicken 
ranch, a Mr. Treat, who has ten acres of land, well improved, fine 
residence, and all other buildings in fine shape, one-third in fruit 
trees, who started there with small means a few years ago. I don't 
suppose $5000 would buy him out to-diy, and he made it all from 
the humble ben. 

W. H. Murray. 


How Fruit-trrowing Has Progressed on this Coast. 

There has been placed on our table by a pioneer resident 
on the "Eastern Slope" a curious and interesting relic 
connected with the early history of that rection of country. 
This reminder of the past consists of an article taken from 
the Territorial Enterprise, published in Carson City, and 
bears date -Sept. i, i860. It comes to us aged and dingy, 
having been printed on brown wrapping paper, for often in 
those early days it happened, at points in the remote interior, 
that the newspaper man, his stock of white paper being ex- 
hausted, was obliged to borrow from his neighbor, the mer- 
chant, enough wrapping paper to tide over the emergency. 
Commenting on the California fruits arriving in that coun- 
try, the editor of the Territorial Enterprise, in the issue 
referred to, di scourses as follows: 

Our markers are now being supplied with every variety of 
(rult from California, and at prices not at all unreasonable, consider- 
ing the distance it has to be bro ight and the care required in its 
transportation. Pears, peaches and apples are selling at 35 and 40 
cents a pound. The apples, for the most part, get over in tolerable 
condition, but the pears and peaches, unless packed with extra care, 
bruise a good deal with the long and rough journey. Of all the 
peaches brought over the mountains, the finest we have yet seen were 
a lot from Gucelon's nursery, Calaveras county, one of the Eden 
spots of Calilornia. This delicious fruit, although of immense size, 
and not picked until fully ripe, had been boxed and handled with 
such care, that they reached here with but slight damagf, the bloom 
on their ruddy cheeks being scarce tarnished with the journey. But 
for some detention on the road— the Big Tree route — these peaches 
would have been here in four days from the time they were picked, as 
they will be hereafter; it being the intention of the proprietors, we 
believe, to supply our market regularly with the products of their or- 

With this bountiful supply of fruit, living has been rendered much 
more tolerable in Washoe than aforetime. Those who were here last 
summer will remember that we saw but little fruit then, and what 
little did get here was nearly worthless and arrived late in the season. 
Possessed of so many sheltered and fertile spots, we do not see why 
our own soil could not be made to contribute something in a few 
years toward furnishing ourselves with these products, now wholly 
imported from California. It is generally t)elieved, from the ill suc- 
cess that has attended the cff'>rts thus far made, that fruit trees will 
not thrive in this country. The more tender, perhaps, would not; yet 
we believe apples, plums and grapes could be culiivued with success. 
Currants, plums and a variety of berries are found growing wild, and 
the cultivated varieties could, no doubt, with proper management, be 
made to adapt themselves to our soil and climate. The experiments 
heretofore made have been on a limited scale, and probably not con- 
ducted with as much judgment and care as they should have been. 

Persons going into a new country, having a climate different from 
that to which they have been accustomed, are very apt to question its 
adaptability to the growth of such products as they have been familiar 
with. When our people first arrived in California, they looked upon 
most of the country as a mere desert, and were very timid atxjut un- 
dertaking even the cultivation of grain, while they had not the re- 
motest idea that vegetables and trees in endless variety could be raised 
with facility almost everywhere. Yet such, on trial, proved to be the 
case. The present proprietor of the nursery mentioned took up the 
spot, then the site of an old Indian rancharia. in 1851, intending to 
fst its fitness for gardening and fruit-growing, with many doubts 
and misgivings as to the results; and feeling very much, it may be 
presumed, as our friend Nash would do were he to undertake a like 
experiment at this time, on the old Eagle ranch, having all the re- 
ported failures of peach growers in Upper Carson before his eyes. 

These mountain orchards of Mr. Gircelon, upon the cultivation of 
which he entered with so much distrust, scarce nine years ago, now 
beat the world in tb>* variety, excellence and abundance of their 
products, hundreds of tons of the roost delicious fruits t>eing raised 
every year with but little labor. Now, while we have no idea that 
results like these can attend the labors of the nurseryman in Western 
Utah, still, we believe there are many places on our river bottoms, as 
well as hundreds of little dells in the mountains, where the more use- 
ful and hardy fruits could be grown with the greatest success. At 
all events, the matter should be fully tested at the earliest practicable 
moment, and we trust our people will not suffer another planting 
season to go by without taking measures for giving the fruit growing 
capacities of Washoe a fair trial. 

It will be observed with how much of misgiving the writer 
of the above article speaks of the fruit growing prospects 
in Western Utah, now the State of Nevada, venturing to 
suggest that possibly the hardier varieties might, in favor- 
able localities, be grown with success. Up till that time, 
the only fruit trees that had been set out over there con- 
sisted of the peach and apple, a few of which had been 
pLinted in Carson valley, but with such disappointing re- 
sults that no further trials in this line had been made either 
there or elsewhere in that country. Now, Carson valley is 
notably a breezy locality, the wind sweeping through it 
often with almost cyclonic violence, to which fact, coupled 
perhaps with ignorant planting and careless cultivation, 
was due the failure alluded to. 

With the large immigration incident to the discovery of 
the Comstock mines, there was created such a demand for 

July 16, 1892. 

f ACIFie F^URAb f RESS. 


fresh fruits in Western Utah that the planting of fruit trees 
was soon after begun, and, favorable localities having been 
selected and the business conducted with more care, has 
cnme to reach there large proportions, enough of the more 
h irdy fruits, and of the best quality, being now raised for 
home consumption, with some to spare. 

And thus has it been with this fruit-growing business 
from the start. Commencing in the rich alluvial valleys of 
( alifomia, it has been traveling all the while east. Its first 
movement in that direction having brought it to the foot- 
hills of the Sierra Nevada, it made there a short halt, ad- 
vancing soon after into the mining districts, this being the 
site of the Garcelon nursery, the pioneer in the mining re- 
gions of the State. Gradually it crept up to higher alti- 
tudes, and finally passed over the great snowy range into 
the arid sage lands beyond, where, as above related, 
we find it flourishing to- day. For now nearly a quarter of 
a century both Ceres and Pomona have found prosperous 
homes in a region laid down on the not very old maps as 
the Great American desert ! These experimental plantings 
made by men of the Harris Garcelon type constitute the 
mile stones by which is measured the horticultural progress 
made by our people since they came to this coast. 

Orange Growing. 

The following paragraphs are taken from the excellent 
paper on the above subject which Henry H. Wheeler of 
Pomona read at the recent meeting of the Farmers' Insti- 


The next important step is to select the varieties desired. 
It can hardly be denied that the Washington Navel has no 
equal for quality, promises the highest market value, is an 
excellent shipping orange, and is of unusually uniform qual- 
ity. I do not, like many, give the Mediterranean Sweet 
either second or third place. My experience with it is that 
it is not of uniform quality on the trees— there being many 
coarse, puffy ones, especially in the latter part of June and 
July — tends to overbear, and is a larger orange, on the 
average, than I think will soon come to be of market value 
next to the Washington Navel. It is not to be questioned 
that a good Mediterranean Sweet is an exceptionally fine 

Second in commercial value is, or soon will be, the paper 
rind, or thin-skinned St. Michael. It is fine flavored, a 
good keeper and shipper, and in size growing to be the 
most popular in the retail market. If you have seen the 
catalogue of auction sales this season you have noticed that 
the very smallest sized oranges have brought higher prices 
than the large ones. 

The Ruby Blood orance is highly recommended, but I 
have not grown or tested it. The Blood oranere always 
has commanded high prices in the markets. For two or 
three years I have been deliberating about the Nonpariel 
(known here as the Valencia Late, and in Florida called 
Hart's Late). This is an orange ripening very late — July 
and August — of fine keeping and therefore shipping quali- 
ties, and fairly good to eat out of hand. Without doubt, a 
few carloads of this variety would sell wonderfully well in 
the large Atlantic coast cities — even as high as eight or 
nine dollars a box. But since the markets are then (July 
and August) filled with all kinds of green fruits, I have 
come to the conclusion that several hundred cars of this 
variety would sell to the shippers' profit. 

Now-a-days I seldom advise. If I were setting out ten 
acres to oranges, perhaps I should plant on«>-half to Wash- 
ington Navels, the other half to paper rind St. Michaels. 


We do not pay much attention to pruning. The French 
or English gardener will spend more time and thought over 
a single tree than we give to a ten-acre orchard. As I go 
about I am amused, and also nearly vexed, to see all trees 
in some orchards trimmed up exactly alike, the fig and 
prune, apricot and lemon, so that a horse can rub up close 
to the trunk. My friend, you call yourself an intelligent 
horticulturist, have you ever considered for what you are 
growing and trimming ti-ees? Is it for productiveness, that 
is, profit, or for your own ease in working around them, 
that your hat may not be knocked ofT by branches, or a 
little backache saved in hoeing ? I will wager almost any- 
thing that the extra amount of fruit produced on a low- 
headed and low-branched tree pays for hoeing around it 
many times over. 

I am a strong advocate of low pruning of orange trees 
for these seven reasons: The fruit-bearing surface is 
greatly increased. The tree is made more stocky, and is 
thus better able to withstand high winds. The bark of the 
trunk is shaded, a most important consideration in this 
country. The soil immediately about the trunk is shaded 
and thus kept more moist and loose. The picking of fruit 
is greatly facilitated, and less expensive. A large olive 
grower has told me that it costs him four times as much to 
pick olives from some of his high trees as it does from the 
low-trained ones, and any one can see how much help it is 
in the case of lemon trees, from which pickings are made 
several times a year. I have not had to use steps or lad- 
ders in picking oranges from my seven-year-old trees. 

There might be seven equally cogent reasons in favor of 
high pruning, but it has not been my lot to fall upon them. 
To show the increase in bearing surface, I call to mind 
some trees pruned high, of the same age as mine. When I 
had a small first crop, they had nothing. The next year I 
had about half a box to a tree; they had one or two dozen. 
A good maxim about pruning is, train a tree as you wish it 
to grow, and don't try to make it as you wish when it is 
old — when you have to use a two-horse pair of shears and a 
buck saw. I do not favor letting new growth get more 
than a foot or two long. Fruit borne on the extremities of 
long branches is always coarse and poor. Large trees 
should be thinned insid«— especially seedling trees. Let 

the sunlight air into the heart of the tree; it will keep the 
tree clean, and the fruit will ripen more uniformly, leaving 
none of those pufTy, coarse, sickly-looking oranges so com- 
mon in the centers of large trees. 


It is unsatisfactory to talk about profits. There is a case 
on record of $1800 an acre; Riverside can furnish proofs of 
$1000, $1100 and $1200 an acre; but it would be difficult to 
get at the average net profit. If I had capital, I would not 
hesitate to oflFer for all bearing, complete, well cared-for 
orchards, of good varieties, $300 per acre in advance, for 
the next ten years, or $3000 cash per ten acres for the crop. 
For ten years to come, I believe choice oranges will bring 
good prices. If the fruit growers are not fools they will 
get their just share of the profits. 

Lemon Caltare and Caring. 

Excepting a short preface, the following is the paper of 
Judge Frank A. Newell of the Kingsley tract, read before 
the Los Angeles County Farmers' Institute at Pomona, 
May 28, 1892: 

As to the cultivation of the lemon tree in bearing (I do 
not care to speak of it at an earlier stage) all that need be 
said is, it should be kept in thrifty condition to a marked 
degree, that the fruit may have healthy and rapid growth 
to attain commercial size before the least change of color. 
This can be accomplished by reasonable moisture and 
generous fertilizing. I have so far used domestic manure 
in best form. As to which is the best of the several com- 
mercial fertilizers I cannot, for want of proper knowledge, 
venture an opinion. Neither as to which variety of lemon 
is the best. I have the Eurekas, and none other. No one 
has yet shown me by actual demonstration there is a better 
variety; and I am waiting for some person of good repute 
to come and demonstrate to me in the presence of at least 
two good citizens, "worthy and well qualified," that there is 
a variety whose fruit can be gathered with less discomfort, 
is more prolific, that looks better, feels better, tastes better, 
keeps better and is better. When he comes, if I am not 
too old, I agree to tell all interested parties that I meet, 
that they may know and obtain the better kind. Some be- 
lieve that those persons who produce fine cured lemons 
possess secrets that the masses do not possess. In the 
broadest sense of the word, that is true. So there are se- 
crets clustering around the process of making good pie, 
but in a strict sense of the word there are none in either. 
The superior knowledge possessed has been gained by 
study and experiment, often attended with considerable 
loss. The greatest secret (if the word may be used) con- 
sists in intelligently severmg the fruit from the tree. In 
this consists the exercise of good judgment and the highest 
order of care. The lemon that will appear to best advan- 
tage when thoroughly cured, was of commercial size and 
rich, green color when severed, A lemon that has changed 
color from intense green to yellow, though in a slight de- 
gree, can never compare when cured, in color or quality, 
with its more fortunate companion above mentioned. If 
the fruit is expected to remain from six to ten months in 
storage awaiting favorable market, then, if possible, fruit 
measuring at least 2 3/ inches in diameter and upward 
should be selected; but if known to be wanted much sooner, 
then those of less diameter may be selected — 2X inches 
and upward. When the fruit is maturing on the tree I 
gather as often as two or three times each month, and at 
each gathering sever everything, great or small, that shows 
the marked sign of turning. However small, they cannot 
grow better, and it relieves the tree to take them off. As I 
have already stated, the greatest care must be exercised to 
obtain the best results in severing fruit from the tree and 
placing in sweating box. If there shall be any shirking of 
duty in that behalf on the part of the orchardist, he will 
surely find his fruit, when cured, inferior in just proportion, 
suggesting to his mind the ancient common law maxim that 
" a man cannot be permitted to take advantage of his own 

Now, a few words of detail and I am done: Cut the 
stem — never pull off, for it will not keep as well; place in 
basket or other convenient vessel lined with some soft sub- 
stance, holding not exceeding 50 pounds; place in sweat 
box three to five feet deep, placing boxes one above the 
other to convenient height, placing one or two empty boxes 
on top and bottom to relieve top and bottom boxes from 
drying, as it is found the top and bottom boxes are most 
sensitive to heat; let the boxes fit as close together as possi- 
ble; then cover to exclude all light; let the boxes be sur- 
rounded with air, but at all hazard protect from currents of 
air reaching them. With the usual average temperature in 
ordinary barn or shed, in 35 to 40 days after so placing the 
fruit, open up, select everything worthy and place in trays 
one deep, holding from four to six dozen; trays should be 
of uniform size to fit closely when stacked, making as near 
air tight as possible; piace newspapers in bottom and top of 
trays to absorb any excess of moisture which often accrues. 
When this is all done, stack and cover in manner aforesaid 
and let alone until wanted; the sooner marketed the better, 
if outside of a first-class storage. 

The doing of the things above stated has secured to me 
fine cured fruit, as many citizens of this city have seen and 
know, and will surely secure to others the same result who 
are willing to exf'rcise the same care. Whether any better 
method will be discovered, I cannot say. If so or not, we 
have reached such a degree of excellence in curing as to 
encourage liberal planting of lemon orchards, whose whole- 
some fruit is more extensively known and used than any 
other, and the production of which in its best possible form 
is of more interest of vital character to the human family, 
in sickness and in health, than the production of all other 
fruits combined; and I believe that very soon, by force of 
right, the lemon will arrogate to itself the dignity of king- 
ship of the citrus family. Respectfully, 

Frank A. Newell. 

The Santa Clara Fruit Exchange. 

Campbell, Santa Clara Co., July 6, 1892. 

To THE Editor.— On the 2d inst. the stockholders of 
Santa Clara Co. Fruit Exchange met and adopted by-laws. 
The directors of that Exchange met on adjournment of 
the stockholders' meeting and unanimously decided to im- 
mediately select a location and erect suitable buildings 
thereon in which to conduct the business of a Fruit Ex- 
change. The amount of stock thus far subscribed, together 
with the almost unanimous promise of our fruit growers to 
give such further financial aid as may be required, im- 
pelled the directors to this prompt and decisive action. 

At Campbell about 50 persons subscribed $1500 and 
promised more if more be needed. Other places will doubt- 
less do as well when the advantages of a Fruit Exchange 
are as thoroughly understood. 

The "Exchange Buildings " will most probably be fire- 
proof, two-story brick, contain the best modern appliances 
for grading and packing fruit. Thus the Exchange may 
be enabled to put a grower's brand of fruit on the market, 
at least equal to the best, if not an unequaled brand. This 
alone will be worth many thousand dollars to the fruit 
growers. The Exchange promises to be ready to handle the 
present year's dried fruit crop of Santa Clara valley. Grow- 
ers should very promptly subscribe the balance of the slock 
required, and thus place their business on a solid basis. 
This is virtually a fruit grower's Exchange, as there are a 
hundred or more growers to every canner or drier. If 
growers want their business properly done they must do it. 

Apricots are beginning to ripen. The crop will be very 
short. There are acres together not worth gathering. 
Not only are apricots withering, but not a few prunes will 
also fail to mature. 

It may be peaches will do better. Some say the cause 
is frost and cold weather, others add "dry weather" as the 
principal cause. 

I think that it is due to the ear'y frosts and the later 
cold, dry weather combined. 

There will be a great deal of small fruit this year, be- 
sides a large quantity will not mature. 

enterprise of THE CAMPBELL GROWERS. 

The "Buxton Fruit Drying Works" at this place was 
this day transferred to the "Campbell Fruit Growers' 
Union," an association of the fruit growers of this district, 
by which they propose to handle their fruit on cooperative 
principles. The purchase of the Buxton plant puts them 
in possession of one of the largest and finest equipped 
drying plants in the State, with buildings and grounds of 
almost unlimited capacity, and with all the most approved 
appliances and labor-saving machinery, run by steam 
power, for the rapid and economical handling of fruit. The 
laying of the third rail from San Jose to these works, 
which is now in progress and which will be completed in 
time for this season's business, will give unsurpassed ship- 
ping facilities, giving broad gauge communication with all 
points East without change. The acquisition of this plant 
is considered fortunate by the growers as it is located in 
the center of the great fruit growing district of Santa Clara 
valley, and there is practically no limit to its capacity for 
handling fruit. The fruit growers of this district have ac- 
quired a reputation for enterprise and push, and this move 
is considered important in view of the fact that it is the 
first step toward the handling and sale of the fruit by the 
growers, one of the principal objects that was sought to be 
brought about by the organization of the County Fruit 
Growers' Exchange. M. 

The Trade in Spanish Raisins. 

Vice- Consul Romaguera, of Gandia, Spain, reports that 
the demand for this fruit, which is the principal product of 
that region, has decreased considerably during the last few 
years, and, in consequence, its price, which about six years 
ago was on an average 25 pesetas (20s.) percwt., had fallen 
at the end of last year to 10 pesetas (8s.) per cwt., which 
price does not cover the expenses of cultivation. Such a 
depreciation is attributed to the lowering of the duties on 
currants in England, but it is principally owing to the con- 
siderable increase of the duties which raisins from Spain 
have to pay in the United States since the McKinley bill 
has been in force, and also owing to the increase of that 
product in other parts of the world. The crop of oranges 
has been most abundant, and has obtained regular prices, 
but if a lowering of railway tariffs is not obtained, so as to 
extend its consumption in Spain, the depreciation of this 
beautiful and valuable fruit will soon be felt, as the market 
in England is not sufficient to give outlet to the production, 
which day by day is increasing. Mr. Vice-Consul Morand, 
of Denia, reports that damp weather, with some rainfalls 
since the beginning of September, caused much damage to 
the crop of raisins, which at first was estimated to be a 
good average one, say about 3500 tons. The demand for 
the United States of America has been very limited in- 
deed, owing to the heavy duty there and the large crops in 
California, which have considerably depressed the price of 
this fruit in that country, and greatly affected its value in 
all the other markets; and, as in the previous year, specu- 
lators (among whom were cultivators themselves, who had 
shipped largely on their own account) lost a good deal of 
money. The district of Denia in consequence is much im- 
poverished, the value of landed property has depreciated, 
and money is becoming more scarce. Consul-General 
Holmwood, of Smyrna, reports under date May i: "The 
recent revision of the French tariffs fully accounts for the 
value of raisins in 1891, the present tariff provisions virtu- 
ally prohibiting the shipment of raisins to France, to which 
country so large a proportion of this staple production of 
Asia Minor had hitherto been exported." — Fruit Trade 


f ACIFie F^URAlo f RESS. 

Jolt 16. 1892 

IIIhE ^TiojvIE QlRSbE. 

Her Exalted Station. 

I used to think il an easy thing, 

As easy as any one asks, 
To keep a family neat and prim 

And manage the household tasks. 

It seemed to me, in my foolish pride, 

That the heft of a woman's toil 
Was simply to sit by the door inside, 

And wait for the dinner to boil; 

While out in the summer's scorching heat. 

We men were sweating away. 
With aching shoulders and jaded feet. 

From dawn to the close of day. 

But, sir, I would have you be assured 

That thoroughly, one by one. 
My notions of housework have all been cured, 

And this is the way it wa: done. 

My wife suggested a day's exchange. 
As she dropped a kiss on my brow— 
■"Tis hard," she said, "holding on to the reins 
And riding the sulky plow. 

"You better stay in the house, my dear, 
And wash a few of the things. 
And churn, and sweep where it needs it here. 
And read till the dinner-bell rings. 

"The horses are gentle and pretty true; 
I guess I can drive them straight — 
I'll try and turn a furrow or two. 
For the season is getting late." 

So off she rode on the sulky plow. 

With her jaunty hat and blouse. 
While I was inwardly vowing a vow 

How I would manage a house. 

But. somehow, I found the morning chores 

Were not in my usual line. 
Like those I had finished out of doors 

At least for a thousandth lime. 

Against the stove my fingers I hit, 

And blistered them stinging sore; 
In trymg to scrub the clothes a bit, 

I scrubbed my knuckles the more. 

The churning acted 'specially mean; 

The butter would almost come. 
And then go back to frothy cream, 

As if I had just begun. 

The fire went out, as a fire will do 

When the wood is not put in; 
And as I thought of a meal for two, 

I did not know where to begin. 

Bui, while I was fixing potatoes and pork. 

Not fit for a dog to eat. 
My wife returned from her forenoon's work 

As fresh as a rose and as sweet. 

With a mortified air I quit the room. 

And betook me to the shed, 
While she got a dinner exactly at noon, 

As good as ever was spread. 

We sat at the table opposite-wise. 

As always we did before. 
When she asked with a smile in her sweet blue 

If I would exchange some more. 

Then, sir, I confessed my faults and said: 
" My dear, you're as good as a queen; 
The woman who keeps the family fed 
Is running a big machine." 

— (. P. Trowbridge in " The Housewile." 

The Colonel's Wife. 

Fort Ludlow is a beautiful place to the few 
people from the city who, nervous and tired 
from a long winter of overwork, go down 
there in the sunny springtime for a day's 

During the war this fort was commanded 
by Col. Baxter. He was a brave old man, 
of more use out of the active fighting than in 
it, and just the officer to command this 
place, which at the time was of some im- 
portance from the fact that it served as a 
prison for Southern captives. They tell odd 
stories of old Baxter, and from all accounts 
he was not of the mildest disposition to- 
ward either his prisoners or his own men. 
Of all who suffered from the colonel's ty- 
ranny, however, the most tried was his 
young wife. She had been married to him 
by her parents when she was still very 
young, and having gained a right to his 
name and money, had lost, as it seemed, all 
hope of happiness. The old man undoubt- 
edly loved her, as was often proved by the 
license he allowed her in many things, but 
he loved her in a way that could call for no 
response, and he made her life most wretch- 
ed. To add to her distress, she was almost 
worshipped by every officer in the fort, and 
as a consequence sincerely hated by their 

So matters stood here at the fort in mid- 
winter of '63. There were at the time few 
prisoners confined here, and if the colonel 
had chosen, the life might have been almost 
pleasant. As it was, the only bright spoi in 
the long, monotonous days was in the morn- 
ing visit of the colonel's wife to the prison- 
ers. The old man's permission that this 
daily visit might be paid had cost the young 
woman much pleading and many|tears, but 

now that it was accomplished, the deed of 
charity seemed to bring a little joy into her 
sad life. To the prisoners it was a deeply- 
lelt blessing, while to the Union soldiers in 
the fort it also brought pleasure, for they 
saw that the colonel's wife was happier for 
her work, and they all loved the colonel's 
wife. The visits were short, but in them the 
girl managed to say much that was comfort- 
ing to the discouraged Southern captives, 
and after them each man felt that he too had 
a mother, or sister, or wife, for whom he 
must still live and fight on. 

January came and with the New Year a 
fresh batch of prisoners from the front. The 
colonel's wife soon knew them all, and they, 
at first sullen and discouraged, began once 
more to gather hope from her kind words. 
All but one, and that one had no need for 
encouragement. This young Southern of- 
ficer, strong in the belief that his cause was 
right, firm in the trust that he should live to 
fight once more for this cause, and confident 
in the love of the girl who would long ago 
have been his wife if the war had not broken 
out, had never for a moment let his 
courage fail. Escape was the word that was 
always in his mind. Escape was what he 
thought of, escape was what he dreamed of, 
and escape was what he finally attempted. 

But for three long months he was a pris- 
oner confined in one of those narrow cells, 
just there across the ditch. And there 
every day the colonel's wife visited him, and 
there she talked to him of his home and of 
himself. The man was a noble fellow, and 
when he opened his heart to the young wife, 
never lor a moment dreamed of the harm he 
was doing, while she, poor girl, never hav- 
ing known happiness, hardly understood 
why she was happy. But finally, when he 
told her of the girl who was waiting lor him 
at home, she understood, and he, to his sor- 
row, also understood. Then he saw a dou- 
ble reason for leaving the place, and she, 
too, saw that he could not stay. Duty to 
her husband and her country, love for the 
man whose very presence brought her happi- 
ness, yet who was not for her, above all, the 
knowledge that in helping him to escape, 
she was sending him to that other one wait- 
ing for him in the Southern home, all these 
thoughts filled the mind and soul of the col- 
onel's wife. And then, one bright April 
morning, after a calm, almost sultry night, 
the report spread through the garrison that 
No. 34, Capt. Low, 4th Carolina Cavalry, 
had escaped. No one knew how it hap 
pened; no one could understand how No. 34 
could have cut away the stone-work of his 
window enough to have pushed through. 
Above all, no one could believe that the 
prisoner had slipped through the opening, 
crossed the ditch, and fled out into the night 
without being seen by the sentry, whose beat 
was not 20 paces from the course the pris- 
oner must have taken. The sentry himself 
was for a time suspected of negligence, but 
was soon cleared of the suspicion by the 
evidence of the colonel's wife, who had her- 
self, in taking her usual evening walk about 
the ramparts, seen him at his post. The 
escape had been discovered very soon after- 
wards, so that there was no reason to believe 
the sentry asleep. The man himself, freed 
froni the charge, did not care to tell that the 
colonel's wife not only saw but spoke to him 
that night. That moreover, she called him 
to the further end of his beat, and called his 
attention to a noise which she thought she 
had heard far down the sea wall. ' What 
good would it do,' the fellow said to himself; 
'sure, it ud be loike impaching the lady her- 
self, which is foolish indade.' 

The colonel never saw a letter which a 
year or two afterward came to his wife. He 
was not in the room to see the tears come 
slowly to her eyes as she read the words: 

'■ That night when I saw your face in the 
dusk, looking at me, while you pointed with 
your hand in the other direction, then for the 
first time did I realize the risk you ran, and 
I felt ashamed to profit by your danger: You 
saved my life, and gave to me the woman 
who is now my wife. From the promise I 
made to you she will never know your name, 
but she joins with me in wishing all happi- 
ness to the colonel's wife. "—Halsey DeWolf, 
in the Harvard Advocate. 

How TO Drink a Farm.— Bob Burdette 
gives this simple recipe : " My homeless 
friend with a chromatic nose, while you are 
stirring up the sugar in a ten-cent glass of 
gin, let me give you a fact to wash down 
with it. You may have longed for years for 
the free independent life of the farmer, but 
have never been able to get money enough 
together to buy a farm. But that is just 
where you are mistaken. For some years 
you have been drinking a good improved 
farm at the rate of a hundred square feet a 
gulp. If you doubt this statement, figure it 
out yourself. An acre of land contains 
43,560 square feet. Estimating for con- 
venience the land at $43.56 an acre, you will 

see that it brings the land to just one mill 
per square foot; one cent for ten square feet. 
Now pour down the fiery dose, and imagine 
you are swallowing a strawberry patch. 
Call in five of your iriends and have them 
help you gulp down that 500-foot garden. 
Get on a prolonged spree some day, and 
see how long it requires to swallow pasture 
land enough to feed a cow. Put down that 
glass of gin; there is dirt in it — 100 feet of 
good, rich dirt, worth $43.56 per acre." 

Apricots Are Here. 

Santa Ana, Orange Co., June 29, 1892. 
To THE Editor:— It is the last week in 

The trade winds are driving away the fogs 
which have too long lingered overhead. 

The grevillia trees, whose gorgeous sprays 
so long upheld tiny chalices brimming with 
honey, whereof mocking bird and bum- 
ming bird did hourly sip, are showing their 
glory. The pistils only cling on, like stiff 
and withered finger tip pointing heaven- 

Now, at morn and eve, the humming birds 
leave shady coverts to probe the depths of 
the long tubed Marvels of Peru, which star 
our gardens. 

Mocking birds, perched on windmill fans, 
trill night and day, only stopping to flutter 
to the fig trees near, dipping beaks deep into 
the drooping, bursting figs, lunching on the 
luscious sweetness within. 

Pomegranate bushes are all ablaze. 
"Golden Gate" poppies rival Solomon in all 
his glory. Roses are marshaled in pomp 
for the third time this year. And chrysan- 
themums have to be severely nipped back 
to keep them from blooming before the 
"autumn show is on." 

It is the last week in June. 

Irrigation water is half an hour to the 
acre. But the little ranches hereabout only 
need water for their alfalfa patches. Corn 
and pumpkins which have never seen water 
above ground are making a luxuriant jungle. 

We of the Southern California valleys 
open to the ocean have all this month been 
getting most of our fresh fruits from the hot 
northern inland valleys. We have paid ten 
to 15 cents per pound for cherries, and cur- 
rants we do not have, and a " bit " a pound 
for early raspberries and blackberries. Of 
the "almond-eyed Celestials," we have had 
strawberries, fourteen pounds for a dollar. 
Memories of all there are on the shelves of 
the thrifty housewife— tempting jars of pre- 
serves, jams and jellies. 

This same thrifty housewife knows that 
blackberries are coming in from the " arte- 
sian belt " or swamp lands near, and she is 
watching the green grocer's prices. When 
they are $1.50 per crate, she will order for 

Yes, it is the last week in June. 

We of the Santa Ana valley are beginning 
to have our innings as to fruits. Early 
pears and "Saucer'' peaches have been tan- 
talizing us in our orchards, till the lord of 
the season, brave in red and gold, claims all 
our attention. 

He has come. He is here. Apricots 
are ripe ! 

The very birds of the air seem to sing it. 

The bees scent the aroma of the laden 
trays from alar and hum the news to each 

The chickens rush out early in the morn- 
ing, before the pickers come, to breakfast off 
the fruit which has dropped over night, and 
during the day they stick their heads 
through the meshes of the wire netting in- 
closing the drying ground, clucking angrily. 

The baker in the country town finds ready 
sale for all his empty flour sacks, the accu- 
mulation ot a year, at five and six cents 
apiece, and still there is call for more. The 
tardy ones who have neglected to engage 
the floury bags, now have to pay nine to ten 
cents apiece to the wholesale grocer for 
sacks, or buy a bolt of cloth and make them 
for seven or eight cents apiece, not counting 
the work. The thrifty housewife on the 
little ranch tells "her John,'' "I told you so," 
as she wearily seats herself at the sewing 
machine and thinks for the thousandth 
time, ''We women would manage things 
better if we had them in hand." 

The rancher who sold his fruit green, early 
in June tr> Cook and Langly or some other 
firm, for $15 per ton, glares wrathfully at 
his neighbor who tells him he has just sold 
his for $20 per ton, and "ten to one," rushes 
off to see if he can "sneak" out of his bar- 

The middleman who bought for $15 per 
ton sells out to the one now paying $20, and 
concludes he will do something else. 

Children of those in moderate circum- 
stances go about hand-in hand to get work 
"cutting" for a bit a box for the season. 

that they may earn money for the "4th" and 
the circus near at hand, and for clothes and 
new school books in the fall. 

The rancher whose head is full of the dis- 
cussions, pro and con, in the paper, about 
snlphuring, who has burnt more French sul- 
phur to the tray, and left his fruit in the sul- 
phur-box longer than the intelligent, con- 
scientious fruit grower does, now flops about, 
buys some wondrous new invention of a 
dryer, off-hand, on the recommendation of 
one of those agriculturists, "who talk too 
much in the papers," (and who, rumor hath 
it, "was paid for his puff'), struggles along, 
gets behind hand with his fruit, devastates 
his woodpile, "magnifies his English," and 
goes back to the old style, more ruthless, 
more defiant of chemical residuums, more 
eager for the almighty dollar at any cost, 
than ever. 

But the small rancher, the reader, the 
conscientious, who sticks to his ranch right 
along, averaging up the years, who is sure 
"apricots are in it this year," laughs at them 

When the middelman comes along offer- 
ing $15 per ton for his fruit, green, he began 
to laugh, saying: 

" O, I know why you fellows are bearing 
the market. You lost last year. Sorry, but 
they are worth more than that to me." 

When the same middleman comes again, 
offering $20 per ton, this same persevering 
rancher grins a broader grin and says: 

"O, I'm onto you fellows. I dried last 
year, made small wages to be sure, but I 
didn't lose. This year may be one of the 
years that pay. Pm going to be there if it is. 
Besides, you are figuring on six to seven 
pounds of green fruit to one of dried. I 
know my orchard, 1 don't irrigate, I culti- 
vate. My fruit always runs five pounds 
green to one of dried. Yes, sir, if it pays 
you to buy and dry, it will pay me more. 
There won't be any waste fri'it then. See ? 
The middleman smiles a left-cornered smile 
and rides away. 

So this small rancher with his family's 
help and the help of eager neighbors who 
have no orchards, greets the five o'clock 
morning sun, and "Fosters hot weather" 
which comes on apace, and settles down to 
his summer's work with a satisfied "Ha ! 
ha ! 

But the "tenderfoot" from the Middle 
States, and the visitor Irom Florida, go 
about through the rainless weeks to come /■ 
staring in astonishment at the green alfalfa 
patches, the wilderness of corn and pump- 
kins. They pluck the juicy apricot, learn- 
ing to distinguish in flavor between the red 
and white, developing dainty preference, 
never eating the apricot skins, when at first 
they raved over fruit picked off the ground. 
They sit to meals of apricot short- cake with 
whipped cream accompaniment; and the 
"tenderfoot" reads of the revels of wind, 
rain and thunder in his home paper, and 
takes another piece of short-cake spread 
with its slices of golden fruit, to make him- 
self doubly sure that he is in California. 
The Floridian thinks of his orange grove 
and homestead in the country of sand and 
daily summer rains; of endless pine forests 
and hammocks; where tiny cows wander, 
giving only a bowl of milk a day, half 
starved on the scanty "wire grass;" where 
vegetables and fresh meat are at starvation 
prices; where every place has its well-holes 
filled with empty tin cans; and he ladles him- 
self out another spoonful irom the generous 
dish of cream, and says 

" After all, California — " and stops his 
mouth with a toothsome piece of short-cake. 

Ves, it is the last week in June and apri- 
cots are here. Augusta E. Towner. 

A Rose Jar Recipe. 

It always seems a pity to see such quan- 
tities of fragrant rose leaves go to waste 
every year, when their delightful perfume 
could be so easily preserved in a rose jar. 
For the benefit of such of our readers as 
would like to utilize their rose petals in that 
way, we append the following recipe taken 
from The Garden's Story : 

" I don't refer to the dry, soapy-smelling 
article of commerce labeled, ' 'Tea Rose 
Potpourri from Japan,' but to the old- 
fashioned ' rose jar ' made from vour own 
garden roses, blended with a suflSciency of 
other sweets to hold its perfumes immutable. 
It is difficult to give a precise recipe for a 
rose potpourri, for no two ever turn out 
alike. I would say, however, with fat old 
Baron Brisse, in a preface to an entree in 
his Petite Cuisine : ' There is one point in 
this preparation rather difficult to seize; but 
this is the way to set about it in order to be 
complimented.' The roses employed should 
be just blown, of the sweetest-smelling 
kinds, gathered in as dry a state as possible. 
After each gathering, spread out the petals 
on a sheet of paper, and leave until free from 

JOLT 16, 1892. 


all moisture; then place a layer of petals in 
the jar, sprinkling with coarse salt; then 
another layer and salt, alternating until the 
jar is full. Leave for a few days, or until 
a broth is formed; then incorporate thor- 
oughly and add more petals and salt, mixing 
daily for a week, when fragrant gums and 
spices should be added, such as benzoin, 
storax, cassia buds, cinnamon, cloves, carda- 
mon and vanilla bean. Mix again and leave 
for a few days, when add essential oil of 
jessamine, violet, tube rose and attar of 
roses, together with a hint of ambergis or 
musk, in mixture with the flower ottos to fix 
the odor. Spices such as cloves should be 
sparingly used. A rose potpourri thus com- 
posed, without parsimony in supplying the 
flower ottos, will be found in the fullest 
sense, a joy forever." 

A Bride's Household Belongings. 

Perhaps a few words to the brides who 
are getting things ready for housekeeping 
will not come amiss, says Carrie May Ash- 
ton in American Agriculturist. One writer 
says: " Allow at least five sheets, one pair 
of blankets, two comforters and a spread 
for each bed. Provide an extra spread for 
every two beds, and then they can be washed 
turn and turn about." For sheets, the double 
width, which does not require a seam in the 
middle, is best. The forty-inch unbleached 
is, of course, much less expensive, and wears 
well, but requires a seam in the middle. 
Pillow-shams are made of fine linen, hem- 
stitched and embroidered in white rope silk 
or in floss. Others are trimmed with Irish 
and Venice point around the outside instead 
of hem-stitching. Bath cloths, more com- 
monly called washrags, can be bought by 
the yard or piece, and should be overcast 
all around, and then finished with a pretty 
edge crocheted of white cotton. Made in 
this way, they last much longer than as if 
they were left to ravel. Some prefer to knit 
or crochet them of cotton, in some plain 
stitch, but it seems like a waste of time to 
put so much work on a little thing. 

Bureau and washstand scarfs are of linen, 
hem-stitched or fringed, and done in outline 
work. Mats for the brackets on the bureau 
can be crocheted of white and colored zephyr 
in whatever color the room is furnished. A 
pretty pair have the foundation of white 
yarn, and are rounded to neatly fit the 
brackets. White saxony is used for the 
flufTy edges. Fourteen stitches crocheted 
very loosely are put in each stitch around 
the edge, then the next row inside has twelve, 
the third ten and the fourth eight. Into the 
center of each of these is crocheted the same 
number of stitches in pink saxony. In re- 
gard to the quantity of table linen, that de- 
dends upon how much you expect to enter- 
tain. Five tablecloths, three for every day, 
and one dozen napkins, one fringed teacloth, 
with napkins to match, and one fine, long 
one for company will answer very well to 
commence with. A dozen and a half of the 
large napkins, seven-eighths, as they are 
called, will be needed for company, and a 
set of fruit napkins to save the others. Many 
prefer to purchase for every day wear the 
unbleached in pretty patterns, which wear 
well and are very pretty in their brownest 
tint. Much of the new table linen is hem- 
stitched. A cover of felt or canton flannel 
is needed to put under the cloth, and makes 
a table look much nicer. Six or seven tray- 
cloths will be needed, and can be purchased 
already hem-stitched, fringed and stamped 
ready for outlining, or they can be made at 
home from web linen. The fine German 
linen is much used for these at present. 
Others are of handsome damask. Conven- 
tional designs are the latest thing for outline 
work, which is done in white silk or linen 
floss. Red is used for every day wear be- 
cause it washes so well, but white has the 
preference. Carnation pinks, yellow and 
pink roses, buttercups and daisies, are seen 
on many of the beautiful traycloths and 
overlays, in their natural colors. Sideboard 
scarfs are of Momie linen or plain German, 
and made in similar style. Doilies are 
round and square, either fringed or hem- 
stitched, and as dainty and pretty as it is 
possible to make them. 

Everything should be marked with the 
maiden name of the bride. My advice to 
brides is, to have everything as nice as pos- 
sible, but do not spend weeks and months 
making enough things to last half a lifetime. 
Better spend your time outdoors in the glad 
sunshine and fresh air, or in reading good 
books. A young man was heard to say, not 
long ago, it looked as if a girl never expected 
to have anything more, when she laid in 
such a supply of clothing and household 
linen. Whatever you buy, be sure that it is 
a good article. It is poor economy to buy 
cheap goods. 

*Y^OUNG jEfobKS' C[oisUMJ^. 
Tommy's Lady's Slipper. 

" Thomas Henry,'' said Mrs. Blake, as she 
saw her boy looking from the south window, 
" you're thinking about those flowers like 
you brought home last year from the lower 
end of the island. But, Thomas Henry, 
there are things more important closer to 
hand." She pointed to the empty wood-box 
and the large basket in which drift-wood 
chips were brought up from the beach. 

Tommy's face flushed as though he meant 
to say that he was tired of bringing home 
chips. But he quietly took up the basket 
and went slowly toward the shore. 

The short grass among the rocks and 
ledges showed scanty signs of life in that 
dry season. Farther down, toward the edge 
of the sea, dwarfed spruces and huckleberry 
bushes looked as though they had long ago 
become discouraged in trying to grow. They 
appeared rough and lonesome. 

But when Tommy came nearer to these 
he saw a man eagerly searching among 

" Have you lost something ? " he asked as 
he hurried forward. "Maybe I can find it 
for you." 

" Thank you," said the stranger in a very 
pleasant tone, " but I've found something in- 
stead of meeting with a loss. And I'm sure 
you'll enjoy seeing it as much as though you 
had helped look for it." 

And when Tommy glanced down where 
the man pointed, there was a very fine pink 
lady's slipper. 

" O, that's just like the flower I found 
once in the woods at the lower end of the 
island, right by an old pine stump," said 
Tommy, with sparkling eyes. " I'd seen 
two green leaves close to the ground lots of 
times, but that was the only blossom I ever 
found with them. I wanted to keep that 
one, but mother thought maybe it was 

That was all Tommy said, though he re- 
membered how angrily his plant had been 
thrown out of doors, as his mother told him 
there " was no sense in hunting after such 
things as that." 

" It's a brave little beauty to hide away 
here among the rough bushes," said the man. 
" I'm sure you can find more of them if you 
look around. I see you enjoy such things. 
Maybe you'll like to write me all about the 
different plants you find here on the island." 

" I should like to if I had time," answered 
Tommy, slowly, as he looked down at the 
flower. " But I must help mother what I 
can. I must go for the chips right away. 
I'm so glad you showed me this so close by 

And the boy could not move off toward 
the shore until he had stooped and touched 
the lady's slipper as softly as though it were 
made of velvet. 

The man seemed to be gazing out to sea 
when the boy bade him good-morning. 

"He answered me very pleasantly," thought 
Tommy, as he picked up the chips. " But 
he was thinking hard about something. I 
guess he felt real sorry because he couldn't 
stay here all day." 

And then Tommy began to think so hard 
that for several minutes he forgot to put any 
chips in the basket. When at last he started 
for home, however, he had a good supply of 
driftwood for his mother. 

He stopped to look again at the lady's 
slipper as he went oflf the shore. He was 
still gazing at it when he heard his mother 
coming rapidly toward him. 

"Something must have happened," thought 
Tommy, but before he could ask what it was 
his mother spoke. " Why, Thomas Henry, 
you've been seeing things real clear for a 
boy of your age. I guess there is some 
sense in looking at plants and such things, 
after all. There's been a man at our house 
who's changed my mind a good deal. 

" I was weeding in the garden when he 
came along. Guess I looked pretty dis- 
couraged because my garden seeds and 
plants ar'n't doing as well as I expected. 
And he told me in such a kind, polite way 
how I needed to shelter things with some 
spruce boughs and the like of that, just as 
though he'd worked in a garden all his life." 

" Did he have on a light brown overcoat ? " 
asked Tommy eagerly. 

" Yes. And he said he'd noticed you so 
willing to do as I wished. Said he'd like to 
have such a boy to hunt up flowers and 
plants, as he hadn't but a little while to stay 
on the island. And I told him right out 
that you could help him. I couldn't keep 
from it, he seemed so kind and obliging. 
And, Thomas Henry, he's going to send me 
one of the fancy ferns that grow in the 
house, like one Mrs. Captain Bunker is so 
proud of." 

" And I haven't got to the end of it all, 

either," Mrs Blake went on before Tommy 
could say a word. " Mrs. Bunker came 
running down almost as soon's he'd gone, 
and told me he was the great botanist pro- 
fessor at Harvard College. She said he was 
so kind and good to boys. She thinks he'd 
do more for you. And then, Thomas Henry, 
I must own up. From the way she talks it 
does pay to have an eye to the posies as 
well as to fish and such things. But then it 
was his nice way of talking about the gar- 
den that first opened my mind, just as his 
his heart was moved toward you by your 
seeing so clear that your first duty was to 
obey your mother, if you did have a great 
liking for posies." 

" I shall hunt hard after the plants," said 
Tommy, with a happy smile. "And if he 
sends me books to study I shall make good 
use of them." 

" There's no doubt but the books will 
come," said the mother. " Mrs. Bunker 
said this Prof. Gray has always been real 
kind to willing- hearted boys." — Charles N. 

One Little Newsboy. 

The day was cold and dreary. The pier- 
cing wind blew fiercely, chilling the body 
and causing all humanity to wish themselves 
within their homes. 

The sun played hide and seek with the 
threatening clouds. The streets were partly 
deserted, and those brave enough to face the 
storm hurried on, anxious to seek shelter. 

At a certain street corner where many 
people were passing stood a little newsboy. 

His ragged clothing and pathetic face 
told only too plainly that poverty was not 
unknown to him. Few noticed him as he 
railed lustily, " Have a paper, sir.' Tribune, 
Herald, Times," etc., until it seemed as if 
his small lungs would collapse. 

His hands were bare and cold, and he 
muttered to himself, " I must holdout even 
if I almost freeze; for if I'd go to Granny 
now we wouldn't have no supper." Again 
he began calling his papers with renewed 

The streets were at last almost deserted 
and he began to think it useless to stay 
longer in the cold. But an old gentleman 
came up to him and purchased several pa- 
pers. After finding the change the gentleman 
slipped his pocketbook carelessly into his 
pocket, leaving it ready to drop out at any 
slight disturbance. 

The newsboy, with the keenness of his 
race, saw it all and said gaily, 

" I will follow that fellow and see that 
his fat old wallet don't get stolen," and he 
chuckled contentedly to himself. 

A slight thud on the pavement caused him 
to look down, and lo! there lay the precious 
pocketbook, its owner plodding on through 
the storm, evidently lost within himSelf, his 
pocketbook farthest away from his thoughts. 

The newsboy looked about him, and 
after assuring himself that no one had no- 
ticed the" loss, thrust the pocketbook into 
his own pocket and ran swiftly on, bent on 
finding some secret place where he could 
examine his find. 

A dry goods box in a back alley gave him 
his vantage ground. He was happy, for 
once, in the anticipation of what was to 

" Massy ! I've struck a gold mine," said 
he as he saw roll after roll of large bills, I'll 
buy Granny a shawl and get some shoes for 
myself, and some fuel — and my! we're rich." 

So meditating he started for the place 
where he and his beloved Granny lived. 

I wonder now if that money really belongs 
to us," he mused. " Maybe I'll have to give 
it up. I believe my teacher in the mission 
school would say so, and I know Granny 
would, so I'll just not tell her — I'll think 
what to do with it." 

"What's the matter? Are you sick?" 
his grandma asked kindly as he entered a 
small room in a large tenement house, or 
rather, what they called "home." 

"No, just cold and hungry," said Teddy. 

The grandmother hurried to cook the 
meagre supper that her kind little grandson 
had earned by selling papers. 

That night, sleep refused to visit his weary 
eyelids, the pocketbook was evidently 
troubling him, and at last after trving to 
convince himself that it would be all right 
to keep it, and still not finding rest, he began 
to wish he hadn't found it. 

" Maybe I kin take it back to him. He'll 
have it put in the paper about losing it, and 
I'll do that." 

Although I want the money awful bad, it 
makes me feel mean." 

The next morning after a scanty break- 
fast he pocketed the money that was be- 
ginning to be a source of annoyance to him, 
and went out to begin another day of tire- 
some routine. 

The sun shone brightly and be said to 

himself as he purchased his roll of morning 

" I'll just look and see whether that fellow 
has advertised or not." 

So saying he rushed madly across the 
street, looking neither right nor left. But, 
alas I for our poor little newsboy. A pair 
of run-away horses ran him down, and be- 
fore the frightened spectators could be of 
any use, they had passed over him. 

By the time they reached the next cross- 
ing the horses were stopped. The occu- 
pants, an old gentleman and lady, returned 
to see what damage had been done. 
When the lady saw the bleeding form of a 
child lying there she ordered him to be put 
in the carriage and the three were driven 
rapidly away and soon reached a beautiful 

Marble steps led to the doorway, and 
within there was every evidence of luxury. 
Teddy was carried tenderly into a dainty 
little bedroom, contrasting strangely with 
his ragged clothes. 

A doctor was summoned, and after ex- 
amining his wounds pronounced them seri- 
ous, but not fatal. When the nurse re- 
moved his tattered clothing she found the 
pocketbook that he had stowed away so 
carefully. When she handed it to her 
master he exclaimed: 

"It is my pocketbook that I lost yester- 
day. Little did I think I would ever see 
that again. Nurse, give the boy the best 
attention and when he gets better I will 
come up and see him." 

When Teddy regained consciousness he 
was very much surprised to find himself in 
such a strange place, but when all had been 
explained to him he sent a note to his 
granny, telling her of his accident. 

When he was entirely well and his 
cheeks rounder and rosier than ever before, 
his kind friend gave him a situation in his 
dry goods store. 

He rapidly gained in health and spirits, 
and his strict honesty and faithfulness in- 
duced his employer to give him higher 
wages, so that he and his faithful granny no 
longer know what hunger is. — Mary B. Vale 
in Prairie Farmer. 

Where Are Our Ostrich Egg Painters ? 

Ostrich eggs, artistically painted in a prize 
competition, are to be a feature in the ex- 
hibit from Cape Colony, South Africa, at 
the World's Fair. This competition has 
been held. Nineteen contestants, mostly 
young women, participated, and furnished 
designs which the Cape press praises highly 
as being very artistic and beautiful. Each 
contestant submitted half a dozen beauti- 
fully decorated eggs, all of which will be 
exhibited at the World's Fair. The sub- 
jects of the paintings include flowers, birds, 
animals, landscapes, public buildings, etc. 
The gem of the whole collection, painted by 
Miss Van Reenan, winner of the first prize 
of £7 IDS, is reported to be a fairy figure 
standing on a vine leaf drawn by a butterfly, 
with underneath the words, " to Chicago." 

The American Ostrich Company has sent 
to Chicago for exhibition at the World's 
Fair 30 birds from its ostrich farm at Fall 
Brook, San Diego county, California. The 
ostriches have been sent on thus early in 
order that they may become thoroughly ac- 
climated by the time the fair opens and ap- 
pear at their best. But this will not have 
the esthetic features of the Cape display. 


Absolutely Pure. 

A cream of tartar baking powder. High- 
est of all in leavening strength. — Latest U, 
S. GcvmmttU Food Rtfiort, 


f ACIFie F^URAb f RESS. 

Jdlt 16, 1892 

jJgricultural J^otes. 



Fig Notes.— Oroville Reghttr: Mr. C. H. 
Leggett, who has given much attention to the 
lig, the giant of fruit trees, recently said : " E. 
Ruhlnian, of the firm of P. Ruhltnan & Cox of 
New York City, recently examined some of the 
white Adriatic figs that we put up last season 
and pronounced them a perfect fig. He opened 
the boxes and examined them with care and 
found them free from worms or other insects, 
yet said that at this season of the year it was 
almost impossible to find the imported figs free 
from worms. He thinks the ('alifornia figs can 
be sold in quantities in New York City. He is 
president of the New York Produce Exchange, 
and is well posted as to the fruit markets of 
that city. He said it was advisable to put un 
the figs in the same manner that they were put 
in foreign lands and promised to send us a 
sample box to show the manner of packing. 
He thought it advisable to use the same style 
and kind of packages that the imported figs 
came in. If the fruit was nicely and attractive- 
ly packed, he was certain there would be a 
good sale for it at remunerative prices. Mr. 
Leggett, in speaking of liis own trees, said he 
could not see much difference in the growth of 
the trees in the bottom or on the bluff. Possi 
bly the former is a little larger tree. They 
found the fig would sour when irrigated, and 
had learned by experience that labor was too 
high to pick this fruit. If they had to gather 
the figs by hand they would dig up the trees, 
bnt the fig would dry on the tree and fall to 
the ground. They ought to be graded after be- 
ing dried, so as to put the largest and finest in 
one grade, the second in another, and the in- 
ferior in a third. They had found no insect in- 
jures the trees, but that the fruit will occasion- 
ally sunburn. They scalded the fruit in hot 
water or weak brine. The fiuit was then 
drained, put in a sweai box, and, later on. dip 
ped in hot water a second time before being 
packed for market. The sweating equalized 
the moisture, the dry ones taking up the sur- 
plus moisture of those that were too damp. He 
was confident that at five cents per pound for 
dried fruit, there is money in growing figs. 


Raisin AcKEAQE IN THE Statb.— William Har- 
vey in Fresno Republican says: After a careful 
investigation of the best authorities, and a par- 
tial comparison of the same with the assessor's 
books of Fresno, 1 find that Fresno has 1002 
raisin growers who own 24,103 acres of raisin 
vines, a little more than one-half that which 
she is credited with. The Calif >rnia Directory 
Company of San Francisco printed a list of ail 
the growers in the State to December, 1891. 
While the directory gives no totals, I have 
taken the individual data and added them to- 
gether, with the following result: 

Fresno 1002 24,108 

Alameda 31 184J^ 

Batte 14 614 

Colusa 25 387J^ 

Contra Costa 6 ISby^ 

El Dorado 14 120 

Inyo S 9 

Kern 40 1,191 

Los Annelen 6 23 

Merced 14 212 

Orange 1 4 

Placer 24 510 

Sacrameiilo 20 812 

.San Bernardino 225 2,632 

.San Diego 170 4,414 

San Luis Oblbpo 1 1 

San Mateo \ 15 

Santa ( lara 14 98 

Santa Cruz 5 21 

Stiasta 63 241^ 

.Solano 19 430 

Stanislaus 4 529 

Sutter 29 iazK 

Tehama 21 227 

Tulare 144 3,006 

Ventura 12 197 

Volo -a. 1,125 

Total In California 1929 

These totals are impoi laiil, inasmuch as they 
afford a basis upon which can be calculated the 
probable output of raisins for the Slate of Cali- 
fornia this year, and will negative the cry of 
overproduction, which cry seems to have taken 
hold of our farmers and had a very depressing 
influence upon prices. 


Beekeepers' Association.— Bishops' Register: 
At the beekeepers' meeting held July 2d, 
Messrs. T. F. A. Connelly, H. Trickey and 
Don Burdick were appointed a committee to 
prepare by-laws for a Beekeepers' Association. 
A vote ot thanks was tendered Mr. Burdick for 
having discovered the existence of foul brood 
and his efforts toward its suppression. It was 
decided to call a meeting, to be held July 2;5d, 
of all the beekeepers of the valley, to form an 
association for general systematic protection. 
Every owner is invited and urged to attend, no 
matter how few hives he may possess. 


How TO Utilize Alkali Land.— Bakersfield 
Echo: Un the Rio Bravo vineyard ranch there 
is a piece of pretty bad alkali "land, and Supt. 
Hanilton has been experimenting with various 
crops. This year he planted some tobacco 
seed and has secured a splendid growth. The 
value of the leaf cannot yet be determined, but 
it may come about that tobacco and alkali will 
go well together. If the riifht kind of leaf can 
be produced, there will be a good profit in it. 
Speaking of alkali, reminds ns of a plan sug- 
gested by J. A. Rarick a few days ago for seed- 
ing such land to alfalfa. Where this salt is too 
strong to admit of the growth of alfalfa seed, 
he says it may be stocked by transplanting the 
roots. For instance, put the alkali spot in 
good condition as regards moisture; then break 

up a piece of alfalfa and haul the roots that are 
plowed out on to the alkali land and distribute 
them along fresh furrows and at once cover 
them over. He say-s the worst fields can be 
stocked in this way. As is well known, laud 
impregnated with this salt produces the heaviest 
crops of hay when it is once seeded. It is only 
in the worst ca-ses that this method has been re- 
orted to. 

The Army Worm — Bakersfield Californian: 
In certain localities the army worm has made 
its appearance in this county. It seems to gen- 
erate in sunflower thickets, where they are let 
grow along the banks of some canal, and also 
appears in orchards, where, between the rows, 
potatoes and other vegetables have been 
planted. But a simple method has been de- 
vised, which knocks him out of an orchard of 
young trees in short order. This is the pre- 
scription given by one who has practically ap- 
plied it with entire success: Make a layer of 
wood ashes and spray it with kerosene oil. Put 
on another layer of ashes, spraying again with 
the oil, and keep on so doing until enough ma- 
terial for the needs has been prepared. Mix 
this thoroughly and put a charge into a sack, 
which can be carried in front of the distributor 
and from which a handful can be thrown upon 
each infested tree. The ashes serve as a mor- 
dant for the oil, which of itself would be too 
.strong as a spray upon the leaves. One band 
ful thus dusted upon a young tree is sufficient 
to kill all the army worms that have infested 
it. The remedy is certain in its effect and costs 
hardly anything beyond the labor of applica- 

Los AnKeles. 

The " Mam.motii Ryk." — Cor. L. A. Express : 
R. J. Ling of Florence has harvested a small 
strip of rye of an entirely new and distinct va- 
riety, which has a large grain, plump and of 
light color. He calls it '' The Mammoth." 
This grain he has grown from a few seeds 
sown last year, and now has sufficient seed to 
plant quite a piece of land, and will give it a 
thorough trial. He will also place a sample 
of the seed at the Chamber of Commerce. 

CoMPTON Cheese F.vctory. — Cor. L. A. Ex- 
press : One of the busiest places to be found 
at Compton is the Anchor Cheese Factory, 
where is manufactured a fine quality of cheese, 
which is known to consumers as the Anchor 
brand. The factory receives daily 6000 pounds 
of milk supplied by the farmers of this vicinity, 
requiring the milk of 400 cows. From this 
amount of lacteal finid 650 pounds of cheese 
is turned out every 24 hours." This factory is 
operated on something of a cooperative plan, 
the manager, J. J. Harshman, receiving so 
much per pound for making the cheese, 
the patrons getting the difference between 
the cost of manufacturing and selling price, 
less the cost of marketing. 

Walndt Growers' Association. — Downey 
Champion : The Los Nietos and Ranchito 
Walnut Growers' Association, whose members 
are all growers of this section, has been for 
several years the principal shipuer of this great 
staple crop. The crop of 1890, handled by the 
association, representing the product of 47 
growers, amounted to "61,019 pounds (65.36 
sacks), for which was received $59,611.84. The 
crop of 1891—51 growers— was 702.469 pounds 
(6019 sacks), and brought $58,020.83 In addi- 
tion to the above, growers, not members of the 
association, rai«ed and shipped walnuts in 
amount and value equal to about 25 per cent of 
the association's shipments. This year upward 
of 90 growers have joined the association, and 
with the big harvest now in prospect and the 
increased acreage of young groves coming into 
bearing, the prospects are that the yield and 
receipts for the crop of '92 will be largely in 
excess of previous years. 


A Ranch Farmed for Gold, Grain and 
Fruit.— Georgetown Gazette: About a mile 
nortb of town is the Holmes ranch, which 
within the past eight months has produced 
nearly $4000 in gold, including a ¥1000 gold 
nugget and a field of oats standing seven feet 
above the ground, from which a bunch of 
stalks was taken by B. C. Currier (a '49er), and 
placed on exhibition at the postoffice, which 
measured seven feet and six inches in length. 
The ranch also contains a large orchard of 
mostly winter apples, noted for their fine 
flavor and good keeping qualities. 

San Bernardino. 

Ontario Citrus Fruit Ship.mknts.— Los An- 
geles Times: The fruit shipments in June were 
as follows: Oranges, 560 boxes; lemons, 96 
boxes; green fruit, 12,170 pounds; dried fruit, 
2380. The summary of citrus fruit shipments 
for the season to date is as follows: 

Oranges, Lemons, 
^ , boxes. boxes. 

December 400 80 

January 438 268 

February 305 80 

March 4,780 133 

April 1,967 176 

May 1,680 165 

June , 560 96 

Total 10,020 998 

This is ;56 cars of oraiues and nearly 4 cars 
of lemons— 4U cars. There are some oranges 
yet to ship and about a carload of lemons. 

Effects ok Fertilizinq an Orange Grovk.— 
Ontario Observer : Byron Ford's orange grove 
is one of the oldest in the colony. It has 
never mnde a satisfactory growth, "nor has it 
ever borne a fair crop "of fruit. When Mr. 
Ford came in possession of it one year ago, he 
knew nothing of orange culture, but he knew 
what the grove needed to make it one of the 
finest in Ontario. Upon his return last fall 
from the East, he had the grove plowed and 
heavily fertilized. The change which this 
treatment has wrought is wonderful. So rap- 
idly have the trees grown and so dense has the 
foliage become that few who knew the grove 

in its days of starvation would recognize it now 
The trees are now healthy and vigorous, and 
being well set with fruit, promise to mature 
large crop of oranges. 

Deciduous Fruit. — Ontario Observer: liar 
wood & Woodford have finished picking tl 
cherry crop on the Dwinell place, at the head 
of Euclid avenue. The 100 trees, which 
cover one acre, produced 2838 pounds of frui 
which was sold for $283.80. We get this stale 
ment direct from the foregoing persons, and it 
can be relied upon. The trees have not been 
irrigated for two years and have been cultivated 
but once within a year. The elevation of the 
mesa lands is that required for the successful 
production of cherries, and as this popular fruit 
can be grown on them without water and with 
but little cultivation, we hope to see them more 
largely utilized for this purposo. There is now 
every encouragement to persons owning land 
in this locality, unfit for citrus fruit culture, to 
plant same to deciduous fruit trees. Here 
we have a cannery and d-ier capable of utilizing 
1000 tons of fruit each season, and at North On 
tario is a fruit company that is prepared to buy 
and prepare for market a large quantity. At 
present all fruit is either canned or dried, but 
in the future a large per cent of the crop will 
be marketed green. Both the Santa Pe and the 
Southern Pacific are running green fruit trains 
to the East on passenger time, and much of the 
crop of Northern California is being chipped 
direct to the trees in a fresh state to Chicago 
and New York. Next season much of the fruit 
in this locality will be marketed in this way 

Oranoe Oil. — Observer: A Riverside man 
has just succeeded in extracting from ten 
pounds of orange peel, oil in the proportion of 
50 pounds to one ton of peel. Orange oil is 
valuable commoditv, it being worth $7 a pound 
As a 'on of peel will yield oil to the value of 
$300, the profits of such an industry will doubt- 
less prove satisfactory to its founder. In this 
connection, it may be said that orange blossoms 
also yield a valuable product. The facilities 
for utilizing the by-products of our fruit or- 
chards time wdl soon bring, and, when estab 
lished. all fruit not fit for shipment in its 
natural shape can be profitably utilized 
other ways. 

A Largf. Fae.m. — Sisson Mascot: The Edson 
ranch at Gazelle comprises 320O acres of choice 
lands and has vielded a fortune to Edson Bros, 
within the past few years. They have all the 
latest improved farming machinery, and em- 
ploy from now until late in the fall upward of 
20 men, their daily expenses exceeding $.50, 
They are now cutting their first crop of alfalfa, 
and will have about 125 tons. The second 
crop will give them at least 100 tons more, 
making a total of 225 tons in a single season. 
Their hay crop alone insures them an income 
of $1500. From the raising of grain and cattle 
they realize probably $8000 more per annum 

Santa Clara. 

Cupertino Fruit Notes.— Cor. S. J. Mercury: 
Peaches are ripe and apricots will soon be. 
Plums are also ready for the market; that is, of 
course, the early kinds. The prune crop will 
be short but of superior quality. The grapes, 
during the past two weeks, have been dropping 
badly, so that crops will be much shorter than 
first estimated. Apricots in this vicinity have 
a fair crop, but peaches are very light in most 
orchards. Mrs. D. Diirkee has built a neat 
drier on her place. Antonio Zicoviob intends 
putiing another pumice still np in his distillery 
on his ranch at this place. The Lincoln Wine 
Company is contemplating a considerable addi- 
tion to its already extensive plant. 


Wheat Rust. — Corning Observer: Wheat is 
turning out very bad on many of our small 
farms — it is so much rusted. Never before was 
there such a fine prospect for a splendid crop 
but a hot sun coming after a shower caused 
much rust. There will be one-third less of 
of wheat than was expected. Some farms 
have very fine wheat. Out on the hills the 
wheat C'luld not be much better. On the whole, 
if nine sacks are averaged, it will be the out- 
side. Many small farmers had their crops 
mortgaged, and the poor souls will not have 
enough to pay for goods and money received. 

A Cork Oak. — Stockton Independent: J. T. 
Salmon of French Camp has brought to the 
Independent office a section of cork bark which 
was taken from a tree near Tuttletown, Tuol- 
umne county, from land belonging to the Pet- 
erson mine. There are two trees there of vig- 
orous growth and unknown age, as no one now 
there knows when and by whom they were set 
out. These trees are between 40 and .50 feet 
high and about 18 inches in diameter. The 
trunks are smooth and without limbs until 
near the tops. Mr. Whitney, who is in charge 
of the property, intends to peel the trees, which 
can be easily done, and nse the bark. Mr. 
Salmon intends to plant across from the trees 
at his place in this county and raise cork trees. 
[The trees are probably from acorns sent out by 
the Patent Oflfice in the '.508. There are similar 
trees from the same source in half a dozen 
counties of the State. — Eds. Press.] 

Live Stock and Irrigation Mileage. — Visalia 
Times: The assessor returns the following live 
stock and irrigation mileage in this county: 
Live stock— Calves, 3060; beef cattle, 226; cattle 
(stock). 15,600; colts, 7547: cows (thorough- 
bred), 110; cows (graded), 6792; goats (common), 
1759; hogs, 15,346; horses (thoroughbred), 10; 
horses (standard), 51; horses (American), 2806; 
horses (common), 12,087; jacks and jennies, 59; 
mules, 1429; oxen, 80; sheep (imported), 1000; 
sheep (common), 185,521; lambs, 3885. Irriga- 
tion ditches in miles: K. C. & I. Co., 25; Con. 
People's D. Co., 4; K. and Mill Creek Co., 5; 
People's ditch, branch, 12; People's ditch, main, 

7; People's ditch, branch, 8; L. K. R. D. Co., 

14; Griffla Side D., 5; Settlers' D. Co., 15; Ex- 
tension D. Co., 3; Lakeside D. Co., 25; Mussel 
Slough D. Co., 10; Pioneer D. Co., 3i; Watch- 
umna D. Co., 16. 

Fruit Crop.— Traver Advocate: The fruit 
crop in this vicinity is still looking well. In 
some localities a good many of the grapes have 
fallen off, while in other places the vines are as 
full as they should be. The apricot crop is 
turning out well, and considerable of it has al- 
ready been disposed of. The peach crop prom- 
ises to be very heavy. The early peaches are 
nearly all gone now, but later varieties are be- 
ginning to come on. 

Dried Fruit Notes.— Grangeville Cor. Visalia 
Times: The fruit on the Verona orchard has 
been purchased by 'Ein San. He paid $75 an 
acre for it. He has just about finished drying 
the apricots. He sold part of the fruit for 104 
cents per pound, and has been offered lOi cents 
for the remainder. He expects to have 25 tons 
of peaches. He expects that peiches will not 
sell for over seven cents per pound. Peach- 
drying will start in about three weeks. The 
peach trees in the Verona orchard are so 
heavily loaded that they are comnelled to prop 
the branches up. Herman Nathan has bad a 
splendid bleacher erected. It holds 360 trays at 
one charge, and works to perfection. 


Hops in the Willamette Valley.— Eugeno 
Register : Thomas Osburne, of London, has 
been looking up hop matters in Oregon, Cali- 
fornia and Washington the past few weeks. 
Mr. Osburne thinks Willamette valley hop- 
laisers have an important advantage over the 
growers both of Washington and California. 
In the last mentioned State the extremely hot 
weather prevents the lice from doing much 
damage, however. But the land there is high- 
priced and in the Puyallup valley it is beyond 
the reach of the smal hop grower. The soil 
and climate of the Willamette valley is well 
suited to the production of hops. The area is 
so large that the price of land is kept within 
reasonable limits. Mr. Osburne is of the 
opinion that most of the Willamette valley 
hop growers do not cultivate their fields with 
proper care. The lack of proper care becomes 
evident when it comes to marketing the crop. 
Formerly New Y'ork hops were preferred over 
those raised on the Pacific slope, but now the 
two bring about the same price in the English 
market. But the Pacific coa&t must soon lead 
both quality and quantity. The hops of 
Lane county are among the best received in 
Loudon, and it is worth while making the 
effort to get them. 


Sugar Bket (Jhowing. — Virginia Enterprise: 
The U. S. Deparrment of Agriculture has just 
issued Bulletin No. 33, Division of Chemistry, 
upon the Sugar Beet Experiments in 1891. 
Eighteen samples were received for this State 
from three counties, from one of which, 
Washoe, was received 15. The average per- 
centage of sugar in the beet for the State was 
17.20, and thfl average weight of beet 11 
ounces. Washoe county, which practically 
furnished all the samples from the State, also 
leads in the quality of the beets obtained. The 
numbers representing them are almost phe- 
nomenal, with the exception of the average 
weight, which is about what it should be. 
This doubtless accounts for the fact that the 
beets were exceptionally rich. The 15 samples 
from this county showed an average percentage 
of sugar in the beet of 18.02, and average eight 
of 9 ounces. These figures place Nevada at the 
head of the list of beet-growing States for qual- 
"ty, and such beets raised in quantity would 
soon enable the people of Nevada to erect 
sugar plants, and thus open up an industry 
which would be of great value. 



Crops ImpeSved. — Spokane Chronicle, July 6: 
People who have traveled through the grain 
sections of the State report that the general 
damage to crops is comparatively slight. There 
are some sections, however, that have sustained 
heavy losses. Medical Lake, Endicott, Cheney, 
Marshall Junction, the western part of Spokane 
and Whitman counties and a good portion of 
Adams county have suffered losses which will 
probably aggregate 30 per cent. The damage 
n Walla Walla county is greater than through- 
out the Palouse belt, but in all it will not reach 
loss of 10 per cent. Stevens county will have 
an average crop if no further damage is done. 
The recent rains, with the cool winds, have re- 
stored the confidence of the farmers, and they 
do not now fear further loss. In a few days 
the harvest will begin, and should the weather 
again become hot and dry, the crops are so far 
advanced that no damage could be done. The 
redictions are that the aggregate yield of grain 
in this State will equal, and probably excel, the 
])roduction of any former year, owing to the 
I act that the acreage is in excess of any previous 
season. The farmers are making vigorous 
preparations for harvesting. Much of the hay 
crop has already been cut, and by the time the 
first crop has been stored, the grain fields will 
be ripe and ready for the reapers. 



rate ot interest on »pproved security in Farming Land«. 

SCHULLKK, Room 8, 420 California Street, Sao 

The firm of Smith's Cash Store is steadily 
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patrons. , 

Unitarisui Literature 

Bent tree by the Channins Acxiliabt of the First Uolta. 
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«lMO. AddrsM Hit, B. F. Slddlngf M aboT*. 

July 16 1892 




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fAClFie I^URAb f RES3. 

JULT 16, 1892 

©HE 0TOCK 'Y''^'^'^' 

Stick to Your Specialty. 

Too many stockmeu lack courage to face 
adversity bravely. Years ago many wanted 
buyers for their sheep at any price. Now 
some of the same parties are buying sheep 
at very high figures. The same persons 
probably sold cattle, hogs or horses, too, at 
a sacrifice, in order to get into the sheep 
business again. The wooly tribe is paying 
its way handsomely in recent years, and fol 
lowing the common inclination, all wish to 
rush into this line of work, and, of course, 
they will break it down. The young man 
who has a special adaptation for sheep 
breeding is fortunate at being able to begm 
at this time; but he is liable to be tempted 
to try some other kind of stock when re- 
verses come. Several varieties of animals 
on the farm, with one as a specialty, is the 
safer policy, and when one's specialty is 
" down " is a good time to improve by buy- 
ing a better type of breeding females as well 
as the best sire one's means will warrant. 
The prosperous shepherd should now be 
hedging against a day of small profits, by 
securing some pure- bred cows, draft mares, 
etc., while they are cheap. The majority of 
farmers cannot aflford to be specialists con- 
tinually; neither can they afford to abandon 
wholly the kind of stock with which they 
succeed best. The one who was successful 
with driving or road horses ten years ago, 
and did not abandon their breeding and 
handling for the draft variety exclusively, is 
destined row to succeed with drivers more 
surely than he who now sells his draft horses 
or cattle and begins with the quick steppers. 
It is largely from experience in handling 
any variety of stock that profit is to come. 
If one is in any line of work but half the 
time (when the boom is on) he loses time in 
adapting himself to the work. Guarding 
ttgamst losses is difficult even when one is 
familiar with the farm animals. The kind 
of stock one keeps from choice, and cares 
for zealously and wisely, will usually, if not 
always, pay better even in their depressed 
season than other kinds about which he has 
much to learn. Nearly every farmer can 
keep a few hogs year after year profitably, 
by giving heed to their needs. 

Many farmers, too, can keep sheep in 
moderate numbers to advantage. Few 
men are not in position to keep two or more 
brood mares, and few have any good reason 
for not owning some cows. Know some- 
thing about all kind of farm animals and 
all possible about one or two varieties. 
Two or more neighbors can cooperate to 
advantage. Let one study and experiment 
on the breeding, feeding and diseases of 
cattle and swine; the other on horses and 
sheep. Each can be of much service to the 
other in the emergencies which will fre- 
quently arise from disease, accidents, etc.— 
The Orange Judd Farmer. 

Sale of " Doddies." 

At Mr. J. R. Harvey's sale of Aberdeen 
Angus cattle at Dexter Park, Chicago, June 
30th, an average of $358.60 was obtained 
for 25 head. Six bulls averaged $333 33, 
and 19 females $366.58. 

The bull Jim Jams sold for $1000, and the 
highest-priced cow was Blackbird of Tur- 
lington 2d, which sold for $800. 

The Turlini;ton herd of " Doddies " has 
for some time been considered to be the best 
on this continent, no expense having been 
spared in the first cost of the foundation 
animals, nor in the after management. 

The herd has been principally under the 
care and management of Mr. Wm. Watson, 
son of the late Hugh Watson of Keillon, 
Scotland, who was one of the first, if not the 
first, to take in band the improvement of this 
now superior breed of beef catile. He was 
the breeder of the celebrated bull Old Jock 
(i), calved in 1842, and was one of the 
greatest show bulls of his day. 

It seems a pity that such a herd of cattle, 
bred and managed with such success, should 
be dispersed altogether, to de which is Mr. 
Harvey's intention. 

There are still left about 40 head, which 
will be sold at Chicago on the 14th of Sep 
tcmber next. 

The portion already sold has made the 
highest average price of any sale of any 
breed of cattle so far this year, and it is 
doubtful if it be surpassed. 

Doubtless the September contingent is the 
equal in quality of that already sold, and, 
n-nder the able management of Mr. Watson, 
will undoubtedly be brought forward in 
shape to command top prices. 

Easy Way to Wash Dishes.— I have an 
improved plan for washing dishes which has 
been practiced in some households in this 
city, and which has been pronounced a great 
success. First, have your water boiling hot. 
This is essential. Provide yourself with a 
common painter's brush, with a handle 
about 10 inches long. If the bristles are 
not found convenient, tie a piece of soft rag 
at the end of a stick of the same length. 
Take the plates, and, after removing the 
scrape, pile them on top of each other in 
the empty dishpan. Pour enough hot water 
on the topmost dish to fill the dish. Then, 
tipping up one end of the dish with your 
finger, wash front and back with the brush. 
In France, special brushes trimmed with 
thin rope about four inches long, instead of 
brushes, are used for this purpose. Remem- 
ber, it is not the heat of the plates, but the 
hot water, that pains the hands. When this 
is completed, the water will be in the next 
dish. Lift the clean dish out, and place it 
on its edge against the wall. Put in more 
hot water, and perform the same operation 
on all the other dishes, and when the work 
is finished, you will find that the heat has 
dried the plates, and that they do not require 
to be wiped. By this method, you need not 
scald or wet your hands, and you also avoid 
the trouble of wiping, which is half the 
work. — Detroit News. 

English Batter-Pudding.— An En- 
glish batter-pudding with green gooseberries 
is made as follows: Pour a pint of milk 
over a slice of bread, crumbed. Stir in ten 
even tablespoonfuls ol flour. Add the yolks 
of four eggs, half a teaspoonful of salt, and 
finally, the whites of four eggs which have 
been beaten to a stiff froth. Beat this bat- 
ter carefully, and stir into it a quart of green 
gooseberries. Put the pudding in a greased 
mold, or tie it up in a thick cloth which has 
been thoroughly greased and floured. Let 
it boil two hours. Serve it with an English 
brandy-sauce or an old-fashioned hard 

Strawberry Custard. — Separate four 
eggs, put one pint of milk into a double 
boiler, beat the yolks of the eggs and four 
tablespoonfuls of sugar until light, add them 
to the milk, stir constantly until the thick- 
ness of cream, take from the fire and stand 
aside to cool; beat the whites of the eggs 
until stiff, add to them four tablespoonfuls 
of powdered sugar, and beat again until 
stiff and white. Put about a pint of straw- 
berries into a glass dish, pour over the cus- 
tard, heap the whites in spoonfuls over the 
top, dust with sugar, stand in the oven a 
moment to brown. Serve icy cold. 

Vermicelli Soup.— For eight people, 
take a quarter o' a pound of vermicelli, 
which blanch in boiling water to take off the 
taste of dtist. Strain it, and throw it into 
some btoth that is boiling, otherwise the 
vermicelli will stick together and cannot be 
separated unless crumbled into a thousand 
pieces. Mind, the vermicelli must be boiled 
in broth before you mix it with any of the 
puree, and take care to break the vermicelli 
before you blanch it in the water, otherwise 
it will be in long pieces and unpleasant to 
serve up 

White Spruce Beer. — Mix together 
three pounds of loaf sugar, five gallons of 
water, a cup of good yeast, adding a small 
piece of lemon peel, and enough of the es- 
sence of spruce to give it flavor. When 
fermented, preserve in close bottles. Mo- 
lasses or common brown sugar can be used, 
if necessary, instead of loaf and the lemon 
peel left out. Sometimes, when unable to 
obtain the essence of spruce, we have boiled 
down the twigs. This will be found a de- 
lightful home drink. 

Berry Sherbet. — Crush one pound of 
berries, add them to one quart of water, one 
lemon sliced, and one teaspoonful of orange 
flavor, if you have it. Let these ingredients 
stand in an earthen bowl for three hours; 
then strain, squeezing all the juice out of the 
fruit. Dissolve one pound of powdered 
sugar in it, strain again, and put on the ice 
until ready to serve. 

Rhubarb Cream Pie.— One pint stewed 
rhubarb, four ounces sugar, one pint cream, 
two ounces powdered cracker, three eggs. 
Rub the stewed rhubarb through a sieve, 
beat the other ingredients well together, and 
just as the pie is ready for the oven, stir in 
the rhubarb; pour the whole into a plate 
lined with pastry. Cover with strips and 


This is an exceedingly nice way to serve a 
sweet berry. Have them picked carefully 
and placed in a serving dish, dust with 
sugar, and then to each quart pour over 
carefully the juice of two oranges; serve at 



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Jolt 16, 1892 

f ACCFie f^URAlo PRESS. 






. — ■ ■■ 

1 he members of the Kern County Land Company have a national reputa. 
tion for wealth, business and financial ability. These facts set the matter of 
reliability &i rest. The company's capital stock is $10,000,000. 

They have 400,000 acres of arable, irrigable lands upon which the sun shines 
almost constantly; and their enormous irrigation system renders them in- 
dependent of the annual rainfall. 

A clear title; rotation, variety and certainty of crops; easy terms; availability 
to persons in moderate circumstances; ground ready for the plow — no stones 
nor thistles; good society; schools; churches, etc., are a few notable attractions 
of this region of country. 

K ern is the largest county in the San Joaquin Valley. It has the finest 
climate for curing and drying fruits, etc. 

The 400,000-acre territory of the Kern County Land Company is the pick 
of the county. 

Its area is 5,184,000 acres. 

H as the largest irrigation system in America. 

T^he home of the peach, French prune, pear and raisin grape. 

Planting and harvesting can be carried on every month in the year. 

N o rocks, hills or stumps on the land. 

A failure of crops is unknown on irrigated lands. 

I^ern county fruits take the first prize at the State Fair. 

Land can be made to pay for itself in less than three years. 

Grows more alfalfa than any other county in California. 





Th e advantages of good soil and plenty of sun, which occur in the Kern 
Valley, would have been of little avail but for the third and all-important 
one of an abundance of water from never-failing sources. 

T'hrough 300 miles of main canals, and 1,100 miles of laterals, the great Kern 
river furnishes enough moisture to slake the thirst of the 400,000 acres al- 
ready referred to. 

IDrought is out of the question. 

The system has been constructed in the most careful and scientific manner. 
Some of the canals are 125 feet wide and six feet deep. 

Kern County 
Land Company. 

a w. 





SAN FRA.N0I80 0, OAL. 
looorporated April, 18T4. 

Amthorlced OapitsI $1,000,000 

Capital paid np and ReserTe Fand 800,000 
DlTldenda paid to Stookholderi... 780,000 


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I. C. STEELE Vice-President 



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Jolt 16, 1802 

On Calf-Rearing. 

Baden, San Mateo Co., July lo, 1892. 

To THE Editor: — I read in an Eastern 
publication as follows: 

At the Iowa station, experiments have been made 
to determme the feeding value of ground flaxseed 
for young calves. A bull and heifer calf of the 
Holstein and Shorthorn breeds were chosen, the 
two bulls being fed on whole milk, and the two 
heifers on milk skimmed after being set 12 hours, 
with as muck flaxseed as they could assimilate with- 
out scouring. These experiments lasted three 
months, the calves being weighed every 15 days. 
The results indicate: 

1. That a ration of skim milk and ground flax- 
seed compares favorably with a new milk ration for 
young calves. 

2. That the skim milk and flaxseed meal-fed 
calves were less interrupted in their growth by wean- 
ing, than were the whole-milk calves. 

3. A saving value of butter fat alone of $1.11 
per month, on each calf, was effected by substituting 
the ground flaxseed. 

4. The cost of producing a pound of gain, esti- 
mating new milk at 87M cents per hundred pounds, 
skim railk at 15 cents per hundred pounds, grain 
one cent per pound, hay $5 per ton (the latter two 
being fed alike to both lots), and flaxseed meal 3X 
cents per pound, was 7.6 cents per pound increase 
with the fresh milk r;ition, and only five cents with 
the skim milk ration. 

It appears from this that where there are proper 
facilities for convening the butter fat into butter, it 
is much more economical to feed calves skim milk 
and flaxseed than whole milk. 

In connection with dairy-farming there is 
no doubt but that calves can be reared more 
economically on skim milk, with the addi- 
tion of flaxseed gruel in due proportion, 
which will vary according to the tastes and 
powers of digestion in each calf. 

For neither cows nor calves can we make 
up a fixed ration that will suit all animals 

Chemists may tell us of what certain foods 
are composed, and how much of this and 
that goes to make up a perfect ration, theo- 
retically, for growing animals and milch 
cows; but there are problems in stock-rear- 
ing that even chemists cannot solve. When 
an experienced feeder wants to make the 
greatest growth in the shortest time, he pays 
little heed to any fixed rules or proportions 
of food; it is true that a certain quantity, 
perhaps the bulk of it may be mixed for all 
alike, but in order to obtain the best results 
individual tastes must be studied and, in a 
sense, anticipated. It is the little extra 
handful of one kind or other of tempting 
food, now to induce one to clean up the 
more bulky mixture, again, as an addition to 
what has been eaten, or, perhaps, by way of 
finding out how much each animal can make 
good use of. By some such process the ob- 
serving attendant will soon find out what 
suits each animal best and thus be able to 
make the most of both time and food. 

It is particularly the case in young and 
growing animals, and the younger they are 
the more care and discrimination is required 
in the feeding of them; hence the difficulty 
many have in successfully rearing calves on 
skim milk, the majority being barely more 
than kept alive, with the smallest modicum 
of growth imaginable. 

In regard to using flaxseed with skim 
milk, it is now nearly half a century since I 
heard an experienced and successful breeder 
say that he found, by experience, that calves 
did about as well when good oilcake gruel 
was substituted for that made with the 
ground seed, saying that the latter, he 
thought, contained too great a proportion of 
oil, while the cake contained enough for the 
calves to do well on it. 

This has been my experience, having al- 
ways found that I could make a very good 
growth with skim milk and oilcake gruel 
after the first three or four weeks, due atten- 
tion, however, being given to all or any 
other food required. If it is the season of 
green grass, there is nothing better than a 
mixture of dry bran and oilcake for prevent- 
ing scours, which will also, at the same time, 
help on the growth; it seldom, if ever, comes 
amiss to growing animals of any description. 

As regards cost of producing a pound of 
growth in a calf, in buiter dairies there will 
not be so much difference with us, as in the 
example given by the Iowa experiment sta- 
tion, on account of the higher price of hay 
and grain in California, but, all the same, 
the principle applies here, as there, as far as 
the milk and gruel has to do with it. 

The feeding value of oilcake is not known 
as it ought to be in this State. R. A. 


In regard to the prevention of the spread 
of tuberculosis among cattle, Prof. M'Fad- 
yean of Scotland says: 

There are one or two very well known, 
but generally misinterpreted, facts that 
have an importantibearing on this question. 

Why are cattle, above all other domesti- 
cated species, the victims of tuberculosis ? 
Not altogether as some suppose, because 
their tissues furnish a specially suitable soil 
for the growth and multiplication of the 
tubercle bacillus. Sheep are so rarely the 
subject of tuberculosis that it is doubtful 
whether any natural case has been observed 
in this country, and yet we know that when 
attempts are made to infect sheep with that 
disease, the experiment succeeds well 
enough. Again, both experiment and ob- 
servation have shown that the tubercle 
bacillus, when once it gains entrance to the 
system of a horse, is capable of setting up a 
deadly form of the disease, and yet the pro- 
portion of tuberculosis among horses is in- 
significant. These facts suggest that the 
prevalence of tuberculosis among cattle may 
be less due to any inherent susceptibility of 
the ox tribe, than to something in man's 
method of keeping these animals. May it 
not be due in a great measure to the fact 
that cattle, particularly dairy cows, as they 
are commonly kept in this country, are 
found in circumstances specially favorable 
for the transmission of the disease from the 
affected to the healthy animals ? No well- 
informed person now imagines that over- 
crowding can generate tuberculosis; but 
what everyone must see is that the more 
constantly animals are housed, and the 
smaller and worse ventilated the buildings 
are in which they are confined, the greater 
will be the risk of the disease spreading, 
provided there is one tuberculous individual 
in the stock. 

A cow that is the subject of tuberculosis 
of the lungs expels tubercle bacilli from the 
air passages in the act of coughing. These 
bacilli, when desiccated, rise as particles of 
dust, and are then apt to be inhaled by 
other inmates of the same building. Such, 
in the great majority of cases, is the mode 
of infection in the case of cattle, and hence 
the two main things to be attended to with 
a view of prevention are : i. To permit no 
animal suspected of being tuberculous to 
stand in the same building with other ani- 
mals; and (2) to see that the buildings in 
which cattle, and especially dairy cows, are 
housed, are roomy and well ventilated. To 
provide sufficient air space and adequate 
means of ventilation in the mpst obvious 
manner diminishes the risk of one animal in- 
fecting another. No wild animal in a state 
of nature has ever been known to die from 
tuberculosis; and, with the exception of the 
few cases in which the disease is inherited, 
or transmitted to the calf by means of the 
milk, cattle of even the most susceptible 
breeds remain free from tuberculosis as long 
as they are not housed. In short, tuber- 
culosis is a disease of domestication — of 
close housing and bad ventilation. Long 
before the discovery of the tubercle bacillus, 
and even before it was generally recognized 
that tuberculosis is contagious, medical 
men had come to the conclusion that in- 
sufficient ventilation had much to do with 
the prevalence of the disease among human 
beings, and a most convincing proof of the 
correctness of their view was furnished by 
the sudden decline in the mortality from 
phthisis among our soldiers when a greater 
air space per man and better means of ven- 
tilation vere provided in the barracks. 
There is every reason to believe that, in like 
manner, a great check could be put to the 
spread of the disease among cattle if byres 
(cow stables) were made larger and better 

A Correspondent's Congratulations. 

To THE Edit^oR: — I always read 
with deep interest the articles of John 
Taylor, of Tuolumne county, to the 
Pacific Rural Press, and regretted ex- 
ceedingly to hear of his death. Then, after- 
wards, Miss Ada E. Taylor wrote for the 
Prkss. I said in my heart that she was a 
daughter of John Taylor. In the Press of 
June 18th my surmises are confirmed. If I 
might be permitted, I also would extend my 
sincere congratulations upon her recent mar- 
riage. May long life, prosperity and hap- 
piness attend her and hers. Now that she 
is married, may she not drop her pen. 

S. P. Snow. 

Want to Borrow on 20 Acres Fruit Land. 

Ten Aores Bearing, near HaywarJs 

JOHN F. BYXBEE, 42 Market Street, 


U the Largest Illustrated and Leading Agricul- 
V ^^M,"? «' the West. 

Hmn. .. .i J^' Trial Subscriptions, 50c (or 
S moa. or f2.40 a year (till further notlMiV rtvwvv 
PUBLISHING C0.:*aoiiark.t sVrTt. ^ofL^^.^^ 



CAPITAL $1,000,000. ASSETS $3,000,000. 


MASON^S— Everybody knows them. 

416-418 FRONTS!., S. F. 

Mason s Fruit Jars. 

Pints, 80c per doz. Six doz. for H <5- 

Quaru, »l,05 per doz. Eight doz. for $7.6.'). 

Hall Gallon, 11.40. doz. for r.oO. 

416-418 FRONT ST., S. F 

Mason's Fruit Jars. 

Factory Price. V. <>. B. 

Ask for our Forty-page Price List. 

416-418 FRONT ST.. S. F. 


To get certain relief for the ailments peculiar to womankind can be easily 
learned hy any intelligent lady. Once understood there Is no mystery about it. 
Wiite tat conBdcntial facts. 


We can send you one of our 


Which Is the result of years of figuring to make the beet 
harness ever known for the money. It is made from oak 
stock, hand stitched and finished by skillful mechanics, 
handsome full nickel or Darlg hard rubber trimmings. 

Just ttie Harness for an Klegant Tarnont. 

They sell hero for t25 00, and harness not as good is 
often sold for 235.00 In retail shops If harness ia not as 
represented, money will ne refunded. 

Liebold Harness Co. 

110 MoAlllstar St., San FrancUoo. 

Collar and Hamee. Instead of Breast Collar, 
$2 00 extra. 

Please state II you want single strap Harness, or folded 
stvle Harn.'sa, with traces double throughout. 


Commission Dealer in 

Shiiu?le8, Posts. 
Pickets and Piling. 

■Manufacturer & Pacific Coast Agent 

of the Popu'ar 


Sheathing Lath, 

A valuable invention but recently 
used 00 this Coast. Rend lor Sam 
plee. Circulars, Price Lists, Etc. 

42 Market Street, 





Decoration Goods of All Kinds. 

F. B. SADLER. S04 Sacramento St. 

Oldest MiuUc House. 



98 O'Farrall St., 8. F. 


Calves, Yearlings and 2-year-olds 

Fox* filAle. 

Baden Station, San Mateo County, Csl. 
Only three-fourths mile from terminus of the S. F. 
and San Mateo Electric Road. 


I have two 2-year-old Shorthorn Bulls, mostly red, 
In good order, and the price delivered on cars or ship 
in San Francisco, is ISO each— are thoroughbred but 
can't pedigree, hence the price. 

Lick House, San francleco, Oal. 

Dr. A. hi. BUZ ARD, 


ary Surgeons, London, England. Late Veterinary 
Surgeon in the United States Army. Veterinary OoO' 
tributor to the " PaclSo Rural Press. " The diseases of 
all Domestic Animals treated on Scientific Principle*. 
Special attention given to Chronic Lameness and Suiglcai 
Calls to the country promptly attended to. Telephone 
Nn. mm 

Veterinary Surgeon, 

Graduate of Ontario Veterinary College, Toronto. Canada. 

8S1 Qolden Gate Avenue, San FraDClaoo. 
Telephone 3009. 
No risk In throwing horses Veterinary operating table 
on the premisee. 

MONEY M^airTso^^eV. 

By using the Paclflc Incnbator 
and Brooder, which will hatch any 
kindof eggs better tbanahen. In uni- 
versal use. Oold Medal wherever ex- 
hibited. Thoroughbred Ponltrj' 
and Ponltry A ppllanoea. Send 
S cts. in stamps for 83-page catalogue, 
with 30 full-sized colored cutd of thor- 
oughbred fowls, to Pad flofnonba. 
tor Co.. IS7 Castro St., Oakland, Cal. 


laia MyrUo «tr«e(, ••klaa^i «aL 

• Send ntamp for Olrctitar 

POULTRYMEN, L'/'ir^^yit 1'! 

const'-iiiently the jirice of eggs J« adTauciutf. Kvery one 
(•houui now feed WelliDgton'a Iiuproied Kgg hiX>d reriilarlj 
if they desire to bare egtrs to sell when they reMO high 
prices. Get it of any MERCHJlNT or of Proprietor, 
B. F. WELLINGTON, 4S6 WuhijigtOD Bt.. Ban Knocii^ 

July 16, 1892 

f ACIFie F^URAlo f RESS. 


breeders' birectorv. 

six lines or lees in this directory at 60c per line per month. 

Walnut Grove Herd of Poland China Hogs 


F. H. BOBKE, 826 Market St., 8. F.; Registered 
Holsteins; winners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and epecial pre'miums than any herd on the Coast 
Pure registered Berkshire Pie». All strains. 

JBHSBYS— The best A J. C. C. Reeisfrred Herd is 
owned by Henry Pierce, S F. Animals for sale. 

P. PETERSEN, Sites, ColusaCo., Importer ^Breeder 
of registered Shorthorn Cattle. Young bulls for sale. 

JOHN tiYNOH, Petaluma, breeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns. Young stock for sale. 

At the head of the herd stands PERFECTION EINQ, No. 7579; KING OF THE WEST, No. 8921; 
HOOSIER BOY 2d, No. 8923. Breeding Sows as fine Individuals and as strictly bred as any in the land; 
also recorded in the C. P. C. R. record with pedigrees full to standard. Breeders for sale at all times. 
I have Pigs of both sexes at reasonable prices. Residence J% miles northeast of Davisville, Cal. 
Personal inspection solicited. All inquiries promptly answered. Yours truly, JOSEPH MELVIN. 

A. Heilbron & Bro., Props., S&c. Breeders of thorough- 
bred strains and Cruikshank Shorthorns; also Registered 
Herefords; a fine lot of young bulls in each herd for sale. 

CHARLES E HUMBERT. Cloverdale, Cal., Im- 
porter and Breeder of Recorded Holsteln-Friesiao 
Cattle. Catalogues on application. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, Breeder of Shorthorns. 
Dealer in freab Cows, Beet Cattle and Sheep. 

PBROHBRON HORSES.— Pure bred horses and 
mares, ail ages, and guaranteed breeders, for sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake Co., Cal. New cata 
logue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

for Sale. Bonnie Brae Cattle Co., Hollister, CaL 

J. H. WHITE, Lakevllle, Sonoma Oo., OaL.bieedei 
of Registered Holsteln Cattle. 

Cattle. H. A. Mayhew, Niles, Cal. 


P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co. , CaL , Importer and 
Breeder of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs. 

PETER SAXE St SON, Llek House, San Franoigco, 
Oal Importers and Breeders, tor past 21 years, of 
•very variety of Cattle. Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holsteln and Jersey Cattle. None better. 


0< BLOM,St. Helena. Brown Leghorna a tpecialty, 

MADISON d ORITU'^BB, Santa Crui, Cal 
Light Brahmas, Black Langshans, BuS Cochins, 
Barred Plymouth Rocks. Black MInorcas, White Leg- 
horns. Settings, $1.&0 Uann's Bone Mills, Creosozone. 

CaL S. C. While Leghorns, W. Holland Turkeys, 
Toulouse Geese and Pekin Ducks and Qumea Pigs. 

CaL, send for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

JAMES QUICK, Patterson, CaL, Breeder of Pure 
Bred Poultry of Choicest Vatieties and Best Blood. 

JOHN McFARLiNO, Caiistoga, Cal. , Importer and 
Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send for Circular. Thor 
oughbred Berkshire Pigs. 

B. G. HEAD, Napa, Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 


O.B.DWINBLLB. Breeder of Shropshire and Shrop 
shire-Metino cross-hreu rams, FuUod, Sonoma Co., Cal 

F. BULLARD, Wood)and,Cal., Importer and breeder 
of Spanish Meiino Shei-p. Premium Band of the State, 
Choice Bucks and Ewes for Sale. 

B. H. CRANB, Petaluma, Oa'. breeder and importer 
South Down Sheep; also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, CaL, Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Crossbred 
Merino and Shi opshlre Sheep. Ram^ for sale. 


WILLIAM NILBS,Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars tree. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, OaL, 
Ihornnghbred Berkshire and Essex Hoirs 

btMd*' cf 



One and a half miles northeast of San 
Leandro, Alameda County, 

' HAS ■ 

Every Facility for Breaking Colts Properly 

Bates Very Reasonable. 


P. O. Box 140 San Leandro. OaL 

a stamp for our new illustrated 
catalogue of Wool Growers* 
SupplieH and a free copy of the 
only illustrated Sheep and Wool 
Journal published. We sell 
Shepherds' Crooks, Shears, 
DocKera, Racks, Twine, Wool 
Boxes. Bells, Marks and a hun- 
dred other articles needed by 
every sheep owner. Send to-day. 
0. S. BURCH & CO., i78 Mlch- 
Isran Htrftpt Obicaeo. 

OA! I CHD Kl I A 'f>'Ant to I'now about Califor- 

linLirUnNIH nlaand the Pacific States.send for the 

the best Illustrated snd Leading Farming and Horticultural 
Weekly of the Far West. Trial. 6Pc for 3 mos. Two samph 
copies. 10c. Established 1870. DEWEY PUBLISHINU CO, 
^20 Market St., 8. F. 




— OF — 

Strictly Bred 



Ducks, Turkeys, Qeese, Peacocks, Etc. 


Publishers of " Nlles' Paciflo'Ooast Poultry and Stock Boot," 

a new boolc on subjects connected with successful poultry and stock raising on 
the Pacific Coast Price 60 cents, post-paid. Inclose stamp for information. 


Jersey and Holsteln Cattle. Also, Poland China and Berkshire Pigs. 

Address, WILLIAM NILES & CO., Los Angeles, Cal. 


Importers and Breeders of 

Red Polled Cattle. 

We have about 150 Head of Imported 
and Graded Stock, all Deep Red Color. 

Full Blood and Graded, of both sexes, for sale. Addresa 
all communications on cattle to 

W. S. FRITOH, Petaluma. 


Prize Herd of Southern California. 



P. O. Box 686 Loa Angeles. Oal. 


Importer and Breeder of 

English Shire, Clydesdale, Percheron and Goacl) Horses. 



Srabl«, Broadwny and 32d Sts., Oakland, Cal. Address Box 86. 


Genuine only with RED 
BALL brand. 

Recommended by Gold 
smith, Marvin, Gamble, 
Wells, Fargo & Co., etc., etc, 

It keeps Horses and Cattle 
healthy. For milch cows; 
it increases and eBriohes 
their milk. 

698 Howard St., San 
VrannlKoo, Oal. 



For the Cheapest and Best 


Of any Style known to the 
trade, address 





•75 ITron'- Sr., Portland. Oreaon 


Mann's Green Bone Cutter 


Patented June 16, 1886; August 20, 1889. Canada Patent, June 12, 1890. 

WE WARRANT this machine to cut Dry or Green Bones, meat, gristle and 
all, by Hand Power, without clog or difficulty, or MONEY REFUNDED. 

will make them 25 per cent more fertile, and increase the vigor of the whole flock. 

These Cutters are endorsed by all the leading California poultrymen. Send for a 
Catalogue describing all sizes of Cutters and containing vaulabia information in relation 
to feeding green cue bones. 


Pacific Ooaat Amenta. PETALUMA, CAL. 



No DoiiDletrees, No Traces, 

No injury to trees or vines 
With the New Deei field, each 
horte is harnessed separately 
in usual way. Fits any team. 


Send for testimonials. 

G.G WIckson&Co. 

3 AS Front St., San Fran 
346 N llain St , Los Angeles. 
141 Front St., Portland, Or 

Importer and Breeder of ShroDshlre Sheep. 

They were all imported from England, or bred dlteol 
from Imported Stock. 

I have also bred American Merinos— Hornless Sheep — 
for 22 years. They are a large sheep, without wrinkles. 
Rams will produce 20 to 25 pounds of long white wool 
yearly. Sheep of both sexes for sale. 



Stony Point, 

R R. St«f ton. Petaluma. Sonoma Co., Gal. 



BROS., - 

Successors to 



Breeders and Importers of Thoroughbred 
French Merino Sheep, 

Address correspondence to J. M. Lathrop, Agent, 
Newman. Oal. 



W. A, SHAFOR, - • Middletown Ohio. 

Twelve Years Experience. Imports will arrive from 
England in July. Order Early. Qet your neighbor* to 
Join. Older car Iota by freight. Save Express ghargei. 


f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 

Jdlt 16, 1892 




Horse Liniment 

Is certainly the best preparation of Its 
kind In the market. Ranchers, Stock 
Raisers and Horse Owners of every 
description will tell you that It does 
good work every time. 

Unau. H. H. Moon * Sokb, Stockton, Cal.— Obmili- 
Mnr In »n8wer to vour Inquiry, would state that I used 
your H. H. H. Liniment on my Holland prize-winning 
cow " Lena Menlo," for a wrenched shoulder, and It re- 
lieved her very much. She calved the next day, and while 
itm suflerinp from the sprain gave the largest authcn- 
ticated quantity of mllli ever given on this coast (lOJ 
gallons per day), showing conclusively the great relief 
received from your remedy. I consider It a necessity In 
my stables, and when away from home feel perfectly 
■ate, as inexperienced men can do no harm with It, as 
they can with the more powerful blisters. Respectfully 
yonrs FRANK H. BURKE, 

' Breeder of Registered Holstelns and BerliBhiree. 

Uenlo Park, Cal., January 22d, 188B. 





The Best Article Is the Cheapest. 



Best, Purest and Most Effective 
Insect Powder on the Market. 

hotels, restaurants, saloons, 

storm and offices may be kept tree 
from all troublesome insects. It is 
now regarded as a necessity In most 
of the principal hotels in the United 
States, and wherever it has been In- 
troduced it has given complete sat. 
tsfactlon. Owing to an increased 
production of Pyrethrum flowers, 
from which this valuable article Is 
made, and their Improved facilities 
tor reducing them to powder, tne manufacturers have 
this season made a material reduction In their prices. 
Send your orders to the 

Bnhcli Mmi Ui&uhcliirifi; Co., 



Paper Mamilactiirers and Dealers. 


Lining Paper of every description tor Dried 
Fruit Boxes. 


Manilla and Straw Paper In Rolls and Sheets. 
Manufactorera of " Bagle " Paper Basa. 

416 Olay 8tra«t, Hiaii Vranailann 


la one of the most complete inventions for drying 
RalilDS and Pranea by steam in 24 hours — other 
trulls less time. No sulphur or potash used. Retains 
all syrup, juice and flavor In original purity. Capacity, 
dries from 75 lbs green fruit to 20 tons. Send for circu- 
ft M'F'O CO., 347i S. Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal. 


WMlewasli Your Barns and Fences I 

Do Elthar Snooegafally. 

Catalogue and testimonials sent by mall. 
No. 5 8p«»ar Street, San FranclBOo," Cal. 


Golden Ital- 
ian Quet-ns. 
Tested ^2 00 

each; untested, II. DO each. L Hives, $1.90 each. Root's V 
groove sections, $6.00 per 10(0. Dadant's comb foundation, 
580 and 6Sca pound. Smokers, (1.00 each. Qlobe veils, tl.OO 
MOh. tto. WM . STTAK ft HOH, Bu Mateo. OaL 



Wareboaae and Wharf at Port Ooata. 


Money advanced on Oraln In Store at lowest poaelbie rateo of Interest. 
Fall OarBoee of Wheat famished Shippers at short notice. 
ALSO OSDEBS FOR OBAIH BAGS, Agricultural Implementi. Wajfoiu. Groceries 
and MerohandiM of every deacription solicited. 

B. VAN EVERY, Manaaer. A. M. BffiLT, Assistant Manager. 




Proprietors of the City Iron Woiks. 

Works, Cor. Bay, Kearny and Francisco Sts., 


Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Boilers, Engines, Pnmps and Machlnerj 



L,ap-Welded Wrunght-Irnn Tnblnie Coupled with 
Patent Lead-Lined Couplings. 






Beat BBd Stroare** EzploalTM 1m tke World. 

The only Reliable and Efficient Powder for Mtumiv aad BsBtr BlsatlBK- Railroad Contractors and Fanner 
use no other. Aa others IMITATE our diant Powder, ao do thejr JadaoB, hf maMntaetarlBC 
Inferior artlele. 

The Giant Powder Co. having built Blacic Powder Works, with all the latest Improvements, at Clipper Gap, Piaoer 
County, known as TH^ CUPPEB niI.I.M, otfer this powder and guarantee It the best. 

CAPM mmA FITSB nt I.owest Bateik 

THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY. 30 California St.. San Francisco. 

S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

Free Coaob to and From the Hoaae. j. w. BEOKBR, Proprietor. 

Commissiop Merchant;. 


Commission Merci\aiiti 



Green and Dried PrnitB, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Conslsnmenta. 
808 ft 310 Davl* St., San Franolior 

(P. 0. Box 1988.1 
i^ConelfirnmentA ^olldtAtl 


601, B03, 606. 607 & 600 Front St.. 
And 300 Washington St, SAN FRANCISCO. 



AND •WO<»L. 




General Commission Merchants^ 

810 CaUfomla St., S. F. 
Uemberg of the San Francisco Produce Exchanf*. 

tVPeraonal attention given to sales and liberal advaocat 
made on connlgnmenta at low rates of interesL 


Commis sioii Me rchants. 


418, 41B Si 417 Wasblncton St., 

(P. O. Box 2090.) SAN FRANCISCO. 

lUTABUlSHID 1864. J 




as 01»7 8tr»at and 38 Commercial Btr««t 
■aa Fraboukw, Oal. 

W. C. PRICE & CO.. 



Conaignments and Corre«ponderce Solicited. 
Prompt Sales and y iicl< C>sh Returns is our motto. 
219 and 921 Davis Htreet. Han rrannlaoo. 



And Dealers In Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Oame, Kni 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc, iSS Front St., and 111, HI 
Kb and 2S7 Washington St., San Frandsco. 


Hay Prenes made by the Celebrated FreM 







IIICI I SUPPLIES Mining, Ditching, Pumpa 

WW r ll'"!;. Wtnd&Steam Macyi/. inenchptdia Ste. 

■ ■ ""The American Well Works, Aurora, IlL 

H-I3S.CanalSt.,CI1ICAGO,ILL. I •„„i , 
B^mStmst DALLAS. TBXAS ' ' 

'July J 6, 1892. 



Market Review. 

San Francisco, July 13, 1892. 
General trade has assumed its normal condition. 
Buyers lor firms at the large distribution centers in 
the agricultural districts, report that their purchases 
are larger than at this time in last year, and, as for 
that, in any former year. They claim ihat the crops 
(fruit, grain and vegetables) average larger than had 
been estimated, and, consequently, more hands have 
been given employment. One buyer for a prominent 
Marysville firm says that he bought in June over 
$5000 worth more of grain bags than in the like 
month in 1891. In larm produce, present indications 
point to more general activity in grain at an early 
day Dealers appear to be waiting tor the Govern- 
ment June crop report betore dealing on a large 
icale. Fruit is meeting with an enlarging demand 
and at improving prices. Last year the market 
opened high and declined afterward, but this year it 
opened low and has been slowly advancing. Vege- 
tables continue to move ofif freely and at better 
prices than obtained in last year. FeedstufI is meet- 
ing with a good demand, which appears to be stead- 
ily enlargiug. Uairy produce (cheese and butter) 
Is shaping iti.elf into a better position for the seUing 
interest. In eggs, the market has been kept down 
lor poor to good bj heavy receipts of Eastern, which 
are forced on the market at the best obtainable 
figures. Eggs in cars that have been long on the way 
and unnecessarily exposed to heat have been placed 
as low as 12% cents per dozen "as Is." A large part 
of these arrivals are only suitable for (Jhinamen and 
bakers, who Can and do use ammonia to kill any bad 
odor that might be present. Poultry, after making a 
rapid and unexpected jump on last Friday, has 
lallen back to prices lower than were ruling at the 
close ol last week's review: Livestock is strength- 
ening. Other faim produce is reported fairly firm. 

In the local money market there appears to be 
more inquiry for funds for crop purposes. There is 
a stesdily growing leellng of confidence and as this 
takes firmer hold, more disposition will be mani- 
fested to make ventures, both speculative and 
legitimate, which will be Instrumental in bringing 
about more active times. 

Grain Futures. 


The following are the cloBiug prices paid for wlieat options 
per ctl. for the past week; „ . r> . t>i„, 

June July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov 
Thiirsdav . BsUGSd bSU7 d 6bIj8 (' 6sOS d BsOSi'd 

Fridav 68075d 6806 d 6Mid 6s..7 '1 6b(i8 d lisnS d 

Saturday ■■■■ 5sOB d tMHiA 6r,l.7Jd 6sO Jd 6a08 d 
Mondav ' .... fisOSJd 6s0 Jd GsOBJd lis 6jd BsOh-id 
Tuesday .'.'.v.'. .' 6303 d BaUSid (5su6ia Bai 6jd BsU. }d 63'JVid 

The following are the prices for California car£roes for off 
coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for .he past weol<. 


00 P S. N. D. for P. S. Weather. 
Thursday ..343d 34904 3ls0d Steadier. Stormy. 

Friday 33s6d Quiet. *ine. 

Saturday.. 33B6d 34B6d 34s6d 

Monday. .. .3386d 348Bd 3486d „ , , , 

Tueiday 34BBd Neglected. Favorable. 

To-day B cablegram Is as follows: ,, ^ ,! 

LlVBKPOob, July 13.— Wheat— Cheaper to sell. Cali- 
fornia spot lots, 6s 10>$d; oil' coast, 33s 3d; just ship- 
ped, 348- nearly due, 33s 6d; cargoes ofT coast, rather 
easier- on passage, red wheat firmer held, white very 

New York. 

The following shows the closing prices of wheat for the 
past week: ^^p^ ^^^^ 

Thursday 141| 141| 14i 14*3 .... 

Friday 14uf 14,8 140; ... .... 

Saturday . . 140 139i 14.i 1415 .... 

Monday 1S»3 138i 13tS 14t; . 

Tuesday 139i 138i 13!) 140 .... 

The following are to-days' telegram : 
Nbw York, July 13.— Wheat- 82:^c for August, 
82%c for September, 86%c for December and 903^c 
for May. 

Chicaoo, July 13 —Wheat— 7634c for July, 75^0 1 jr 
September and lS%c for December. 

San Francisco. 


Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer 
•i(2. Aug. Sept. Oct. Dec. 

Thursday, high st 1375 141 J 

lowest 136i J40j 

Friday, highest 137 

" lowest 136S 141 

Saturday, highest 1361 

lowest 1365 ■■■■ 

Monday, highest 135} 1405 

" lowest 136i 1402 

Tuesday, highest 1355 138 137i .... 1402 

lowest 135 1375 137i .... 1406 

The following are to-day's recorded sales on '^all: 
Morning Informal. Seller 1892, 300 tons, §1 35. Buyer 
December— ICO tonB, .«1.40J; 100, »1.40 per ctl. Regular 
Session. Buyer December -100 tons, Sl-40; 20o. S1.4UJ. 
Seller 189:i, lUO tons, §1.35 per ctl. Afternoon. -Seller 
1892 400 tons, §1.3 i; 800, .$1.35*. Buyer December-400 
tons. 81.404; 40u, S1.40i; 200, «1.40J per ctl. 


Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer 
'92. Aug. Sept. Oct. Dec. 

Thursday, highest 92j .... 94 95 97» 

lowest 9ll .... 94 95 974 

Friday, highest 923 

" lowest 92l 

Saturday, highest 9U 

" lowest 91^' 

Monday, highest 91 955 

" lowest 90J 941 

Tuesday, highest 912 93; 96t 

lowest 90{ 93S 954 

The following are to-day's recorded sales on Call: 
Informal. -.Seller 1892, new -300 tons, 90|c. Regular Ses- 
sion. -Seller 1892, new-100 tons, 90Sc; lOU, Otic; luO, 91Jc 
per ctl. Afternoon.— Seller 1S92, new— JOO totis. 91ib; 30o, 
91ic. December- 100 tons, 96c; 2U0, 96Jc; 200, 95jc per ctl. 

Markets by Telegraph. 

Eastern Raisin Market. 

New York, July 10.— From present indications new 
California raisins will come upon a pretty bare mar- 
ket. Should the new crop show care in curing and 
preparing and be ottered at reasonable prices. Cali- 
lornia packers will probably experience no difficulty 
in promptly placing their goods among dealers. Re- 
garding Valencia raisins, the stock here to-day is 
probably the smallest upon record, and only 6(KK) 
boxes are now in transit to this market, which is bare 
of salable fruit. The growers in Spain do not propose 
yet to relinquish this field to the California product. 
They are handicapped by a heavy duty, but intend to 
stubbornly contest the ground. They will be early 
In the market with new fruit and endeavor to get in 
some good work before the California product can be 
landed. But with two varieties in the field prices 
will be regulated to a proper level, gauged by the law 
of supply and demand Malaga have been driven 
from the American market, but the more ordinary 
Valencia continues on deck. With a steady increase 
In the Pacific Coast product, however, and a cheap- 
ening in cost, as it is believed, it is only a question of 
time when the foreign article will entirely disappear 
from our markets. 

Fruit Crop East. 

Nbw Yobk, July 10. — Georgia expects to market 
(UUy 200 cars of peacbes. Hunterdon county. New 

Jersey, estimates a yield of not over 250,000 baskets, 
20 per cent below that of last year. This is favorable 
for late Californias. It is reported that Almeria grapes, 
the only important competitor of California, though 
of large crop, are badly mildewed, and our receipts 
are not likely to exceed the moderate ones of last 

Eastern Dried Fruit Markets. 

New York. July 10.— An encouraging expression 
for the situation of California fruits has become au- 
dible. Everything points to a good cleaning up 
prospect for old packings, with its improving effect 
upon the basis for new. In a word, there is decided 
evidence of readiness to meet Coast values if they do 
not run inio restrictive figures. 

Eastern Canned Fruit Markets. 

New Yokk, July 10. — Large blocks are in treaty and 
enough have gone through, particularly for the West 
to give a firmer tone. Better spot quotations are ex 
pected to be listed before the present week is out. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Nkw York, July 8.— The wool markets all report 
quiet trade. The cause is the holiday, which has 
kept buyers away. Sales for the week, nowever, foot 
fair, the amount being about equally divided among 
all grades. New wools are coming forward in in- 
creasing amounts. The supply ol fleeces is quite 
large, and, as a rule, growers nave imuroved on the 
methods of putting it up, but it falls far below the 
condition in which Australian wools are put on the 
market, at least those brought to this country. 

At the London sales a strong competition among 
buyers is maintained. The advance is firmly held 
and sales are expected to close strong. It is estimated 
that about 12,0u0 bales have been bought for this 
country. The sales will close July 13th. There is 
little doing in Territories, Texas or California wools. 
Pulled wools are very quiet. A fair demand is re 
ported for carpet wools. 

New Yobk, July 10.— Wool dealings were princi 
pally at New England. The general market is strong, 
but no higher. The mills are getting a good deal of 
direct stock, which gives buyers a temporary advan 
tage over spot sellers. Foreign wool is quiet. Fiue 
domestic is now drawing some of Australia's cus 
tomers. All woolen goods are in gond form. The 
wool sales at New York were 163,000 pounds of do 
mestic, 162,000 pounds of foreign spot and 1,000,000 
common in course of delivery. Boston sold 2,229 000 
lbs. of domestic; also 35,500 foreign. The Philadelphia 
trade was satisfactory, with some hardening tone in 

Wheat Exports. 

New York, July 10 — Exports of wheat, including 
flour as wheat, from United States seaports on both 
coasts for the seven days ending July 7th equal 
2.060,601 bushels, a smaller total than in any preced- 
ing week for more than a year, a decline of nearly 40 
per cent from the like export total in the preceding 
week, and of 10 per cent as compared with the like 
week a year ago. 


New York, July 10.— Honey- The reported lieht 
Coast crop is much regretted here. Our strain* d is 
nearly used up. Lima Beans — Added supplies have 
no weakening efiect upon 81.80, the spot price per 
bushel. Hops— Last ranges are unchanged; State are 
not offered freely and Pacific has the run of the 
brewers' demand, especially at 22@23c for styles best 
to choice; options are inactive. 

General Remarks and Statistics. 

Produce Receipts. 

Receipts of produce from all sources at this port for 7 
days ending July 12, '9^, were as follows : 

Bran, sks 6,726 

Buckwheat " 

MiddUngs " 2,586 

Chicory, bbls 102 

Hops " 

Wool. " 1,091 

Hay, ton 2,444 

Straw, " 252 

Wine, gals 117,886 

... 470 
.... 670 
.... 301 

I Brandy, 

20|Rai8inB, bxs 
310 Honey, os 
6 8Teanut3,:4l{3 
I Walnuts 

Flour, qr. sks 81,883 

Wheat, ctls 1'25,108 

Barley, " 80,838 

Rye, " 

Oats, " 8 829 

Corn, '• 3,050 

•Butter, " 917 

do bis 497 

do hbls 13 

do kegs 

do tubs 

do i bxs 

tOheese, ctls 

do bxs 

Eggs, do2 20,026|AlmoudB ' 

do " Eastern 117,150lMustaid " 

Beans, sks ll,077|Flai " 2,730 

Potatoes, sks 18, vza Popcorn " 

Onions, " l,914lBroom com, bbls 

•Overl'd, 243 ctls. t Overland. — ctls. 


We excerpt the following from the report of the 
Oregon weather service, in cooperation with the U. 
S. Weather Bureau of the Department of Agriculture, 
for the week ending July 5: The total wheat yield 
of 1891 in western Oregon amounted to nearly 9,000,- 
000 bushels, while this year it will not amount to 
more than 7,000,000 bushels, the unfavorable weather 
conditions lessening the yield for this year. The oats 
crop, while fair, will be short of last year's crop by 
about 20 per cent. Haying is now in progress in all 
sections and good yields are generally reported, 
though in a few localities it is not up to the average. 
In 1891 eastern Oregon had a total yield of nearly 
6,000,000 bushels, and it is estimated that not over 
3.000,000 bushels will be harvested this year. The 
greatest injury and loss are in Wasco, Gilliam, Sher- 
man and Morrow counties, where last year they had 
2,300,000 bushels; this year the four counties will not 
have a total yield of 1,000,000 bushels. A great many 
farmers are discouraged and many will not be able to 
secure seed and feed- The conditions are nearly as 
they were in 1889. Wheat on the higher belt of Uma- 
tilla county and on the reservation is in fine condi- 
tion and it will yield about as well as it did last year. 
In Union county the prospects are good. In the other 
counties the unfavorable prospects continue. Haying 
is in progress and very good yields are reported. 

In the local wheat market trading in samples has 
been slow, owing to many large buyers confining 
their purchases to desirable points in the country. 
It is also claimed that buyers who were pinched for 
Immediate delivery wheat were accomodated by 
one or more warehousemen who loaned the wheat 
probably for a consideration. This loaning of wheat 
works an injury to the market. Farmers in ware- 
housing their grain should put a private mark on 
each sack, and take receipts for the same, so that 
when the grain is called lor they will get that which 
was stored. This appears to be the only way of 
breaking up this nefarious practice. It is said that 
as soon as the Government's crop report for the 
month of June is made public, buyers will be more 
disposed to enter the market, when we can reason- 
ably look for active times. Paying higher prices 
on Call for November and December delivery, indi- 
cates that operators believe In better prices later on. 

The barley market has shown considerable activity 
and at strong prices. For parcels favorably siiuated 
an advance has been paid on current quotations. 
The buying has been and still is being done for 
shipping to New York and England. Present low 
prices in our market and a certainty of a shortage at 
the East and in Europe of malters' grades are a de- 
cided inducement to make ventures. Taking this 
State as a whole and the crop this year will not be 
any larger than it was in 1891, while in Washington 
and Oregon it will be short. 

Oats have been cleaning up, and in consequence, 
the market for old held to steady prices. New coast 
oats have come to hand but as a rule the grades are 
poor, which cause buyers to bid down. 

Large yellow corn has held fairly steady, but small 

yellow and white advanced slightly under light sup 
plies and a fair demand. 

Rye has ruled steadier. Crop advices from abroad 
indicate another shortage, but it will not likely be 
as marked as it was last year. 

Australian and Proper 1891 wheat, suitable for 
milling, are very scarce and wanted; gilt-edged will 
fetch quickly S1.47>i®$1.50, and other grades that 
can be used by millers will fetch from $1.42>^ up- 
ward. MiUers who never look at Club wheat are 
now taking it owing to their not being able to get 
Australian and Proper. 

In futures, legitimate trading on Call has been 
light, but there have been many cross sales so as to 
beat down the market for both wheat and barley. 


Bran and middlings have met with more attention 
and at stronger prices. Ground barley is going out 
more freely. Other feedstuffs are essentially un 

Old hay is not quoted; only new will be quoted in 
future. Receipts have been quite free, but all re- 
ceived has not only been placed, but a slight advance 
made in the more choice grades. 

Dairy Produce. 

Butter has moved off quite freely at last week's re 
duced quotations. The supply of gilt-edged butter 
is getting lighter, and, as it becomes scarcer, the 
more choice grades should appreciate. The southern 
part of the State is drawing from us. Eastern ad- 
vices report increasing receipts and a weaker market 
with concessions in order. 

Cheese is getting scarcer, which causes the better 
grades to hold to strong prices, with, at times, an ad 
vauce obtainable for gilt-edgea lull cream. 

The receipts of Eastern eggs have continued on a 
large scale, while those of Californian have fallen 
off. Poor to fair stock is in buyers' favor, at from 
12J<; to 14 cts. " as is," in carload lots. Choice packs 
have not changed much. Fresh-laid near by Cali- 
fornia eggs have held strong under a good demand 
and moderate receipts. 

Live Stock. 

The market is stronger for all kinds, with a slight 
advance for bullocks, mutton sheep and hogs. 
Calves are also doing better. The selling pressure 
appears to have relaxed. 


In garden stuff, we note decreasing supplies of both 
beans and peas. Tomatoes, cucumbers, green corn, 
summer tquaah and other seasonable varieties have 
come in liberally, causing a shading in prices. There 
has been and continues to be a good demand on 
shipping days for the better keepers. 

Onions continue in oversupply. The outlet so far 
this season is restricted, which causes a low and 
weak market. 

Notwithstanding (hat the receipts of potatoes have 
been quiie free, the market cleaned up aach day at 
good prices for well-matured and good keepers. The 
trouble appears to be that too many unripe potatoes 
are marketed, and, being poor keepers, low prices 
had to be accepted. They generally turn green, and 
are therefore unattractive to consumers. The de- 
mand for the more choice well matured Is largely for 


New York mail advices report the receipt of a sam 
pie of Calilornia new evaporated apricots, split and 
pitted by a patented device that leaves the fruit in 
much hotter condition than it appears when manipu 
lated by the old method. 

The English fruit crop promises to be short, and 
now comes a circular letter from Louis Ritz & Co., 
Hamburg, June 23d, which says: The outlook for 
the growing fruit crops in Austria and Germany is 
rather discouraging. There will be few if any pears. 
The apple crop has suffered from the start by frost 
and winds, and will certainly not yield more than 
one-half of last year's crop. The prune crop does 
not look as well as last year, but may improve later 
on; we think, however, that there will be a shortage 
of one-third compared witn 1891. This, with almost 
no stock of last year's fruit will gradually force 
prices higher. New crop October-November ship- 
ment quoted about J3.45 per 100 fi)s. c. i. f. New York. 

The New York correspondence of the United States 
M iUer says: " As a whole, therefore, the crops of the 
world promise more favorably than a month ago, in 
spite of the unparalleled bad weather we have had 
in this country, for the greater part of that period. 
Regarding the London financial troubles and their 
probable effect on the grain market, it is significant 
that they were caused by the decUne in silver held 
by banks doing business with India, largely, where 
exports of wheat have been enormously stimulated 
by the same unprecedentedly low price of silver, by 
reason of which she is able to undersell gold stand- 
ard grain-exporting countries, in the markets of Eu- 
rope, and yet realize as much, or more, for her wheat 
at home, as before." 

Chicago Western Rural Market and Crop Review, 
July 4th, says: The weather has been fairly good 
during the past week for the winter wheat harvest 
through Central and Southern Indiana, Illinois, and 
over the States of Missouri and Kansas. The late 
planting of corn for fodder is now interrupted by the 
wheat harvest and the advent of haying time. The 
superior quaUty of seed corn produced last year is 
proving to be a valuable element in aiding the crop 
already planted. In the northern district of IlUnois 
a shortage of 15 per cent, and in the middle district 
of -16 per cent in area of corn planted is now con- 
ceded. This means so much out of the margin for 
export after usual demand for home consumption is 

The local market for green fruit has shown con- 
tinued activity with better prices ruling for desirable 
canning varieties. Apricots now coming in are meet- 
ing with a quick demand from canners, dryers and 
shippers. Peach apricots and Moorpark apricots 
have sold at from 2@2}^c. per lb., according to size 
and locality grown. Royals sold lower. Tragedy 
and also German prunes are coming in more freely. 
Thev meet with a quick market. Bartlett and Dear- 
born's Seedling pears are in good request for shipping 
and canning. Choice and good keeping apples are 
meeting with a quick market at good figures. Tne 
peaches coming in are clings. The quality is good. 
Some poor Crawfords came to hand. They will soon 
be followed by the best grades. Cherries and cur- 
rants are going out. The former, unless very choice, 
are poor sellers. We withdraw quotations. The 
grapes that are coming to hand are poor and hard to 
sell; it would be misleading to quote them. Melons 
are coming in more freely. The market is declining. 
Figs hold up well; the consumption ol the green 
shows an increase each season. Nectarines are 
scarce and high; with freer receipts, prices will shade 
off'. More will be canned and dried this year. In 
berries the market has held firm under a good de- 
mand at last week's prices. 

There is an improving demand for canned fruits. 
The market is strengthening. 

Dried apricots are moving off' freely at from 9>^(a> 
11c. per lb. The East is drawing heavily, while 
merchants on this coast are large buyers, tor dried 
prunes there Is a large inquiry, as there Is for 
peaches, but we are not able to procure reliable 
quotations for this issue. 

For raisins the market is shaping into good position 
for the more choice grades. Buyers will dlsunminate 
closely, and stuff' only fit for hogs will have a poor 
show of being marketed, except at a loss. Growers 
should fight against each and all who are trying to 
kill the reputation of California raisins by marketing 
poor grades. It will pay them well to do so. 

The market to-day cleaned up well. Canners are 
p£.ylng as follows: Peaches, clings, 1% to 2 cts. per 
lb. f. o. b.; freestone, l}^ to l% cts.; Bartlett pears, 90 

cts. to ?1.10 per box and 1}^ to 1% cts. per B>. f. o. b. , 
apricots, 1J4 to 2 cts. f. o. b. according to size and lo- 
cality. Some few, it is said, paid slightly higher 
for small parcels of selected to put up a fancy article 
for a special or particular trade 

In next week's issue we will give quotations for 
California wines. 


On last Friday the poultry market made a big 
jump in hens, roosters and young chickens. Choice, 
well-conditioned old hens sold up to jtl0.50 per 
dozen, and in one or two Instances slightly more; 
old roosters up to 88.50 and 89, and young up to 811. 
Broilers and fryers advanced also. On Saturday the 
market kept up, but on Monday it was easier, with 
quite a break on yesterday under heavy receipts of 
Californian and the arrival' of a carload ol Eastern 

Honey is coming in more freely, but the market 
holds very strong under a good demand and con- 
firmed reports of a half crop. The crops East are 
also light. 

Hops are stagnant owing to dealers waiting for 
more definite advices regarding crops. At this 
writing, while our advices are now favorable, yet 
they do not warrant the expecting of a full average, 
taking the world as a whole. 

In wool we are not advised of any material 
change. Receipts are decreating, while stocks are 
moving off fairly free at current quotations. 

Poultry fell off badly to-day. our quotations cover- 
ing the range. Another car of Eastern is about due. 
Young pigeons are doing belter They sell at 82 50 
to $3; Old sell at 82 75 to 83.50. Dealers are gathering 
the latter for a shoot. 

From reliable advices up to July 12, the following sum- 
mary tonnage movement; is compiled: 
/—On the way—, 
1892. 1891. 

San Frandaoo 262,954 331,952 

San Diego 13,6% 25,818 

San Pedro 4,830 6,525 

Oregon 57,1,98 32,169 

Puget Sound 30,292 33,295 

Totals J68.769 427,769 

'Engaged for wheat, 1892, 41,^18; 1891, 67,0'jS 

<— In port-^ 







1 S,981 



5 50 

4 75 
4 76 

I 9 50 
I 9 50 
! SO 

1 05 
1 45 

75 ® 1 15 
65 @ 85 
70 @ 1 00 

60 vjo 90 

General Prodnce. 

Extra oholoe In good paokages fetch an advance on top 
gaotatlouSi wule very poor grades sell less than the lowc> 
Wednksdat, July 13, 1892. 

Do (air 1 35 @ — 

Oommon 1 30 @ — 

9onora 1 33J(a 1 45 


1891 Choice to Ex. 20 @ — 
Pair to Good... 18 S — 

Extra, CityMiUs 4 65 
DoOountiyMiUs 4 50 _ 

iuperline 2 75 @ 3 10 

Walnuts, Oal. lb 4 @ 

Do Choice 6 @ 

Do paper shell . . 7 @ 
Almonds, stt stal. 10 M 

Paper shell 12 a 

Hard SheU 6 @ 


Peoaus small . . II @ 

Do large 14i(g 

Peanuts 1 

Filberts li 

Hickory 7 

Chestnuts lli 


Sllverskin 40 

Early Rom, ctl . 60 
Do do In boxes. 


Do in boi^s 

Garnet CblUes 
Burbank Seedlings 60 @ 80 
Do do in boxes. 75 1 15 

Hens, doz 6 50 @ 7 50 

RooBters.old.... 6 50 7 50 

Do young 7 50 ffl 9 Ud 

Broilers, small. . 2 50 S 3 50 

Do large 3 50 @ 5 00 

Fryers 4 60 @ 6 00 

Duck 4 00 @ 5 OO 

do, large 5 60 @ 6 00 

do, extra large 6 50 @ 7 00 

Oeese. pair 1 25 1 50 

Goslings — @ — 

Turkeys, Oobl'r. 18 @ 20 
Turkeys, Hens.. U (jj 19 
Manhattan Egg 
Food ^ cwt...ll 60 @ - 
Oal.Baoon.he' lOiQ — 

Medium llj 

Light " 


Oal. Sm'k'dBeet 
Hams,Cal salt'd 
do Eastern... 


AUalfa 9 

Clorer, Bed.... 14 

White 20 

Flaxseed 2 00 

Hemp 34 

Mustard, yellow 
do Brown . , , . 3 
Spking, 1892. 
Humb't ftMen'omo 17 
Bao'to valley. ... 16 
B Joaquin Taller 11 
Oala'T t F'th'U. 16 
Oregon Eastern. 12ii 

do valley 18 

Bo'n Coast, def.. 10 
Nevada (State). 16 

HONEY. -1892 Okop. 
WhiteComb,2-lb 8 (o? 11 
White extract'd 
Amber do 
Beeswax, lb.... 



Bayo, ctl 2 00 @ 2 16 

Butter 2 50 


BmsU White 

Large White. ... 2 00 <a 2 30 

lilma.... . ... 2 40 @ 2 50 

VIA Peas,hlkeye 3 UU @ 3 30 

Do gr»en 1 50 (g 2 75 

DoNUes 1 30 @ 1 4U 

Split 4 50 

Cal, Poor to 15 @ 
Do good to choice 17 (S 
Do Giltedged... — Q 
Do Creamery rolls — @ 
Do do Giltedge. . — @ 

Eastern. — m 

Oal, choice cream 8 @ 
Do (air to good 7 (g 
Do gilt edged.. — @ 

Do skim 5 @ 

IToung America — (a 

Oal. •■ as is." doz. 165@ 

Do caudled 18 (4 

Do choice 21 @ 

Do fresh laid . . . 23 @ 
L>o do selected., — ti* 
Eastern "as la". 12J@ 

Do candled 15 ft? 

Do sfclectea 18i@ 

Outside prices for selected 
large eggs and inside prices 
for mixed hizes— small eggs 
and bard to sell. 


Bran, ton 18 00 @19 00 

reedmeal 23 00 @28 00 

Glr'd Barley.... 20 50 @22 60 

Ulddlhigs 20 00 @21 50 

Oil Oake Meal.. @25 00 

Manhattan Food $ cwt. 7 50 

Wheat, per ton. 10* 00 @ — 

Do choice @13 50 

vfheat and Oata 9 00 #12 00 

WUd Oats 8 00 @11 00 

Cultivated do.. 7 00 @10 00 

Barley 6 00 ( 

Alfalfa 7 00 i 

Straw, bale .... 40 (j 
Barley, feed, ctl. Siii 

Do Choice 95 

Do Brewing .... 1 00 
Do do Choice. . . 1 05 
Do do Giltedge.. 1 10 
Do Chevalier... 
Do do Giltedge. 
Buckwheat. ... 
Com, White. . . 
VeUow, larg*.. 

Do small 

Oata, milling.... 1 60 
Feed, Oholoe.... 1 45 

Do good 1 37l 

Do (air 1 32iS 

Surprise 1 65 @ 

Black Oal - « 

Do Oregon 1 32i@ 

Gray 1 32J(a 

Rye 1 20 @ 

Wheat, milling. 
Giltedged.... 1 47i@ 

Do Choice 1 45 S 

Do fair to good. . 1 40 @ 
Sblpping, oho'oe 1 38i@ 
Do good 1 36i@ 

13 (3 







Fruits and Vegetables. 

Oholoe selected. In good package*, fetch an advance on the 
notations, while vary poor grades sell leu than the lower 


4 00 ( 

Limes, Mex . 

Do Cal — 

Lemons, box..,. 1 60 

Do Sicily 5 00 

Oranges, Seed- 
linn 1 25 

Do Navels 2 50 

Oranges frosted an 
sell at a decline of 81@$~1 6U 
;>er box on the above quota 

Strawberries, per chest- 

Longwortb. . . 

7 00 « 

i 9 


Sharpless .... 

4 50 fi 

1 6 


Etaspbnrrles, ch . 

5 00 ( 

( 7 


Peaches, box... 

Do Crawford. . . 

75 ( 

t I 


Do Hale's Early 

75 ft 

1 1 


Ou wharf 15c. 


Bl'kberries W ch 4 00 C 

i 6 


Figs, blk box... 

\ 00 mi 


Do White do... 

75 O 1 


Apples, Bell 

90 ft 

» 1 


Do Red Astra- 

76 ft 

} 1 


On wharf ISc. 

Wednesday, July 13, 1892. 
Prunes, Tragedy 1 00 @ 1 25 

Do German 85 @ 1 OU 

Plums, Duane's 

Purple 70 @ 1 00 

Peara, Dear bo' ns 

SeedUng 50 (« 1 00 

Do Bartlett.... 1 UO @ 1 50 

Apricots, pr boi 40 m 65 

do, peril) .... li ft? IJ 

Beuts, sk - (<{ 1 OU 

Carrots, ak 

Okra, diy, lb..., 

Do green 

farbaips, ctl. ... — (& I 
Peppers, dry, lb 

Do green, box.. 50 @ 1 25 

luruips, ctl 60 

Cabbage, 100 lbs 40 ^ SO 

GarUc, lb 2 @ 3 

Squash, Sum, bz 20 «« 36 

Tomatoes, box. 40 (A 76 

Peas, green, sk. 50 @ 1 75 

String Beans.. 2 4 

Ououmhers, box 50 M 75 

do Pickle 60 @ 75 

Mushrooms .... 30 C4 SO 
Egg Plant, bx.. 1 00 @ 1 SO 
Green Com, sk. -ft* — 

Do sweet $ sack 75 O 1 00 

DoswtBay^dz IS @ 20 

Continued on next pa^e. 


f ACIFie f^URAb f RESS. 

Jolt 16 1892 

Live Stock. 


8UU fed 

Onwafed, extr» ^^ 

First quality *iS 

Beoond goallty * ® 

Third quality Siffl 

BuUi uid thin Com.. .3 (e 

lUnge, heavy 4 f 

Do Ught 5 a 

Dairy « ® - 





Light, » lb. ceotB. . 



9 @- 
8|@ - 

Medium 63 g 

Heavy 5,w - 

Soft Jl^ - 

Feeden ?•? ~ 

Stock Ho«B. 3m — 

Grain and Wool Bags. 

JpATROJ^ S Of ]E iuSBAJ>IPgy. 

The Secretary's Column. 

By A. T. DiwBV, Seeretary State Orange of California. 


The following resolution by J. V. Web- 
ster was adopted at the last session of the 
State Grange: 

Whereas, There is great diversity of opinion 
among the several Orders and Associations in this 
Slate, seeking redress of grievances, as to subjects 
which should be made prominent issues, and as to 
the methods which should be used to secure actual 
results; therefore be it 

Resolved. By California State Grange, that the 
Worthy Master appoint a committee of five to con- 
fer with similar committees, which are, or may be 
hgreafter appointed by reform associations or in- 
dustrial unions, to the end that a joint agreement 
may be reached and joint action taken in the ad- 
vocacy and support of a few of the most vital is- 
sues, which, at the present time, confront the people 
of this S'.ate. 

The committee appointed by Worthy 
Master Davis is as follows: J.V.Webster. 
C. W. Norton, S. T. Coulter, Chas. Wood 
and J. H. McKune. A meeting was held 
some time since, as. before mentioned in our 

Grimes.— By request of Worthy Master 
Davis, Past Master Coulter attended the 
meeting of Grimes Grange last week. 

New Hope Grange Charter, No. 301, 
has been duly signed by the Master and 
Secretary and forwarded to New Hope. 

VisALiA Grange is holding meetings 
regularly during harvest season with fair at- 
tendance, we are informed by Secretary In- 
gram. Business seems fair at Tulare City, 
with farming prospects improving, on ac- 
count of increased and reliable water supply 
for irrigating. 

the grange and politics. 

Leonard Rhone, Master of Pennsylvania 
State Grange, and member of the Executive 
Committee of the National Grange, one of 
the foremost leaders of the Grange in the 
nation, one year ago gave the following ex- 
cellent statement of the Grange position in 

" There seems to be some misapprehension in the 
minds of many good people concerning the attitude 
ol the Grange on political questions. This misap- 
prehension grows out of the fact that the Order of 
Patrons of Husbandry is severe in its denunciation 
of partisan action, and some, reasoning from wrong 
premises, conclude that therefore the Grange is 
also nonpolitical. The mistake or misapprehension 
is quite natural to those who cannot distinguish be- 
tween partisan or political action, Partisanship 
works tor the success of party, and subordinates 
everything to the triumphs of party, while political 
action keeps steadily in view the advantages to be 
derived from good laws, honestly administered. 

" When an individual becomes a Patron of Hus- 
bandry, he does not divest himself of the sacred 
duties of citizenship, but rather elevates bis standard 
of patriotism, so that instead of aorking solely for 
the success of party, be now labors for the good of 
the entire country. Partisan action is no longer 
congenial, because antagonistic to the principles 
which underlie good government. No Patron who 
is true to himseil, true to the principles of the Order 
and true to his country, can fail to take a lively in- 
terest in all political struggles, because it is on the 
result of these contests that the future prosperity of 
the farmers depends. The Patron is derelict in 
duty, and false to the high prerogatives of citizen- 
ship, who does not use all honorable means to se- 
cure the election of honest, competent and faithlul 
men to positions of honor and emolument. 

" It is not claimed that an individual should, on 
becoming a Patron, break with his old party, nor is 
such action desirable. But every meral)er of the 
Order should seek to puriiy the party with which he 
stands identified; should do all in his power to put 
down bribery and corruption ; should turn out to the 
primary elections and see that only good, true, in- 
telligent men are sent as delegates to the nomi- 
nating conventions, so that his parly may place on 
the ticket only the names of men for public offices 
whose integrity and capability are at>ove suspicion. 

" If the political parly with which a Patron has 
hitherto acted refuses to yield to these just and 
proper demands and persistently carries out the 
mandates of the political boses, nominates dishon- 
est and incompetent men for public positions, it is 
the duty of the true Patron to stand loyally by the 
principles of the Order, and to sever his allegiance 
to his party. To support men for public office who 
are known to be incompetent or untrustworthy, be 
cause the party has placed them in nomination, is 
partisanship; to ignore party ties, to put love of 
country above love of party, to put devotion to good 
government above fealty to party is to exemplify the 
highest order of patriotism, and is carrying out in 
the right spirtt the principles of the Grange. 

" The Order is nonpartisan, and while no Grange 

has the right to discuss party or partisan questions, 
everv Grange has the right to discuss all questions 
which in any way affect the interests of those en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits, and to investigate 
both the principles and characters of those who are 
candidates for public office. It is only by this 
means that our membership can act intelligently, or 
arrive at a knowledge of the truth. 

" It is a misapprehension to say that the Grange 
is nonpolitical, or to assert that the members take 
no part in political contests. To admit that would 
be to confess that we were derelicit in the discharge 
of the duties of citizenship and deficient in patri- 

" It is evident that in the future the power of the 
Order will be invoked in the support of purer poli- 
tics and better men for office, and the political 
party which in the coming contest fails to honor 
the agricultural people by placing a farmer on the 
State ticket, commits a serious blunder and greatly 
impairs its prospects of success. The Order of 
Patrons of Husbandry will stand by its colors, will 
endeavor to do for its members what other Orders 
do for those who belong to them. It will take no 
partisan action, will war against no political party, 
but will unalterably and determinedly oppose the 
election of incompetent and untrustworthy men to 
positions of public trust. This action it will take in 
the interest of good government, and for the per- 
petuity of our institutions. The Grange is non- 
partis-in, but it is not and cannot be nonpolitical, 
so long as it is true to the highest duties ol Amer- 
ican citizenship." 

Petaluma Grange.— Brother and Sister 
Winans of this Grange visited us Wednes- 
day. They reported a very pleasant picnic 
and camp meeting of Sonoma county 
Granges on the ocean beach last week. 
Friday, Children's Day, was specially en- 
joyed. The other days were occupied with 
hunting, fishing, bathing, visiting, etc. 
Each evening, musical and literary exercises 
were held. Petaluma Grange prospects 
are good. Two candidates recently joined 
and more are coming. Regular meetings 
are held at i :3o p. m. on the second and 
fourth Saturdays of the month, at K. of P. 
Hall. The Grange will soon have new 
badges and songbooks. 

Eden Grange. — Past Master Hollister 
has been ill from neuralgia. Sister Hollister 
reports interesting meetings of the Grange. 
The " Rustler," a manuscript paper read 
at each meeting, adds decided interest. 
Last Saturday, Judge Blackwood gave his 
views as to how the McKinley Bill affects 
the interests of farmers, etc. 

Past Master Steele of Pescadero vis- 
ited San Francisco this week. Pescadero 
Grange has rented the I. O. O. F. Hall by 
the year, it having recently been enlarged 
and improved. The Grange expects to oc- 
cupy it soon, having a class of applicants to 
be initiated. 

Agrionltnral Fairs. 

state Fairs. 

state. place and sec'v. date. 

Oregon, Salem, J. T. Gregg Sept. 12-17 

California, Sacramento, Edwin F. Smith. Sept. 5-17 

Washington, Spokane Sept. 19-24 

Nevada, Reno, C. H. Stoddard 

Western Washington Industrial Exposition, Taco- 


District Fairs. 
NO. place and sec y. date. 

1 — Oakland Aug. 8-13 

2 — Stockton 

3— Chico, J. D. Sproul Aug, 23 27 

4 — Petaluma, Dr. Thos. Macleay 

5— Santa Clara. George H. Bragg . .Sept 26-0i;t i 

6 — Los Angeles 

7— Salinas City, J. J. Kelley 

8— Placerville, Thos. Fras«r Aug. 23-27 

9 — Rohnerville 

10— Yreka, C, S, Smith Oct. 5-8 

tl — Sierraville, Fred Blinman Oct, 3-7 

12 — Lakeport, H. A. McCraney Sept. 27,001. i 

13— MarysviUe, G. R. E^kart Aug. 38-Sept. 3 

14— Santa Cruz, Oscar L. Gordon 

15— Bakersfield. J. J. Kelly 

16— San Luis Obispo, J. M. Barrett 

17— • L J. Rolfe Aug. 23-28 

18— Independence, C. W. Craig Sept. 27-30 

19— Santa Barbara, H. B. BarstoW 

20 — Auburn, F. D. Adams Aug. 30-Sept. 3 

2t — Fresno, J. M. Reuck 

22— Escondido, G. M. Dannals Sept. 21-24 

23— Concord, F. L. Loucks 

25— Napa, D. L. Hackett Aug. 22-27 

26 — lone, C. T. La Grave Sept. 27-30 

27 — Redding, H. R. Hodion 

28 — San Bernardino 

30— Red Bluff, H. R. Hook Aug. 17I20 

31— Hueneme, T. H. Merry 

32— Santa Ana, W. A. Beckett Oct 3-7 

33— Hollister, A. D.Shaw Oct. 11-15 

34— Susanville, C. E. Emerson Sept. 3-7 

35 — Merced 

36— Vallejo Aug. 27-30 

37— Lompoc, W. I. Nichols Sept. 20-23 

—Glenn Co. Willows, W. V. Freeman.. Aug. 9-13 
•■itock exhibit and races will be at Glenbrook, and 

pavilion exhibit at Nevada i^lty. 

o.r^220MARKET.ST.B T 

Auction Sales of California Fruits 

At New York. 

July 6.— Two carloads: Apricots »1.10@2 30; 
Peacties, $1.26@2.56; Tragedy Prunes, »3.75@4.25; 
Abundance Plums, S2.50; Figs, $2,37, Gross sale of 
two cars, «3368. 

July 6.— One carload: Alexander peaches, St. 86® 
L80; Hale's Early peaches, *1.30@1. 80; Royal apricots, 

July 7.— One carload: Peach plums, 83.80 to »4 15; 
Cherry plums, «1.65; Alexander Peaches, 81.65^»2.30; 
Royal apricots, 90c@«1.50. 

July 8.— Refrigerator car No. 16,.'!66; Royal Apri- 
cots sold for«l®2 05 Alexander Peaches «1.35@2 15; 
Hale's Early Peaches. *1.S0@2.16; Koyal Hative Plums, 
«1.87@2 87; Figs, $l.85ci'i25. Gross sale, $1723. 

Refrigerator car No. 16,3.4. Royal Apricots, 81.10 
20; Hale's Early Peaches, 81. :i6w'2; Royal Hative 
f-lums. $2 62; Peach Plums, $2 37@4.12; average, ^; 
TrSKedy Prunes, $3.37(g)3.50; tilmoul Prunes in boxes, 
$2.87; half crates Simonl Prunes, io.60; Comet Pears, 
8i; higs. 82.10 Gross sale, $2150. 

Refrigerator car. No. 16,062. Apricots, 9.')C®*2; 
Hale'B Early Peaches,; Alexander Peaches, 
Sl.tyiQl.SO; Royal Hative Plums, $2.2,5@2 37; Figs, 
82.15; St. Catherine Plums. $2.50. Gross snle, Si654. 

Refrigerator car No. 16,322. Apricots, $1.0x1*1.55; 
Hale'.s Early, 81 65@1. 85; Alexander Peaches, $1 iWg) 
2.20; Beurre Gifford Pears, tl 75 per crate; Bartlett 
Pears, lH.6-2@6; Peach Plums. *5.37; Royal Hative 
and Purple Liuane Plums. $2.5u; 'Pragedy Prunes, 
83.12@S.62; Black Hamburg Grapes, $2.25; Sweetwater 
Grapes, $1.62. Gross, 947 packases, $2752. 

July 9.— Two carloads: Royal Apncots. 81®1.65; 
Hale'e Karly Peaches, $1.45@3 2U; Alexander Peachi s 
81.06@2.U5; St. John Peaches, 81.40®2 06; Bartleti 
Pears, half boxes, 81.65®!. 75, whole boxes, 83.37® 
4.25; Royal Hative Plums, $2.27®2.75; Figs, 82 62; 
Brigg's May Peaches. $1.S0 per box; Bloodguod Pears: 
83.12; Peach Plums, $2.87®3.25; Royal Anne Cherries, 
83; Cherry Plums, $2.25. 

Julv y,— Two carloads: Alexander Peaches, 81.75; 
Royal Apricois, 81.05@1 40. 

July 12.— Two carloads: Hales Early Peaches sold 
for $1.10®1.80; Gov. Garland Peaches arrived in bad 
condition, 10@70c >« box; Pe^ch Plums, $2 30®3; 
Tragedy Prunes, $2.s0; Koenig Claude Plums, 82.05; 
Apricots, 85c@$2.50; Moorpark Apricots, $1. 

July 11.— Two carloads: Two hundred and eighty- 
eight boxes of cherries sold lor au average of $3.15 
per box, or 36c per pound. Bartl' tt Pears, $3.60®3.66; 
Trageay Prum s. $3.a'>@3.15; Pt'ach Plums, 82.10®3 05; 
Alexander Peaches, *l.75®1.86; Hale's l':arly Peaches, 
*1.40@1.80; Pesch Apricots, $1.25@1.33; Ro}alAprl- 
cou. 6ec®$1.35. 

July 11.— One carload: Apricots, 86c(a$l.60; Peaches, 
$l,95(d2.3i; Pears. $3 60®3,87: Royal Hative Plums, 
$2.12®2.60; Peach Plums. $3@3 50: Cherry Plums, 
$1.76; Tragedy Prunes, $3.50®3 62. Car sold for $2633 

At Chicago. 

July 6.— Three carloads: Royal Apricots, 81.20® 
1.45; Alexander Peaches, $1.20®1.80; Royal Hative 
Plums, $1.70; Tragedy PruLes, 83.'20; Peach Pinms. 
83.26®3.fiO: Bartlett Pears, $3.45®3 65; Beurre Gifford 
Pents in crates, $1 65. . 

July 7 —Two carloads: Plums $2.90@S 26; Tragedy 
Prunes, $2.65@3 15; Koyal Hative Plums, 82 80; Apri- 
cots, 81.35®L70; St John Peaches, $1.80®3; Hale's 

Early Peaches, 81.6O®2.40; Figs, tl.40@1.4S; Grapes, 

July 8 —Two carloads: Bartlett Pears, $3.65@3.60; 
Peach Plums, $i86®3.60; Tragedy Piunee, 83.16; 
Alexander Peaches, 81.76; Hale's Early Peaches, 81® 
2.65; McKevitt's Early Peaches, 82.10®2.60; Royal 
Apricots. 81 55<ai.60; Moorpark Apricots, $1.9j;Slmonl 
Plums, 85.10; jllkado Plums, $3 50; Royal Hative 
Plums, $®2.60; Pedro Plums. $2.10: Figs. $1.65. 

Juiy 9.— One carload; Bartlett Pears, 83.5e®S.7&; 
Tragedy Prune.', *3 30; Peach Plums, $3.05@3.30; some 
small. $2 50@2.90; Puiple Duaue Plums, 83- Simoui 
Prunes, 8515; Black Republican Cberiles, 82.60; Royal 
Anne cbtr les, 82.35®a.a0;;Uale s Early Peacbes;82.06; 
Royai Apiicot- , 81.30®1.60 

One carload: Alexander Peaches averaged 82. 
Royal Apricots, 81.40@1.60; average 81.55 per crate. 

One carload: Royal Apricots, average of $1.53 per 
crate for the entire car. 

July 9 —Three carloads: Bartlett Pears, 83.65: Pur- 
ple Duaue Plums. $2.80: Peach Plums, $-2.75^3; 
Tragedy Prunes, $3 0.5®3.40; Alexauder Peaches, 
$1 00®2.4(l; Royal Apricois, $1.45®1 90; Royal Hative 
Plums. 82.50®3; Hale's Early Peaches, 8l.70@2.10; St. 
John Peaches, Ji 80®2.'25. 

July 11.— Four carloads; Bartlett Pears, 88.10@3.C5; 
half boxes, 81.40; Peaches, $1 50®2.50; Apricois, 90c 
©81.80; Plums, 82®* 35; Tragedy Prunes. *3.25@3.60; 
German Prunes, $2.75; Peach Plums, $2.55®3; St. 
John Peaches, 8l.65@2.'25; Hale's Early Peaches, 

July 11.— Two carloads: Peach Plums, $2.65®3; 
Royal Hative Plums, $2.50; Early Crawford Peaches. 
$2@2 25; Hale's Eaily Peaches. 8l.45<a2; Alexander 
Penchen, small. $19>; Royal Apricots, S1.35®1.55; 
Moorpark Apricois. $1.05®! 45. 

July 12.— Two carloads; Bartlett Pears, $3.78; Trag. 
edy prunes, $3.56; Peach Plums, $2.94; P. D. Plums, 
$2 72; Cherries, $2 45; Hale's Early Peaches, 81.95; 
Peach Apricots. $1.60; Hoorpaik Apricots, $1.43; 
Royal Apricots, $1 32. 

July 12.— Four carloads: Bartlett Pears. $3.60; Ap- 
ricots, $1.60@1.7u; Hale's Early Peaches, $1.75®1.86; 
Tragedy I'ruues. 83fci(<.25; Ickworth Plums, 82.70; St. 
John Peaches, $1.80®2.60; Klgs, $1.25®!, 86; Royal 
Hative Plums, 82.60@2 90. 

At Minneapolis. 

July 7.— Car No. 16,.5:«): Peaches, $1.60@1.80; Apri- 
cots, very ripe, 8.75®1.!6; Plums, $2.40. 

July 7.— One carload: Royal Hative Plums, 82.26® 
3; Peaoh Plums, 82.2.5®3: Hale's Early Peaches, 81.60; 
Koyal Apricots, 81.2"@1.26. 

At Boston. 

July 6 —One carload: Koyal Apricots averaged 
81.23; Alexander Peaches, $l.96;Tragedy Prunes, 84.76 
Royal Hative Plums, 82.75. 

July 7.— Car No. 1",336: Royal Apricots sold to 
average 81 59; Alexander Peaches, $2 01, 

July 8— One carload: St. Catherine Plums, $3.85, 
Royal Hative Plums, 83; California Figs. 82.50; Hale's 
Early Peaches, $1 8.5®2.:i6; Alexander Peaches, 81.60 
®2.60; Royal ApncoU, $l.30@l 50. 

July 9.— Car No. 16,58«: Royal Apricots sold to 
average 81 37; Peaches, $2.19; Peach Plums, 83 98; 
Royal Hative Plums, 8> 66, 

July 11 —Two carloads: Bale's Early Peaches, 
82 10@2.'20; Strawberry Peaches, 82; Alexander 
Peaches. 81.85®2.10: Royal Apricots, 81.25@1.36; Cali- 
fornia Figs, 81.45 

At Omaha. 

July !!.— Car No. 10,656: Peaches, Jl.5<t®l.75; Ap- 
ricots, 81. 40®LGO; Plums, $2@2 50. 





This Is the Standard Work on tbe Raisin Industry In California. It has been 
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IT 13 EXCELLKNT. 1 1' IS CHEAP. It Droloui^n the life of wood at least 100^. 

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f AClFie f^URAlD f RESS, 


Sponge-Propagating. — The United 
States Government is considering the advis- 
ability of establishing a sponge-propagating 
station in Florida waters. The Florida 
sheep's wool sponge is extremely durable 
and valuable. Sponge-fishing has been car- 
ried on to such an extent that the Govern- 
ment finds it necessary to take some step to 
prevent the destruction of the industry. 
This industry began about the year 1852. 
Some 250 vessels, employing nearly 2000 
men, are now actively engaged in creating 
the annual revenue of nearly $1,000,000. 
Sponges are found in the Atlantic as far 
north as Jupiter inlet. The industry at St. 
Mark's, at the head of the Apalachicola, 
comoetes sixth in rank with Key West. 
Most of the output goes to New York, about 
one-third being exported to Germany, 
France and Ireland. 

Oar Agents. 

J. C. HoAO— San Francisco. 

R. G- Bailky— San Francisco. 

Geo. Wilson— Sacramento, Cal. 

Samuel B. Cliff— Creston, Cal. 

MBS. Bruce B. Lee— Tehama Co. 

B. H. ScHAEFELE— Calaveras and Tuolumne Co'e. 

R O Huston — Mnntana 

CHA8. E. TowNSEND— Sierra and Nevada Cos, 

A. C. GODrBEY— Oregon. 

J. M. ISRAEL— Monterey Co. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are requested to 
examio its ooDtents, terms of subscription, and give It 
their own patronage, and as far as practicable, aid In 
olrculatlng the journal, and making its value more 
widely known to others, and extending its Influence In 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription, paid in ad- 
vance, 6 mos., $1; 10 mos., $2; 15 mos., $3. Extra copies 
mailed for 10 cents, if ordered soon enough. If already 
a subscriber, please show the paper to othe.s. 


Bowens Academy, 

UnlTsrglty Ave., Berkeley. 


Special university preparation, depending not on time, 
but on progress in studies. 
T. a. BOWENS. M. A.. Head Master. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical. 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Sorveylng, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying, 
Open All Tear. 
A. VAN DER NAILLEN, President. 
Assaying of Ores, 83S; Bullion and Chlorlnatlon Assaj 
(38; Blowpipe Assay, $10. Full course of assaying, 160 
ESTABLISHED 18«4 ta" Send for circular. 


24 POST ST., S. P. 

* College Instructs In Shorthand, Typewriting, Book, 
keeping. Telegraphy, Penmanship, Dravriog, all the 
English branches, and everything pertaining to business 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school hu 
Its graduates Id every part of the State, 

E. P. HEALD, President. 

C. & HALET, Secretary. 


On Brit class country real estate, in sums of 16000 and 
o vcr. Give full particulars. Address 

464 Ninth Street, - Oakland, Oal. 


The German Sayings anil Loan Society, 

526 California Street. 

dividend has been declared at the rate of five and 
one-lenth (S 1-10) per cent, per annum on Term Deposits, 
and four and one-quarter (4}) per cent, per annum on 
Ordinary Deposits, payable on !lnd after FRIDAY, July 
1, 1882. GEO. TOURNY, Secretary. 

J. F. HouoHTON, President, J. L. N. Sbepard, Vioe-Pres. 
Ohah. R. Btory, Sec'y, K. H. Magill, Oen. Ag't. 

Home Hatoal InsoraDce Company, 

M. E. Cor. Calironla and SaBsome fita.. 

IHOOKPORATXD A. D. 1864. a»u FraaelMO. 

lioaaes Paid Since Organization $3,175,759 11 

Asneta, Januan 1, 1891 867,513 19 

(tapltal Paid Vp In Gold 300,000 DO 

■mtT «TmPT,tfS o»(ir «T«r»thlnB 178 SN U 

On a y f* r a Practical Treatise by T. A. Oarey 

n A ll U L K'viOK the results of long experl- 

■ I n I* M b ,Q Southern California. IM 

^111 Timr pages, cloth bound. Sent postpaid 

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IfUkl V'l^ DEWET PUB. CO., 220 Market, si*. 




mdbsx:rii!:8: menlo park, oal. 

8WKET PEA SEED FREE— We will mail, free, a packet of Mixed Pea Seed 
(our own growing) to each person who will send us the names and addresses of ten peo- 
ple who have gardens and are interested in flowers. 

CALLA LILY BULBS WANTED.— Write us stating Quantity 
and Price. 

Have you a Plant or Fern in }'our home ? If not, send for some. We have choice 




Also Fine Stock of Shade and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Palms, Roses and Carnations. 


Correspondence Solicited. 




The Benoit Corrui^ated Rollers. 


This Mill hag been in nse on this Coast for 10 years, 


Four years in succession, and has met with general favor, 
there now being 

Over 250 of them in use in California, Nevada and Oregon. 

It is the most economical and durable Feed Mill in use. 
I am sole manufaoturer of the Corrugated Roller Mill. The Mills are all 
ready to mount on wagons. 

Graibland, Butts Co., Cal., June 9, 1887. 
Mr. M. L Mbrt— Dear Sir: We have used one No. 2 
Koller Barley Crusher now for eight years and have used 
it steady during that time; have crushed 45 tons a day 
and the Crusher is as good to-day as when it came out of 
your shop. I am satisfied that it Is the best mill made. 
You may reconstruct this testimonial to the best advan- 
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rate the merits of your mill. F. E. REAM, 


Ddrham, May 21, 1887. 
Mr. M. L. Msrt — Dear Sir: In reply to yours of the 
19th, would say that I crushed from two to two and a 
half tons per hour, but coulJ crush three and a half toes 
If my elevators were large enough to carry the barley 
from the machine. The No. 1 machine I used at Gridley 
was run on a sack a minute, and if we got bthind we 
could run through live tons an hour and do good worli. 
The machine I use here is a No. 2. Yours, 


I thank the public for their kind patronage received thus far, and hope for a continuance of the same. 

M. L. MERY, Chico Iron Works, Chico. Cal. 





Machinery and Information 
for Irrigating Plants 
of All Sizes. 


Address Works, First & Stevenson St(„ 


Send for book'showing cheap Irrigation, mailed 

Second Edition— Now Beady. 

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A practical, explicit and compri henslve hook enibodyioi! 
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PILES and all Rectal Dis- 
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SEASON 1892-3. 

Warranted free from all disease, true to name, and 
home grown. 

Nurseries at Napa, near R. R. Depot. Residence of 
proprietor at Sausal Fruit Farm, 4| miles north of Napa. 




This is the last year of importing Choice TAHITI 
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Sewing MacMoes. 

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Running, Uost Durable and Com- 

Visitors always welcome, 


948 Sc 945 MAKKBT ST.. S. P. 


"Oroonbank" 98 degrees POWDERED OAUSTIO 
SODA (tests 99 8-10 per cent) recommended by the 
highest authorities in the State. Also Common Caustlo 
Soda and Potash, etc., for sale by 

Manufacturers' Agents, 
No. 5 MARKET ST., - San Franclsoo. 


Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 
ing, EleotrotjplDg and Stereotyping 
promptly attended to at this «fflo«. 



July 16 

The Old Reliable Peter Schuttler Wagon 


Il\r TEC 33 


This represents the very latest >nd tbe most important improvement that has ever been effected in metal-axle 

The cut shows its application to the popular " National Tubular axles," in which it entirely surcrcedes the 
grooved wooden axle-stnok, and in its stead Insures an even bearing, as well as a Arm, direct, and POSITIVE 
CONNECTION between bnlsterand axle. 

The Improvement consists of the patent reinforcing sleeve driven on to each end of the axle by bydratilic 
pressure. These sleeves hnve two flat-hearing surfaces or " stools " on top of each, to which the ends of the hind 
holster (and eaodhoard on front gear^ are firmly clipped, thus reinforcing the strength of the axle by that of tbe 
bolster. By this arrangement the weight of the load, instead of resting on tbe center of tbe axle, is transferred 

out to the shoulder of tbe wheel, and tbe leverage of the axle bmng thus reduced, the carrying strength Is multi- 
plied In like jatio. A further resu't of this comninatioo is that the parts are thus united upon the TRUE PRIN- 
CIPLE OF THE TRI'SS, an bolster and axle fupport each other reciprocally by resisting strains from any dlrac- 
tion. An absolutely rigid connection Is further insured by means of a ilowcl-pin at the oentcr of each " table" or 
** stool," passing up into the hound and bolster. 

No improvement has ever met with such unanimous approval as this, since It places the Tubular Axle upon tbe 
market In an entlrel} new form, and one that oommends it«elf at first sighv. it combines the well-known prin- 
ciples of a "stool collar " with the inherent merits < f the Tubnlar Axle, and, in fact, biings out the real advantage! 
cf the latter for the first time since its introduction upon the wagon market 



OOO Axxd 307 lVIa.rlJLot Strcot, Setzi. Fr>£iXi.ciaco. 






From September 5tli to 17th. 

California's Capabilities are Beyond Comparison. Let Not Apathy Prevent Their Being Exhibited. 
The State has Appropriated Over $5000 for Premiums for Soil Productions. 

REMEMBER THAT THE GREAT COLUMBIAN WORLD'S FAIR opens in May of next year. Hence, all agricul- 
tural exhibits must be collected this year. 

The State Board of Agriculture stands ready to assist the producer, and by gathering your exhibits and showing them at home at 
the State Fair, you can take advantage of the cash awards to assist you in the good work. All exhibits shown at the State Fair will 
be kept free of storage until their removal. BEGIN WITH HARVEST 

MERCHANTS AND PROPERTY-OWNERS in each county are interested as much as the farmer, and should lead in the 

Do not overlook the chance of getting money to remunerate you. right here at home; it is to be given away at the State Fair of 
1892^ Come and get some of it. FREDERICK COX, President. 

Send for Premium Lists. EDWIN F. SMITH, Secretary. 

Vol. XLIV. No. 4. 


Office, 220 Market St. 

A Glimpse at Hydraulic Mining. 

The fact that the House of Representatives has this 
week passed a bill providing ways in which hydraulic 
mining may be carried on, and prohibiting it when not 
thus pursued, will reawaken the interest of our readers in 
the subject. The bill is considered morally certain to pass 
the Senate, and when its course is complete, we will give 
an outline of its provisions. Present reference to it will 
add to the inter- 

as high-water mark, and stood the big winter when all the 
other bridges in the region went out. This bridge alone 
cost $36,000. 

The bedrock ditch on the high bar is 45 feet. The cut 
M 1344 feet long from the dump to the head of the ditch. 
The engraving gives a good view of this bedrock ditch and 

We have reproduced from photographs made by E. H. 
Benjamin, son of the manager of the mine, a few charac- 

est inhering in the 
views we present 
on this page. Read- 
ers outside of the 
hydraulic regions 
have perhaps little 
idea of the way in 
which this kind of 
mining, which has 
in the past wrought 
such injury to our 
rivers and valley 
lands, is carried on. 
To such, the fol- 
lowing statements 
will be acceptable. 

The mine, of 
which some of the 
features are shown, 
is located in Trin- 
ity county, Cali- 
fornia. It com- 
prises some 1100 
acres of mining 
land. The bank of 
the low bar runs 
from 25 to 150 feet, 
and on the upper 
bar from 100 to 200 
feet in depth. It 
was originally 
opened as a drift 
mine a number of 
years ago, but the 
claim was very 
rocky indeed, and 
in 1872 Mr. E. M. 
Benjamin, the 
present general 
manager and su- 
perintendent, went 
up there to bring 
in the water from 
the head of Canyon 
creek. He built a 

ditch and flume some nine miles long, with a capacity of 
2000 miners' inches. In order to get the pipe on to the 
claim, it was brought across the Trinity river on a suspen- 
sion bridge. The largest pipe that comes from the pres- 
sure tank|down to the bridge is 22 inches in diameter, and 
runs into an IS inch pipe. On the claim are six Giants, 
two of them nine inches in diameter, one of seven, one six, 
one five and one four. 

At this mine they strip from six to ten acres of bedrock 
a year. The gold obtained is coarse, cucumber-seed gold. 
The bridge for bringing the pipe across the river was built 
under considerable difficulty. It is 350 feet span, with a 
12-foot pressure. The cables are five inches in diameter, 
made of 1050 strands of No. 10 Bessemer steel wire. The 
cables weigh 11 tons each, and had to be made on the 
ground, because they could not be carried over the mount- 
ains. The towers for the cables are made of hewn timbers 
of sugar pine. The bridge is 84 feet above what is known 

He Says We Don't Know Alfalfa. 

A writer in the Field and Farm of Denver begins an 
article in this way: " While the writer was in California 
lately he was surprised to find how little the farmers there 
knew about the cultivation of alfalfa. All of them whom 
he talked with, expressed a desire to know more about 
the methods of cultivation in Colorado." Then follow a 
few remarks on how they do it in Colorado, which advises 

sowing immediate- 
~~ ly after the last 

snow, etc. If the 
Californian should 
followsuch instruc- 
tions he would nev- 
er get his seed in 
the ground. 

But it is rather 
rich for Colorado 
to say Californians 
do not know about 
alfalfa. We would 
like to know what 
part of the State 
the writer was in. 
That might ex- 
plain his sayings 
for there are re- 
gions where alfal- 
fa does not suc- 
ceed as well as 
other forage plants 
and consequently 
little attention is 
paid to it. But to 
charge the State 
of California with 
not knowing 
fa is laughable. 
Why, youngster, 
California had al- 
falfa as a leading 
forage crop before 
Colorado was born 



teristic features of this claim. One of the nozzles shown 
is the largest in the State — a 9-inch one. The smaller, 6- 
inch nozzle, under the pressure of 500 feet, will discharge 
1375 miners' inches of water (15,500 gallons) per minute, 
at a velocity of 175 feet per second. This means about 
one ton of water each second hurled against the bank with 
a velocity of two miles a minute. This stream is capable 
of exciting a force of six tons, and doing an amount of 
work nearly equal to 2000 horse power. With the 9-inch 
nozzle, proportionately greater results are obtained. 

Even the brief statements made will show that consider- 
able capital must be invested in a fully equipped hydraulic 
mine to work it properly. The water supply must be 
abundant, and the reservoirs, ditches, flumes, etc., neces- 
sary to bring it to the mine are very expensive. 

The Tomales Creamery, Marin county, is ♦urning out 
daily about 900 pounds of cheese and 500 pounds of butter. 

, Regretted 
We regret that re- 
cent reports from 
Sacramento indi- 
cate that W. R. 
Strong & Co., the 
well-known fruit 
shippers and nur- 
serymen, have been 

unable to recover from their troubles of last year, and 
are unable to proceed with their business this season. It 
is claimed that their assets, if well handled, will meet their 
liabilities: but as their credit is impaired, they cannot se- 
cure the advances necessary to continue business. It is a 
misfortune that such an old and reputable firm should be 
obliged to withdraw, and we hope it may only be temporary. 

The Raisin Abrangbment. — A report upon another 
page shows that the raisin producers at their meeting last 
Saturday successfully passed the critical moment in their 
effort at organization, and, with agreement of a capable 
body of packers, decided upon a minimum price. There 
is still very important work to be done in building up 
the organization so that it includes 95 per cent of both 
the growers and packers, as well as in other directions, 
i'he fullest cooperation of all raisin-producing regions is 
courted. The afiair has a very promising look about it. 



JuLT 28, 18d^ 


By The Dewey Publishing Co. 

Ofice, 220 Market St.; Elevator, 12 F^ont St., San I^ancisco., Col. 

Annual SrHscBiprioN Rate Three Dollars a ye»r. While this notice 
•ppears, kll aiibacribers pkying i3 in kdvance will receive IS mouths' (ooe year 
and 13 weelul credit. For S2 In advance, 10 months. For $1 in advance, live 
mouths. Trial subscriptions for three months, paid In advance, each 60 cents. 

1 Week. 1 Month. 

Per Line (agate) $ .25 $ .50 

Half Inch (1 square 1.00 2.60 

One Inch 1.60 6.00 

LarKe advertisements at favorable rates. Spi cial or reading notices, legal 
%dvertisements, notices appearing in dxtraordinury ty|>e. or in particular parts 
the paper, at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a mouth. 

S Months. 1 Year, 

t 1.20 i 4.00 

6.50 32.00 

13.00 42.00 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Registered at S. F. Post Office as second-class mall matter. 

ANY subscriber sending an inquiry on any subjnct to the Rural Fbess, with 
a pontage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the columns of the paper 
or by personal letter. The answer will be given as promptly as practicable. 

A.LirK£D HOJLMAM General manager 

Saturday, July 23, 1892. 


ILLUSTRATION.— Scenes In a Trinity County Hydraulic Mine, 61. 

EDITORIALS —A Glimpse at Hydraulic Mining; He Says We Don't 
Know Alfalfa, 61; The Week; Fruit Auctions in San Francisco; Tlie 
Fruit Situation; Miscellaneous, 62; From An Independent Stand- 
point, 63. 

CORRESPONDENCE. -Weather and Crop Bulletin; A New Freestone 

Peach, 64. 

HORTICULTURE —Fruit Packing and Picking, 65. 

FRUIT MARKETING.— An Old Calilornian Gives Advice, 66; Raisin 

Growers and Packers Agree Unou a Minimum, 67. 
THE D\IRY —A Progressive Establishment Near Marysville, 67. 
THE VINEYARD.— An Early Experience with Long Cuttings, 67. 
TRACK AND FARM.— Hambletonian s Monument, 68 
THE FIELD.— Oiiening the Season at the Chino Beet *ugarie, 68. 
ENTOMOLOGICAL.— Orange Insects in Tahiti; Kerosene Emulsion lor 

Lice; Cooking the Lime. Salt anl Sulphur Wash, 68 
THE HO.ME CIRCLE -Friendship: A Visit to Miss Hetty; Tom Was a 

Wise Man; The Spectre Wedding. 69; Thackery's Hearty Meal; Chaff; 

The Pope's Wit, 70 
YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.— Grandfather Longlegs Shedding HU Skin; 

In the Changing Monsoons, 70 
AGRICULTURAL NOTEL— From Various Counties of California, 71. 
PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— The Secre'arv's Column, Tl. 
POULTRY Y.ARD.— Bailee's Home- .Made Incubator; How to Select a 

Good Layer; Feeding, 71, 



Commission Merchants— Bray's Sons A; Co. 
Farmers' Protective Bureau. 
Carbolineum Avenarins — i uecke & Co. 
Horse Power— G. G. Wicbson & Co. 
Semi-Annual Statement- Grangers' Bank of California. 
JSB~ See Advertising Ocdumnt. 

The Week. 

The activity of the week clearly lies in fruit lines. A 
notable advance in values, as discussed elsewhere, is 
enough to accelerate all other things connected with the 
commodities involved, and so it does. Our contents this 
week reflect this fact. Two notably good letters on fruit- 
handling speak for themselves. The first through train of 
California fruit for English cities is an event of much mo- 
ment. The announcement of the first auction sale of fruit 
by growers in San Francisco is also novel and startling. 
The progress of the movement by which a minimum price 
for raisins is jointly fixed by growers and packers shows 
that our producers are beginning to understand themselves 
and the advantages thereof. Certainly there is enough in 
all this to occupy the scant time the producer has for read- 
ing during the busy season. 

We are unquestionably advancing rapidly in th« devel- 
opment of the horticultural resources of the State — quite 
as fast as we should, perhaps. Af ler a few more doubtful 
issues are determined, we shall be ready for the ereat ^ain 
in population which is promised us after the World's F«ir. 

Fruit-Picking and Packing. 

Our offer of prizes for letters on fruit-handling has not 
drawn out the response which we had hoped, because, 
doubtless, the pressure of the actual work has prevented 
its treatment upon paper. We hope this will not be also 
the case with the August subject, " fruit-drying," although 
we recognize the fact that midsummer duties render atten- 
tion to other things almost impossible. This fact should 
indicate the better field for those who are fortunate enough 
to have a little leisure. 

Though the letters on fruit- handling which we publish 
in this issue are not as numerous as we desired, we are 
glad to note that their character is eminently satisfactory, 
and the deductions from experience and observation will 
be interesting and suggestive to all engaged in the busi- 
ness. The awards are as follows: 

First prize, $10, to C. E, Williams of Yuba City. 

Second prize, $5, to Felix Foreman, Elmira. 

The points made in the letters which we publish else- 
where in this issue are all open to discussion, either at 
once or whenever our readers have leisure for such discus- 

Activity in Beans.— Beans evidently consider them- 
selves a kind of fruit, and are spurting in harmony with 
the movement in fruits. Our market review this week 
should be carefully read by bean growers. 

Fruit Auctions in San Francisco. 

Ever since the success of the auction plan of selling 
California fruit was demonstrated by the California Fruit 
Union in Chicago there has been discussion upon the 
practicability of employing the auction method in San Fran- 
cisco. The experience of producers in disposing of their 
products in this market through existing channels has 
been unsatisfactory for so long a time that the memory of 
man runneth not to the contrary. Investigations in the 
growers' interest have frequently been made and they 
have never done more than to show that the discontent 
among growers wa'< wider than had been supposed. Noth- 
ing in the way of remedy has been proposed except that 
in some way producers should undertake the distribution 
of their own fruit. Such a movement, though theoreti- 
cally advocated, has never been reduced to practical oper- 
ation, because of obvious difliculties which were clearly 
foreseen. The last impulse in this direction was put forth 
at the Marysville Convention last autumn, and it was 
hoped that something might be done this summer in the 
way of a growers' cooperative marketing enterprise. Such 
a work has not risen to view. 

The State Horticultural Society has discussed the auction 
method as applicable to San Francisco and has usually 
concluded that existing conditions did not favor it. It 
has been reserved for an enterprising community of grow- 
ers upon the Sacramento river to attack the proposition by 
a bold, resolute move. The way to resume is to resume, 
and the way to try the auction plan is to auction. This 
the Sacramento growers have resolved to do. There was a 
meeting of growers held at Walnut Creek last Satur- 
day. It was decided to hereafter sell fruits in San Fran- 
cisco at auction instead of the present way, by commission 
houses, and all signers of the agreement are to instruct 
their different commission men to turn over all fruits con- 
signed to them to P. Steinhagen, to be sold at auction to 
the highest bidder, eight per cent commission to be 
allowed on all sales, to be divided between the auctioneer 
and commission men as they may agree upon. This agree- 
ment was signed by a large number of growers, but it is 
for no specified time. The principal growers in the move- 
ment are said to be John Miller, T. W. Dean, P. Crew, G. 
A. Knott, William Johnston, L. D. Green, A. T. J. Rey- 
nolds, W. J, Smith, Sol Runyon, O. R. Runyon, Sperry 
Dye and Mrs. M. A. Jackson. 

This is in brief the way in which the venture has come 
about. How it will result can only be told by experiment. 
Next Monday at five a. m. the first auction will be held on 
the wharves where the fruit is brought by the Sacramento 
river boats. The movement is, of course, awakening the 
full opposition of the old fruit handlers, who are aghast at 
the thought of the innovation of selling fruit without 
draying it out to their sheds along Washington and Jack- 
son streets. Prediction is made of combination among 
jobbers and associations of retailers who will take the fruit 
at their own price on the block. Such things were freely 
talked also when the auction plan was mooted in Eastern 
cities. It is the natural conclusion of timid minds and of 
those who are interested in other procedure. The Sacra- 
mento growers are of a bolder sort. They know the losses 
and exactions to which they have been subjected in former 
years, and now that a sharp demand has arisen for the 
fruit they are now marketing, they propose to try a 
change. The conditions are most propitious to begin such 
a method. Too many people want the fruit to make it 
possible for them to peaceably combine and divide it. 
Each wants more than his share. It is just such a condi- 
tion of affairs which makes an auction quick and satisfac- 
tory. We admire the enterprise of the Sacramento growers. 
We hope and believe they will succeed, and, by so doing, 
they will not benefit themselves alone, but all producers 
of whatever cotnmodity comes to this market. 

The State Boabd of Horticulture. — This body 
held a regular meeting in this city on Tuesday of this 
week. The Secretary made a report upon the publication 
and quarantine work of the year, of which we shall 
give an outline at another time. The time for the next 
Fruit- Growers' Convention will be November 15lh to I8th, 
and the place, San Jose. The board elected officers for 
the ensuing year. Ellwood Cooper was reelected presi- 
dent of the board, Fred 0. Miles of Penryn treasurer, and 
J. L. Mosher of San Jose auditor. 

Fruit Pricks. — Our market review this week gives the 
current news concerning the shirp advance which has oc- 
curred in certain kinds of fruit now being marketed. 
Those who contracted apricots for li cents a month ago 
find their neighbors able to command twice as much by 
not selling too soon. The rise now recorded in certain 
fruits bids fair to exert a salutary influence during the 
balance of the season. The bears have lost their hold 
and the victims arise. 

The Fruit Situation. 

Those fruit growers who, during the pa^t few mouths, 
have given close attention to the market reports of the 
Rural Pbess, and have followed its suggestions, have 
cause for self-congratulation. Of all the market reporters 
of this city, the Rural was the only one which foresaw 
and foretold the shortage of the fruit crop east of the 
Rocky mountains. 

Not only was this information given, but it was supple- 
mented by the statement that the markets were cleaning 
up of dried fruit, and that by the time the 1892 product 
was ready for marketing, the surplus from the 1891 crop 
would be gone. That this position has been verified, events 
of the past few days fully establish. 

The prediction of a poor fruit crop at the East was 
formed on unfavorable weather conditions — late frosts and 
cool nights during the period of early bloom in the At- 
lantic coast States, and excessive rains, which robbed the 
blossoms of the pollen or beat off both bloom and young 
fruit, in portions of the Ohio and Missouri valleys. To 
this was added a drouth in the Delaware peninsula and 
increasing ravages of insects and blights. 

Of the small fruit at the East, blackberries are the full- 
est crop; currants are far from abundant, while strawber- 
ries, raspberries and gooseberries are a little over five- 
eights of a crop. Of the peach crop the small orchards of 
southern New England will give a full averaee yield, 
while in New York and in the Delaware peninsula it will 
be from 40 to 50 per cent of an average yield. Georgia has 
a very large peach crop, due to more trees coming into 
bearing and improved methods of cultivation. The Caro- 
linas have a short crop. In the Missouri valley States the 
yield will not reach much, if any, more than one-half of 
an average. The pear crop East does not promise more 
than 75 per cent of an average. The apple crop, last year, 
was an enormous one and admitted of heavy exporting, 
both green and dried, to Great Britain. This year it does 
not promise to be 60 per cent of an average crop. So far 
as present information points, there will be a large crop in 
Nova Scotia and nearly as good in Maine. In 
southern New England it will be poor. In New York 
it will be very poor, as it will be in Kansas, in the Ontario 
region across the lakes, in Ohio, Michigan, Missouri and 
Arkansas; but in Minnesota and the Northwest the crop 
promises to be fairly good. 

It is not at the East alone that the fruit crop will be 
very light, but mail advices, confirmed later by cables, re- 
port short crops in Great Britain and Germany. In the 
other European countries the crop, while promising to be 
larger than in the above two countries, will not be any- 
thing like an average. Probably the best evidence of this 
is the strong and higher markets at the East for imported 
prunes, raisins and other foreign dried fruits. 

The promise this year of a short fruit crop at the East 
sent buyers into the difierent distribution markets for 
canned fruits, and in a very short time the carry-over of 
the 1891 pack was under control. Eastern canners, finding 
that this year they would not be able to pack within 50 
per cent of their usual pack, withdrew from the market or 
else issued price lists at a high advance over those given 
out in July, 1891. In this, California canners have pur- 
sued the same course. 

The position of the RuEAL Press on the dried fruit 
situation has been as completely verified as has been its 
position on the crop. Our conclusions were based on the 
outlook favoring a very small crop of fruit at the East, 
and also that the enormous consumption induced by low 
prices during the season just closed would cause the mar- 
kets to be bare of the 1891 curing by July of this year. 
The very high prices which ruled during the season of 
1899-91 restricted the consumption and entailed heavy losses 
on tbose who had bought with the expectation of unload- 
ing before that season closed. In July, 1891, dealers from 
Omaha to New York, and even in the cities beyond New 
York, were loaded with the dried product of 1890. To add 
still further to their demoralization, the crop of green fruit 
in all sections was very large, larger than ever before pro- 
duced. Largely increased quantities had to be dried, which 
gave an enormous supply. This, owing to the conserva- 
tism of buyers, had to be worked off at low prices. Unneces- 
sarily low prices were madejust before and after the midwin- 
ter holidays, owing to a scare on the part of both buyers and 
sellers. The low prices placed the product within the 
reach of all, which, as stated above, resulted in the surplus 
going into consumption and the product of the 1892 cur- 
ing coming in on a bare and hungry market, with families 
at the East having less preserved fruits than for years, if 
ever before. This, of course, will conspire in promoting a 
demand from those who could have been content with what 
they had preserved. It does not require, we think, a further 
presentation of the favorable situation or of argument to 
prove that a higher range of values should exist during 
the next, 12 months, yet if they be forced to too high fig- 
ures, consumption will be restricted and the last holders 
meet with heavy losses. 

IJOLT 23. 1892 

From an Independent Standpoint. 

There is little change in the situation at Homestead, Pa., 
since our last writing. The steel works are in possession 
of the owners under protection of the S'ate troops, and 
preparations for resuming work are being made by a small 
force of non-union workmen, who are fed and lodged un- 
der guard within the enclosures. The strikers declare 
that they will not allow the mills to be operated by non- 
union men, and it is certain that they are only restrained 
from immediate violence by the presence of the troops. 
Strong as the guard is, it has not been considered safe to 
bring bodies of non-union men openly to the mills, and 
they have been smuggled in in small squads at night, or 
disguised as messengers or militiamen. Before work can 
be resumed in full force there must be more thousands in 
the mills than there are now hundreds, and it is doubted 
if they can be brought in without another fight. 
Thus the situation rests at Homestead. Very much 
nearer home, at Cceur d'Alene, Idaho, there is a 
condition of affairs closely similar. Some months 
ago the silver mines in the Coour d'Alene district 
shut down. Three weeks ago they undertook to resume 
work, but under a new scale of wages, substituting a rate 
of $3 per day for the former rate of $3.50, and explaining 
that the low price of the silver product made the cut 
necessary. There was immediate protest from the work- 
men; then a strike; then an attempt by the mine-owners to 
put in new and non-union men. The strikers then began a 
sort of guerrilla warfare. Ac several of the mines non-union 
men were shot down and others were waylaid on public 
roads and murdered. In several of the mines which the 
strikers took forcible possession of they laid magazines of 
dynamite and connected them with fuses, to destroy 
both life and property if they should be driven out. After 
the usual preliminaries, U. S. troops were sent into the 
district last week, and after a sharp fight, in which several 

B strikers were killed, they took charge of the mines and 
now control the situation. Here, as at Homestead, there 
is quiet, but the sort of quiet that requires the servic3 of 
armed sentinels. 

The failure of Senators Palmer and Voorhies to swing 
the Democratic party into line as a defender of the Home- 
stead outrage and as an advocate of the extreme demands 
of the trade-unionists is absolute. Mr. Voorhies' fierce 
resolution and Mr. Palmer's fiercer speech have fallen flat. 
In his speech, it will be remembered, Mr. Palmer took the 
ground that the Homestead strikers were in the right. 
Manufacturing establishments were, he claimed, public in- 
stitutions just as railroads were, because they worked for the 
public, employed the public, and because the men in their 
service became unfit for other service. " We talk," he 
said, " about civil service law as applicable to Government 
employment. I assert that there is a law wider and broad- 
er than that, which gives to these men who have been 
bred in these special pursuits — as, for instance, in the ser- 
vice of railroads, or of these ^ast manufacturing establish- 
ments — the right to demand employment, a right which 
can only be defeated by misconduct on their part." In 
other words, Mr. Palmer's position is that the ownership 
of the Homestead and other similar establishments 
by the men who have created them, is a conditional owner- 
ship limited by certain rights of the men who are employ- 
ed in them. The absurdity of this position, not to men- 
tion its mischievious revolutionary character, is seen when 
the principle is applied to other sorts of property. Where, 
for example, is the farmer who would allow tLe ownership 
of his acres to be a conditional one, subject to definite 
" rights " therein on the part of his field hands ? Of 
course, the proposition is monstrous. Senator Palmer 
knows better than this. He is simply a blatant demagogue 
seeking to make partisan advantage in the crisis of a 
Presidential campaign. That his party is wiser than he 
and more self-respecting, is demonstrated by its repudia- 
tion of his doctrine. Both the Democratic and Republican 
parties frequently make sacrifices of principle for partisan 
advantage, but neither have yet gone so far as to put forth 
revolutionary doctrines. 

Organization is labor's legitimate weapon of defense. 
The right to combine forces and mass strength belongs 
as fairly to labor as to capital. It is in the province of la- 
bor to accept or decline engagements, either individually 
or in the mass, but it is not in its province to do more 
than this. At Homestead and at Coeur d'Alene the em- 
ployers had the right to fix wages; the workmen the right 
to refuse to work for the wages offered. But there is an- 
other right in the case, that of the non-union men. They 
are denied the opportunity to work by seizure of the Car- 
negie establishment. They are maltreated, murdered, 
blown up with dynamite, driven out of the country, for ex- 
ercising the right to work in the Cceur d'Alene mines. 
These are the men at whom the brutal violence of the 
strikers is aimed. Theirs is the interest that society is put* 

f AClFl(^ I^Uf^Ala |>fiE$S. 

ting forth all its power to protect. In doing this, organ- 
ized society is simply maintaining the principle of its or- 
ganization. It is simply defending the exercise of that in- 
dividual liberty of choice which is the essence of civiliza- 
tion. It is protecting the right of the individual to make 
a choice and to carry it out without molestation. Here is 
work to be done. Here are men willing to do it for the 
wages offered. Other men stand by and say they shall not; 
destroy property to prevent them; threaten them if they 
undertake it; murder Ihem if they persist. If organized 
society cannot protect the men who want to work, and 
control those who would prevent them by violence, its or- 
ganization is a sham; it has no 'force or vitality; it is rot- 
ten at heart and is on the point of falling to pieces. The 
Oregonian of Portland, a journal exceptionally clear in its 
perceptions as to the justice of thingi and equally strong 
in its ability and courage, remarks : 

The very existence of civilized society is at stake in this 
matter. The personal liberty of every wage-worker in the 
country is threatened by the organization of certain workmen 
into unions to forbid other workmen to accept employment. 
Thie State that permitt'^d this would abdicate, commit political 
suicide. The State that is fit to live will put forth all its force, 
exhaust all its resources, expend all its energy, to protect its 
weakest citizen in the common right to earn his bread by toil 
without consulting a self-appointed guardian society. How- 
ever tolerant a State or a community may be of trade- 
unionism as a voluntary system, no State can indorse the 
tyranny of coercive labor organization within its borders and 
retain its natural powers and the respect of its citizens. 

Every word of which is gospel truth. 

Already it is evident that many whose support was 
reckoned as part of the strength of the new National Peo- 
ple's party will not abandon their old political relations. 
Significant evidence to this effect is furnished in an article 
written by Mr. Samuel Gompers, President of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor in the current number of the 
North American Review. Mr. Gompers admits that within 
the Federation there exists a feeling of dissatisfaction with 
and bitter antagonism to both the Republican and Demo- 
cratic parties. He charges these parties with broken 
promises to labor, with insincere, half hearted support, 
and even antagonism of labor in the interests of the toiler 
and with alacrity and devotion to the interests of the cor- 
porations and the wealth- possessing classes. '' There was," 
he declares, " no real improvement or deterioration in the 
condition of the working people as a result of the changes 
when Mr. Cleveland succeeded Mr. Arthur or when Mr. 
Harrison succeeded Mr. Cleveland. I venture to predict," 
he says," that so far as wage-workers are concerned, it will 
matter little if President Harrison or some other Repub- 
lican, on the one side, or any member of the Demo- 
cratic party, on the other, should be elected to 
succeed the present incumbent, or even should the Peoples' 
Party succeed (though I doubt they even entertain a belief 
that they will succeed) in electing its candidate to the 
Presidency." " The members of the organizations affiliated 
with the labor federation will," he says, " in a large 
measure, as citizens, vote for the candidate of the party of 
their own political predilections," though he admits 
that the number is ever on the increase who disenthral 
themselves from partisan voting, and exercise their fran- 
chise to reward or chastise those parties and candidates 
that deserve either their friendship or resentment. Are 
such changes and improvements, he asks, promised by the 
People's Party that the workers can with any degree of 
assurance throw in their political fortunes with that party ? 
To this question he answers clearly that in his judgment 
they will not. "To support the Peoples' Party," he de- 
clares, " under the belief that it is a labor party is to act 
under misapprehension. It is not in the nature of its 
make-up a labor party or even one in which the wage- 
workers will find their haven. Composed as the Peoples' 
Party is mainly of employing farmers without any 
regard to the interests of the employed farmers of the coun- 
try districts or the mechanics and laborers of the industrial 
centers, there must of necessity be a divergence of purposes, 
methods and interests." The italics are Mr. Gomper's 
own and are designed to emphasize the distinction. 
Mr. Gompers goes on to say that he has no de- 
sire to belittle the efforts of the organizers of the 
Peoples' party or to withhold sympathy due them in their 
agitation to remedy the wrongs which they suffer from 
corporate power and avarice. He concedes that they are 
doing excellent work in directing public attention to the 
dangers which threaten the body politic of the Republic, 
but " before there can be any hope of the unification of the 
labor forces of the field, factory, and farm and workshop, 
the people who work on and in them for wages must be 
organized to protect their interests against those who pay 
them wages for that work." 

There is going to be an interesting fight in the Repub- 
lican State Convention, which meets next week at Sacra- 
mento, over the railroad question. The Stockton Conven- 
tion, while going out of its way to make a platform when 


none was needed, had nothing to say about the railroad 
situation in this State. On the other hand, the Demo- 
cratic Convention at Fresno took strong ground against 
the course of the Railroad Commission and demanded re- 
fornjs in the management of the roads. It is beyond 
question that there is no other issue in State affairs so 
closely related to public interest and to public sentiment; 
and the position taken by the Democrats was, in view of 
the Republican silence, a strong " hit." At the coming 
convention at Sacramento the Republicans will be called 
upon to vote for or against a resolution condemning the 
policy of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company — and it 
remains to be seen how the vote will stand. It is possible 
that the politicians may be able to avoid the issue by put- 
ting forth no platform at all, but this would be a palpable 
dodge and as such a direct play into the hands of the 

The Christian Union of New York takes a novel view 
of the census report concerning the growth of American 
churches. It believes that a better net result would obtain 
from limitation than from growth in the number of church 
organizations. It claims that great harm is done 
to the cause of Christianity by the rivalry of the 
different evangelical denominations in the limited 
field of work. In small villages, it points out 
that there will be three or four weak churches fighting for 
supremacy, when if their membership and resources were 
united there would be one strong effective church. Sec- 
tarianism, it claims is destructive of Christian spirit and 
destructive to the best efforts of religious extension. 
Better, it says, far better, would it be if the evangelical 
churches would come to a common agreement by which 
the spirit of rivalry would give way to the spirit of co- 
operation. Here is its suggestion: 

Let the Home Missionary Societies form a syndicate. Let 
the National Secietaries, or the State or District Secretaries of 
the Home Missionary Societies meet once a month. Let 
them confer concerning all new territory; aad agree first, never 
to put an evangelical church into a town already adequately sup- 
plied with evangelical churches, and second, to allow the sister 
denomination to put in the second church when a second 
church is needed. 

There is good sense in this, not only g)od sense, but a 
regard for the broad interests of religion. 

The Raisin Situation at the East. 

A leading New York commercial exchange just to hand 
reports the raisin situation as follows: 

California raisin growers and packers are laying their 
wires for the coming season, and are deeply interested in 
the condition of the country's markets, statistically and 
otherwise, at the present time. The outlook for them is 
certainly very favorable. The crop of 1891 has been pretty 
well distributed, the stock remaining on the Atlantic coast 
now being regarded as not any too great to cover the re- 
quirements of consumers between this and fall. The sup-: 
ply here is centered in the hands of one concern (there be- 
ing only a single parcel of 5000 boxes outside, and this is 
held above present market limits), therefore when the 
dealers of the country require additional goods they will 
be forced to make their selections from the Washington 
street merchant who had the pluck to venture early in the 
season upon quantities in anticipation of the demand which 
usually precedes the receipt of new goods. The quan'ity 
held here in bags and boxes is fair, though in comparison 
with corresponding period of previous years, the total quan- 
tity is said to be considerably below. Prices are certainly 
low, and the principal holder is free to offer upon the basis 
of to-day's values; at the same time, should the demand 
suddenly improve, buyers will undoubtedly be compelled 
to meet gradually advancing ideas for anything of a desir- 
able quality. From present indications the new fruit will 
come upon a comparatively bare market, but from this it 
must not be supposed that dealers intend rushing to the 
Coast with advance orders, or that they will listen to ex- 
treme values. Should the new crop show care in the cur- 
ing and preparmg for market, and offered at reasonable 
prices, California packers will probably experience no 
difficulty in promptly placing their goods among the deal- 
ers of the country, but should there be haste during curing 
season, and indifference, except to surface packing, coupled 
with fancy ideas as to the value of the fruit, they will find 
that the trade will proceed cautiously and not stock up to 
any extent early in the season. Regarding Valencia raisins, 
the stock here to-day is probably the smallest upon record, 
and only 6000 boxes are now in transit to this side. An- 
other 60 days will probably find the market bare of salable 
fruit. The new crop is said to be progressing favorably 
abroad, and an average yield is counted upon. Growers 
in Spain do not propose as yet to relinquish this field to 
the California product. True they are handicapped by a 
heavy duty, but in the face of this duty intend to stub- 
bornly contest the ground. They will be early in the mar- 
ket with their new fruit, and will endeavor to get in some 
good work before the California product can be landed, but 
with the two varieties in the field, prices will be regulated 
to their proper level, gauged by the law of supply and 
demand. Malaga, it may be said, have been driven from 
American markets, only a few of the very choicest variety 
being brought forward, but the more ordinary Valencia 
continue on deck. With a steady increase in the Pacific 
coast product, however, and cheapening of the cost, it is 
believed to be only a question of time when the foreign 
article will entirely disappear from our markets. 


f ACIFie i^URAlo f RESS. 

JuLT 2S. 1892 

Weather and Crop Bulletin for Week Ending 
July ISth. 

The following condition of the crops for the week end- 
ing Monday, July 18, 1892, are from the reports of the 
numerous voluntary observers throughout the State, re- 
porting to the Director of the California Weather Service 
at Sacramento, includine telegrams received on Monday 
night from Observer McKean at Red Bluff, Observer 
Williams at Fresno and Observer Franklin at Los An- 
geles. It will be seen from a perusal of the reports that 
this State is so large that some portions of it have crops over 
an average and others below and some portions an aver- 
age; and in the great valleys, harvesting and thrashing are 
nearly or quite finished, while the coast counties are just 
beginning to head their grain preparatory to thrashing. 
It speaks well for the intelligence of our crop correspond- 
ents, for from the first report down to the present time 
they have all along been reporting shortage of all crops 
save hay and barley, and it also shows them to be con- 
scientious men and not given to exaggeration, knowing 
which the general reading public can and will place the 
utmost confidence in these gentlemen who, voluntarily, and 
to benefit this great State, send promptly each week a re- 
port of the crops to the Director at Sacramento: 

Humboldt— £«reia— All crops are doing well; the hay crop, 
both in quality and quantity, was never better. Grain is head- 
ing, but is of fine condition and will yield more than an aver- 
age crop. Fruit of all kinds will be short. 

Upper Mattole—Coru, potatoes and all summer crops are not 
doing well, there having been too much drying winds. High- 
est and lowest temperatures, 88° and 68°. 

Near Areata— The weather has been clear and warm, with 
high and drying wind in the afternoon. A shower of rain 
would do much good. Highest temperature, 88°. 

Lake. — Upper Lake — The cool weatherhas retarded the ripen- 
ing of fruits and grain: heading is, however, well under way. 
Late-sown wheat on low lands has rusted badly, otherwise no 
damage is reported. The yield of wheat and barley will be 
above the average. 

Shasta.— .Anderson — The temperature has been below the 
normal the greater part of the week. Sunday was warmer, the 
highest temperature being 95° and the lowest during the week 
50°. Wheat is not turning out as well as was expected. There 
will be a carload of Bartlett pears and other fruits shipped this 
week. The fruit crop is better than was at first expected. 

Alameda.— Keasanto;»— During the past week heavy coast 
fogs have been carried inland by prevailing high westerly 
winds. Temperature below the normal, the maximum being 
86° and the minimum 40". These conditions have both retard- 
ed and damaged the ripening grain. Rust has appeared in the 
wheat and oats. Chevalier barley has lodged and shelled out. 
Hops are very backward. Sugar beets are doing well and give 
promise of a large yield. 

Livermore — Harvest is about over and thrashing begun. 
Grain is better than expected. Hay is being stored, as prices 
are too low. The fruit crop, except olives, is good. Grapes are 
doing well and promise a good yield. 

Colusa. — Williains — Conditions continue favorable and 
harvesting continues satisfactory. 

Napa. — Napa Oily — Grapes are doing well, but will be late. 
The apricot crop is short; early peaches lack flavor; threshing 
is progressing nicely; temperature growing warmer, which will 
be beneficial to grapes and fruit. 

Yountville — Temperature and constant sunshine beneficial to 
all growing and maturing crops. Highest and lowest temper- 
atures at 7 A. M. were 60° and 54°. 

Sonoma. — fleo/tfaiury— Threshing began this week. The 
yield will be average, but the quality will be poor; slight 
mildew on grapes; apricots ripe and other fruits growing well. 

Santa Rosa — The hay crop is a heavy one and is well cured; 
grain will be about the average yield, while vegetables are 
rather below an average, but are of an excellent quality; berries 
yield well, and the indications are strong for a splendid crop of 

Santa Claka. — Gilroy— The grain crop is now being harvested 
and is turning out well; the fruit crop is somewhat short, but 
the quality is better than usual. 

Yolo. — Woodland — The Curtis ranch presents a very busy 
scene at present, as seven harvesters are at work on the place 
and a large number of teams are hauling the wheat to the 
river. A shipment of 15,000 sacks was made on Wednesday. 

Winters — Large shipments of melons, cantaloupes and dried 
fruits are made daily from this point and Yolo. Splendid wheat 
crop should put a lot of money in circulation among the farm- 
ers. The fruit crop is rather short, but good prices will almost 
even matters up and the fruit growers are likely to be a little 
" flush " also. 

ffiiindo— Harvesting is progressing very satisfactory to the 
farmers, and fruits going to market are more delicious and 
larger than those marketed last week, and at present prices of 
grain the farmers prefer storing to selling. 

Capay Valley — The wheat crop did not come up to expecta- 
tions. The news that the market for apricots suitable for can- 
ning is strong, and steadily advancing, comes too late to be of 
any substantial benefit to the fruit growers of Capay Valley, as 
the apricot crop of this vicinity is already marketed. Fair 
prices were realized, but it is singular that the sharp rise did 
not occur sooner, in view of the fact that it was generally 
known before any of the fruit had ripened that the apricot 
croi) would be short. 

JSsparto— Several hundred tons of wheat are received at the 
warehouse daily, and shipping to Port Costa will begin in a 
few days. 

Dunnigan — The wheat crop in this section is an exceedingly 
large one; the grain is yielding 17 sacks to the acre. 

Butte. — Palermo— The weather has been exceptionally fine 
and favorable for the growth of hay and grain, and good for 
fruit, though not especially conducive to early ripening. The 
hay crop was never better, while barley and wheat are quite 
up to the average or a little above: 

Places. — Newcastle — Crawford peaches are now coming into 
the market, of which there will be a good crop generally. 
Highest and lowest temperatures, 92° and 51°. 

Yuba. — Wheatland — The weather during the past week has 
been remarkably cool and pleasant. Harvesting is progressing 
finely. Hops are making rapid progress and promise an aver- 
age yield. 

Saceamekto. — Sacramento— The daily mean temperature dur- 
ing the past week has averaged from nothing to 7° below the 
normal for six days, and above the normal on the 18th 5°, 
showing a deficienty in heat of about 18°; that is, the sun heat 
received in the past seven days has not been aa much as the 
usual amount for this season of the year by 18°. 

The rainfall normals were nothing, and there being no pre- 
cipitation during the week, it can be classed as normal, while 
the temperature showed an abnormal condition of or above 
minimum of 18°. Fruit ard vegetables are getting more plen- 
ful, but appear to be considerably scarcer than last season, 
causing prices to be higher than usual. 

Oalt— The Grain output in this section is better than was at 
first expected. The grain growers generally have to order 
more sacks, as their first estimates on the crop output were 
much too low. 

Amador.— 0/e<a— Threshing is in full blast, and the summer- 
fallowed wheat that was well put in is turning out good. The 
lazy, slack and slovenly farmers, who are those who sow winter 
wheat, will reap but a poor crop, and, according to the sur- 
vival of the fittest, the lazy farmers must go to the wall and 
succumb to the energy and push of their more ambitious 

Suiter Creek— Hay is nearly all baled, and already new hay is 
plentiful in the market. The yield is about an average one, 
but owing to an increase in the acreage being cut to hay, it is 
more plentiful and commands lower prices. The barley crop is 
also cut and the crop reported good. 

San JoAQDiN.—Xodi— Highest and lowest temperatures, 88° 
and 48°, with westerly winds prevailing and blowing fresh in 
the afternoon. The cool, damp mornings delay the harvesters. 
Wheat harvesting progressing with variable results as to the 
quality and the output. The average yield will be short of a 
full crop. Watermelons are coming in very slowly, and it will 
be the first of August before they are in the market in any 

TuLAEE.— Ftsaiio— Nearly all the crops are turning out better 
than was at first expected, and the yield will be above the aver- 
age. Highest temperature 95°. 

Monterey.- <San .ilrdo— The weather during the week has 
been quite favorable to the fruit crop. Heading grain nearly 
all tinished; threshing about commenced, and the yield of 
grain will be a light one. Highest and lowest temperatures, 
87° and 42.° 

San Luis Obispo.— San Luis Obispo— The weather has been 
warmer this week, which is good for beans and corn. A little 
moderately warm weather and a cool week, alternately, would 
give us good crops. Beans are doing very well. We are having 
light southerly winds and fogs the greater portion of the time. 
Highest temperature, 82°. 

Santa Cruz. — Walsonville — The area of crops this season in 
Santa Cruz county and the portions of Monterey county tribu- 
tary to Watsonville may be divided as follows: Fully one-half 
of the totiti acreage was sown to black oats, and the yield will 
be an unusually large one in the valleys and on the foothills. 

In the Cornros and San Miguel canyon districts the blank, 
loamy soil is peculiarly adapted to the growth of the black 
oats. The other half of the acreage in grain is divided between 
barley and wheat, about three of barley to two of wheat. Bar- 
ley is turning out a good average yield of plump white barley. 

Wheat is not yielding as good as was expected on the bottom 
lands, but in the canyon districts mentioned above many fields 
will turn out as high as 25 to 30 sacks to the acre The fruit 
crops of the two counties, and also of San Benito adjoining, 
are far above the average in quality and yield. 

Tehama. — Red Bluff— Ho rainfall during the week, and the 
temperature has generally averaged below the normal condi- 
tions for this season of the year, which has been beneficial to 
all crops. The sunshine has been somewhat above the average, 
which is favorable for harvesting crops. 

Los Angeles. — Los Angeles — The unusually cold weather for 
the season has a tendency to retard the ripening of the fruit 
crop in some districts of Southern Californi?. Apricot-drying 
still continues. Nine to eleven cents is being paid for dried 
fruit. The oranges are dropping in the Vernon district; the 
trees are too full. The citrus fruit growth is not up to the aver- 
age in the Covina district. The threshing of grain and mus- 
tard is progressing rapidly, with prospects of but a fair crop. 


Portland (Or.), July 19. — The weekly crop report of the 
Oregon Weather Bureau says: Fall wheat is being harvested 
in all sections. The yield is better than expected. Spring-sown 
wheat is tilling out very well. Oats are being cut in a few lo- 
calities. Although the wheat and oat crops are good, they are 
not equal to last year's, nor quite up to the average. 

A New Yellow Freestone Peaoli— The Glen Holly. 

Penryn, Placer Co., July i6, 1892. 

To THE Editor : — I have expressed to you a box con- 
taining 20 of the early " Glen Holly " peach. These are 
the very last of the crop on the original tree here, and are 
a /air sample of the crop in size, color, etc. They are, 
you will see, very like the Crawford Early, except that they 
are much smoother and more uniform in size and more 
highly colored. They ripen side by side in orchard with 
Early Crawford, at least one 7veek earlier than the latter 
variety, making them, in my opinioi:, the very earliest of 
good yellow peaches. 

From the original tree owned by Mr. A. C. Short, of 
Penryn, the fruit has all been harvested while we are just 
opening the Early Crawford season. These ripened this 
year about July 7th or 8th. This is a seedling tree, a fine, 
vigorous five-year-old one. Doubtless on older trees it 
will ripen earlier. 

I should like your opinion on these very much. Yours 
very truly, H. E. Butler. 

The peach is a large and fine yellow freestone, and has 
the Early Crawford's characteristics strongly marked, as 
Mr. Butler says. His description in all points is well 
borne out by the fruit which he sends. If its advance of 
the Crawford in time of ripening will hold good in future, 
it will be a most notable addition to our peach list. It 
runs larger than the new Vacaville Early Yellow varieties> 
as the specimens sent us are 81^ inches in circumference 
measured at right angles with the suture. So far as 
present data go, it is, however, not quite as early as the 
new Vacaville peaches. The variety should be propagated 
and tested in all early regions. — Ed. Press. 

Lima Beans at the East. — The latest received New 
York mail advices report the situation for California Lima 
beans as follows: "The market for California dried Lima 
beans has undergone a decided improvement during the 
past week. Parcels in transit by sail and steam vessels 
have been sold at $i.77Kfe$'-82>^ per bushel laid down 
here, which is relatively higher than the best prices thus 
far obtained for spot parcels, and stock remainmg on the 
coast is held for even higher rates. Western purchases 
have figured with some prominence in the movement, but 
Eastern buyers have not remained in the background, al- 
though more conservative than their Western competitors, 
despite unfavorable reports as to the growing crop." 

First Special Train of Fruit for London. 

Quite a number of fruit shippers and others interested in 
the enterprise were at the depot at 10 o'clock Tuesday 
to witness the departure of the special train of five cars 
loaded with choice fruits for the London market. Agent 
Appel of the California Fruit Transportation Company — 
under the management of which the shipment was made — 
was the busiest man in the city last evening, getting the 
cars in readiness for their departure. 

The cars were handsomely decorated with banners reach- 
ing their entire length, reading, " C. F. T. Co. Export 
Special, California Fruits, Liverpool and London," with 
the American and British flags streaming from the roofs. 

The fruit consisted of selected peaches, pears, plums, 
nectarines, etc., shipped by A. T. Hatch, C. W. Reed, 
Cook & Langley, and Gregory Brothers Company. The 
train will be run on passenger time over the Southern Pa- 
cific, Union Pacific, Chicago & Northwestern, and Erie 
Dispatch Railways, connecting at New York with the 
steamer Majestic of the White Star Line of United 
States and Royal Mail steamers, which made the speediest 
passage from New York to Liverpool, her record being 5 
days and 18 hours. 

The fruit is consigned to James Adam, Son & Co., 
Liverpool, and will be sold at auction. 

In the car shipped by Gregory Brothers Company, the 
firm sent a package of Bartlett pears to Senator Leland 
Stanford, who is now in Paris; one to her majesty. Queen 
\'ictoria, and another to Mr. Bapst, managing editor of 
the foumal des Dcbats, as a luscious sample of the mag- 
nificence of California products. These three lots were 
grown on the famous Vina Ranch, owned by Senator 

The California Fruit Transportation Company deserves 
credit for opening up this service, which, if it proves a suc- 
cess, will be the means of giving to California fruits a new 
and much wider market. 

The officers of the California Fruit Transportation Com- 
pany are progressive men, and after being the first to dem- 
onstrate the feasibility of transporting successfully Cali- 
fornia fruits under refrigeration to domestic markets, are 
sparing no expense or pains to prove the adaptability of 
their method in successfully laying down the choicest Cali- 
fornia fruits in the extensive European markets. 

The refrigerators fitted up on board the steamers are of 
the most approved pattern, and as the time necessary to 
transfer a load to the steamer will not exceed 30 minutes, 
the fruit will not be exposed to the outer air a sufficient 
length of time to change the temperature. 

The train, leaving Sacramento at 10 p. M., should arrive 
at Naw York at 7 a. M. on the following Tuesday. 

It is the expectation of the California Fruit Transporta- 
tion Company to make this a weekly service, leaving Sac- 
ramento at 10 p. M. on Tuesday of each week and to con- 
tinue until December, as it is expected the highly colored 
and handsome Tokay grapes will-meet with quite a success 
in the European markets. 

It is arranged to have a regular California Day in 
Liverpool, where buyers from all over Great Britain will 
come to procure California fruits, when it will be distrib- 
uted over the United Kingdom. — Record Union, July 20th. 

The New York Mail and Express says that the exports 
of breadstuflTs from the United States for the year just end- 
ed were enormously large, owin? to the tremendous ship- 
ments of wheat and flour. The exports of flour for the 
year have been 14,860,459 barrels, against 1 1,007,638 barrels 
the previous year, wheat, 152,863,086 bushels against 54,- 
201,286 bushels; corn, 73,770,002 bushels against 29,894,380 
bushels; oats, 9,018,404 bushels against 916323 bushels; 
rye, 11,827,044 against 332,729 bushels; barley, 2,799,729 
against 966,079. The exports of wheat and flour for the 
year are equal to, after adding two per cent to cover all 
points, 223,609 953 bushels, against 109,430466 bushels the 
previous year. The largest previous exports were 186,- 
475,251 bushels in 1880-81. The exports of all kinds of 
grain, including flour, were equal to 321,024,832 bushels, 
against 141,539977 bushels the previous year. The value 
of the exports oi all kinds of breadstuffs was $288,925,000, 
against $123,156,520 the previous year. 

Dedicating the World's Fair Buildings. — It is 
next to certain that the date of dedication of the World's 
Fair buildings will be changed from October 12th to Octo- 
ber 2 1 St, the latter being really the 40o;h anniversary of the 
landing of Columbus, allowance being made for the correc- 
tion in the calendar made in the time of Pope Gregory. 
The Senate has passed a bill making the change referred 
to, and it is not doubted that the House of Representatives 
will take like action. The change was requested by the 
World's Fair Commissioners of New York, the Legislature 
of which State had provided for a Columbus celebration on 
October 12th. It was thought that the two celebrations, if 
held simultaneously, would detract from each other. 

On July 5th, a petition was presented to the Board of 
Supervisors of Yuba county asking for a tax levy of 50 
cents on the $1000 of all taxable property in the county for 
defraying the expenses of a World's Fair exhibit. Those 
who signed the petition embraced the principal tax payers 
in each supervisor's district, the total property representa- 
tion being $2,800,000. As no opposition to the appropria- 
tion was developed, it is thought that the Supervisors will 
vote unanimously in favor of the tax levy. This will create 
a fund of about $3500. 

A Forestry Exhibit. — The Washington State build- 
ing at the Woild's Fair will show to some extent the forest 
resources of the State. The foundation alone will contain 
171 logs, some of them 120 feet long and 42 inches in di- 
ameter at the small end. The superstructure of the build- 
ing will contain, besides heavy timber, fine finished woods 
showing the grain and structure of the woods, and a com- 
plete exhibit of ship-building material. 

July 23, 1892. 

f ACIFie f^URAlo f RESS, 



Orchard Work Which is Now Actively 
Going On. 



Rural Prize Letters for July. 

Yuba City, July 6, 1892. 
To THE Editor: — On the subject of picking and pack- 
ing fruit, there are so many and such various ideas and 
methods of conducting the different branches of the busi- 
ness that no one can say that this or that way is always 
best. Methods entirely at variance with each other fre- 
quently produce results equally satisfactory or unsatisfac- 
tory. In fact, it must be admitted that fruit-shipping is 
always more or less of a lottery, but the prizes are drawn 
most frequently by him who exercises the greatest care and 
displays the most ability in the packing of his product. 
All fruits, with the exception of perhaps apples and pears, 
are best when allowed to ripen on the trees. As this is an 
impossibility in the case of fruit which is to go to a distant 
market, we should remember that those methods which 
come nearest to presenting the fruit to the consumer in its 
natural condition are sure to be the best, although I must 
admit that the careful man does not always get full pay for 
ills care. 

Picking. — The degree of ripeness which fruit that is to be 
shipped should be allowed to attain, depends upon three 
points — first, the length of time that must elapse between 
the picking of the fruit and its consumption; second, upon 
the method of transportation, whether in ventilated or in 
refrigerator cars; and third, upon the variety of fruit that is 
to be shipped. The present standard of ripeness for ship- 
ping in refrigerator cars on peaches, apricots and plums is 
•about the same as that for picking the same varieties for 
the canneries — the fruit to be ripe, but perfectly firm and 
hard, not quite full size, say from two to three days before 
it would begin to get soft on the tree. This same rule will 
apply to fruit that is to be shipped in an ordinary venti- 
lated car to a near-by market, such as Portland by pas- 
senger train; but in this connection it is well to remember 
that many of the buyers ip these near markets want this 
fruit to be reshlpped so that it will have to hold up two or 
three days more before it reaches the consumer, and every 
■car should have some lines just as firm as if they were to 
go to Chicago. If the fruit is to go East in a ventilated 
car, it should be picked some three days earlier than for 
refrigerator cars, leaving them only partly ripe. In the 
case of apricots to go in these cars, they must be left still 
greener — just commencing to ripen at the pit. The results 
of shipping apricots in anything but refrigerator cars has 
been so uniformly disastrous that it has been almost en- 
tirely discontinued, and no shipper will advise it. In pick- 
ing Bartlett pears, it is well known that if the pear is large 
enough, it is ripe enough. This fruit is one like all others 
that must not be allowed to get too ripe, as it can go to 
pieces as fast as any of them if it is overripe. Grapes 
should be allowed to get ripe. A grape never improves in 
any way after it is off the vine. If it be green, it has a 
greater tendency to shrivel and pucker than when it is ripe. 
A green grape is always sour, and the longer it is off the 
vine, the sourer it gets. 

If possible, pick your fruit early in the day, say before 
10 A. M., or else in the evening, so that it can cool off 
during the night, to be packed the next morning. This is 
of most importance if the fruit is to be shipped in a venti- 
lated car, as the refrigeration of the other car is supposed 
to do the same thing. I think it is better in any case, as it 
saves the steaming of the hot fruit for several hours before 
it gets under the influence of the refrigerator. 

The best ladder to use is a light, strong stepladder. The 
old three-legged affair weighing 200 or 300 pounds has 
been or should be dismissed to the wood yard. You want 
something that can be handled quickly and easily, and is 
at the same time substantial. 

The question of what to pick in is more difficult. It has 
always seemed to me that the proper thing was to pick in 
baskets and pack from them directly. Few shippers follow 
that practice, however, giving as a reason that the extra 
time consumed in handling the baskets, and the greater 
difficulty in hauling them to the packing shed, more than 
makes up for the damage done the fruit in emptying from 
buckets into picking-boxes. I believe that if great care is 
taken in emptying, that the best way is to pick in buckets, 
empty into boxes and haul to a packing house. I do not 
favor packing in the orchard. It is too hard to keep your 
material in place, add stencils and stamps are never where 
you want them. There are many sizes and shapes of can 
nery or picking boxes, and I do not know that it is of ma- 
terial difference what one is used, except that you should 

avoid getting one that is too deep — say over ten inches deep. 

As to the different kinds of labor, I do not believe that 
any standard can be set up. I have always believed that 
young Americans were the best help that could be obtained, 
if you can get the right kind. Frequently the question of 
labor resolves itself into the necessity of taking whatever 
you can get, and you can only do the best that the time 
and circumstances permit. I think that the best packing 
that I have ever seen done was by Chinese. I have under- 
stood that some shippers have this season had most excel- 
lent work done for them by women, and I think that this 
will be the best help possible when a sufificient number have 
had the necessary training. A skillful fruit packer should 
be classed among the ranks of skilled labor and treated 
and paid accordingly. 

Packages. — There are now uni'brm sizes of packages 
used that have come to be standard for the different varie- 
ties of fruit. All boxes are made the same length and 
width and vary in depth according to the size of fruit and 
requirements for space. These sizes are 1934^ inches long, 
II inches wide and from 3 to 8 inches in depth. In 
speaking of a peach box the depth only is mentioned, as a 
4 or 4>^ inch box. But one other package besides these 
boxes is used — the crate. These are made to hold four 
5-lb. baskets and are termed half crates, or eight 5-lb. bas- 
kets when they are termed full crates. Peaches and pears 
are always shipped in boxes; plums, sometimes. Grapes, 
apricots and usually plums are shipped in crates, A box 
of peaches is supposed to contain about 18 pounds net 
weight, and consists of two lasers. The peaches should be 
packed, if possible, so as to break joints. I regard the 
four and five system of packing as the best for average- 
sized peaches. This is done by wrapping and placing four 
peaches against the end of the box, leaving a space be- 
tween each one so as to divide the distances about equal; 
in the next row put five peaches, so as to allow the sharp- 
est part of the peach, if it is not very nearly round, to come 
in the space left between the peaches in the first row. If 
the peaches are good size, they will very nearly or quite fill 
the row, leaving but little space between each of them. The 
next row will contain four, then five, and so on until the 
bottom layer is finished. In packing the bottom layer, 
place the peaches stem end downward, as this gives a 
greater surface to rest upon the bottom of the box. Com- 
mence the second or top layer exactly opposite to the first 
layer, that is with five peaches in the first row and four in 
the second. In this manner you will be able to place your 
fruit so that no peach rests directly over another, thus giv- 
ing the greatest possible amount of surface to bear against 
each peach. When finishing each layer, take hold of the 
last row with both hands and pull it toward you, as closely as 
possible, so as to have the fruit tight in the box endways 
and sideways. Be very careful that no fruit is packed 
slack. It injures the sale in two ways; first, the buyer 
thinks there is not as much fruit in the box as there should 
be, and the apparent lack of a few peaches is usually mag- 
nified five or ten times in the price he offers for the box; 
second, the fruit that is packed slack never carries well. If 
it once commences to move in the box, the whole outside of 
it gets jammed, and, even if not spoiled, it presents a bad 
appearance. This is one of the most important things 
connected with the packing of fruit. In packing peaches 
it is necessary that you have boxes four to six inches in 
depth, varyine a half inch. In addition to this you need 
cleats of different thicknesses, from one-eighth to one-half 
inch. Having got your fruit tight in the box, endwise and 
sidewise, you do not need to have the cover press on the 
top of the fruit, but can leave a quarter to a half inch space 
between the fruit and the cover. If your boxes are not the 
right size to leave this space, you can put one of the thin 
cleats under the cover, in this way raising the cover so as 
to allow the air to circulate between it and the fruit. 

In packing apricots and plums in crates, it is always best 
to put them in layers, putting a piece of paper between each 
layer. Cover the bottom of the basket with the end of a 
strip of paper, cut the width of the basket and long enough 
to make four or five turns acioss it. On this put a layer of 
fruit arranged in the best manner possible to make it cover 
the bottom of the basket and leave the least amount of 
space between each one. Turn the paper back over this 
layer and arrange another layer in the same mannen, if 
possible, fixing the fruit so that it will break joints and con- 
tinue this until the basket is full, which will take from three 
to five layers, depending on the size of the fruit being 
packed. The top layer should be arranged in rows across 
the basket; average sized plums and apricots can be put 
five in a row each way. Much of this will depend on the 
size of the fruit and its shape, and no general rule can be 
laid down for it except this: make your basket full as possi- 
ble, and have the top row as symmetrical as possible. Of 
course, no one will attempt to ship fruit to a distant market 
and go to the trouble or be so foolish as to attempt to pick 
any inferior fruit in the bottom of the basket or box, as the 
case may be. This point is so well understood, and should 
be so commonly practiced among our fruit growers and 
shippers as to need no further mention. 

In packing grapes, great care should be taken to handle 
them as little as possible, and what handling is done should 
be done by taking hold of the stem of the grape rather 
than catching it carelessly in the hand in any way that 
happens. All imperfect, dried or loose berries should be 
clipped from the stem with a small pair of shears. Greater 
care should be taken to get rid of any berries that have 
been partly loosened from the stem and are leaking a little 
juice than any other one thing, as these berries will not only 
spoil themselves, but will ruin others that come in contact 
with them. The most difficult part in packing grapes lies 
in the ability of the packer to judge whether or not a bunch 
of grapes will fit the place he has for it in the basket. A 
good packer will have several baskets under way at once, 
and will thus be able to dispose of each bunch, as he picks 
it up and trims it, with the least possible amount of han- 
dling, and at the same time will give his basket a fully 
rounded, even appearance without any great amount of cut- 
i ting of the bunches. It wilt sometimes be necessary to cut 

bunches into small pieces in order to fill up the corners an 
edges of the baskets. A five-pound basket of grapes 
should weigh, when it leaves the packer's hands, about five 
and one-half pounds, as there is a shrinkage in weight in 
carrying, and dealers have come to expect that they will 
weigh fully five pounds, if not more, when they arrive in 
the Eastern markets. 

In packing pears, the method is similar to that of 
peaches, except that the box used is an eight-inch box, and 
i<i supposed to contain not less than 40 pounds net of fruit. 
The fruit is wrapped and laid down on its side. The layer 
is commenced by placing a row of pears, the number vary- 
ing according to the size, with the blossom end against the 
end of the box, no space being left between them, but pressed 
in snug and tight. The next row is reversed, and the stem 
ends are laid between the stems of the first fruit, but 
crowded toward the end of the box so as to raise the stem 
and give the pear a little slant. The layer is then con- 
tinued in the same manner as the second row, crowding 
the pears up a little so as to give them a good slant. Each 
layer is put in in the same way until the box is full. The 
number of layers, of course will depend entirely upon the 
size of the fruit, though it is seldom advisable to ship any- 
thing that takes more than five layers to fill a box, except, 
perhaps, very early in the season, when six-layer fruit may 
bring fair prices. In packing pears, some effort should be 
made to put the largest toward the middle of the box, and 
in this way give covers and bottoms an opportunity to 
spring. They should be sprung out from a half to three- 
quarters of an inch in the center. 

In packing any kind of fruit, the grower should remem- 
ber that it pays to cull without mercy; nothing that is im- 
perfect in any way should ever be put in a box or crate. 
Look out for worms, bird picks, bruises, scab or any im- 
perfection. Remember that the freight is just as much on 
poor stuff as on good, and you have to pay it whether your 
fruit brings ten cents a box or $5. In buying your pack- 
ages, you can get a neat and attractive one almost as cheap 
as a rough, poorly made one, and a half cent or cent saved 
on each box amounts to nothing. Have good stencils and 
a good assortment of rubber stamps with which to mark on 
each box the variety it contains. If you have large lots 
and the fruit is to be sent East and sold at auction, divide 
them into separate lots of 30 to 60 boxes each, marking 
each lot with a letter or number in addition to your name. 
If your fruit does not run even in quality, put each quality 
in a separate lot, so that the buyer will know that the fruit 
he buys will be just the same all the way through. All 
grading should be done by the packer as he packs. If the 
fruit runs uneven in size, have the packer pack the size of 
which there is the most, laying out other sizes into boxes as 
he packs. This is most necessary with peaches; other 
fruits are not expected to run so even in size. If the grower 
has done proper work in thinning, there should be very 
little variation in the size of peaches. Never run any fruit 
that is to be shipped through a grader. It will get bounced 
around enough without your doing it unnecessarily. 

Loading Cars. — This is a matter of more importance 
than many think. In loading a ventilated car, it is neces- 
sary to so arrange the boxes and crates that the ventilation 
will be perfect from one end of the car to the other. If you 
can, put all the crates in one end and the boxes in the other. 
It is in all cases necessary to nail each box. Strips should be 
sawed ^^xi inch and about four inches shorter than the 
car is wide. Nail a strip cn the bottom of the car so that 
each end of the box or crate will rest on the cleat. Put on 
these cleats a row of boxes or crates, if boxes, six, crates 
five, in the ordinary car. Divide the distance across the 
car equally, so that all the boxes will have a space between 
them. Nail a cleat on each end of this row of boxes, put- 
ting a nail in each box. Continue this until the top of the 
car is reached, putting each box directly over the one be- 
low it. In putting on the cleats, have the first one hit 
against one side of the car, the second against the oppo- 
site, thus alternating until the top of the car is reached. 
Each tier will be loaded in the same manner, the ends of 
the boxes fitting snugly against each other. Finish in the 
middle, firmly bracing the last tier against the opposite 
ones with 2x4 lumber, so that there can be no possibility of 
the fruit moving from its place in the car. It will have a 
rough experience, and too much care cannot be used to 
make it firm. Pear boxes should be loaded with the side 
down instead of the bottom. 

In loading a refrigerator, there will be but little differ- 
ence, except that the packages will have to be placed some- 
what closer together. 

In conclusion, I will add that nothing but practice and 
experience can make a fruit shipper. Added to this it will 
require patience and perseverance, sometimes a good bank 
account to fall back on, and always lots of hard work. The 
grower who first attempts to ship his own fruit will usually 
have the varied experience that all fruit shippers have had 
of alternate profit and loss. If he does good, careful, hon- 
est work, is in a locality that produces the right kind of 
fruit, ripening at the right season of the year, I believe his 
profits will be greater than his losses. If a grower is not 
in the right locality, he had better keep out of shipping, as 
it will only end disastrously. There are so many details 
connected with getting together a car of fruit in good shape 
that it is impossible to more than touch upon them. 

C. E. Williams. 


Elmira, Solano Co. 
To the Editor: — Fruit picking, packing and shipping 
are the three most important steps in a fruit-grower s occu- 
pation, for it largely depends on these three items whether 
his means of livelihood are profitable or not. The large 
orchardists and vineyardists have generally the latest appli- 
ances to hand for picking and handling their fruit, besides 
a readier method of disposing of the same, for the buyers 
generally prefer to buy from and seek out those possessing 
large acreage; so I wfH write more for the small fruit-rais- 

f AClFie I^URAlo PRESS, 

JuLT 2S, 1812 

ers, hoping they will derive a little information from my 
experience. . 

First of all, fruit wants to be handled, generally, with 
dispatch, and as little as possible, for at times one day 
tends to spoil fruits of certain kinds for the use to which 
they are best adapted. As for the handling of fruit, I have 
seen some pretty rough handling, also some very carelul 
handling, so I can judge pretty well the results. 

When the spring work on the land is completed, is the 
time to prepare for the golden fruit harvest in having every- 
thing ready for it, such as ladders repaired, clean picking 
baskets, or whatever you use, packing house in shape, trays, 
etc., in fact everything in spick and span order, for fruit 
brooks no delay when once off the trees. I have seen men 
who, just when they want anything cannot find it, and have 
to hitch up and go to town for it. They are in nothing but 
a bustle the whole time. 

I am an employe, so gain my information personally in 
my work in different orchards. As to the variety of fruits 
best suited for shipping, etc., each one has his own ideas, 
and the choice depends largely on the owner's location and 
upon his facilities for shipping to local or distant markets 
(not forgetting the canneries), each requiring their own par- 
ticular kind of fruit for handllne, etc. 

The ordinary light stepladder is, I find, as handy as any- 
thing for picking, if picking in ordinal y 20-pound baskets, 
made especially for the work, which are very handy. I find 
by screwing a hook, something like you find in cupboards 
for banging clothes on, on the right side of the ladder, on 
which you can hang your basket by its rope handle, you 
make the picking much easier. If you have the basket on 
your arm or perhaps on the top of the ladder, you are 
spending half the time preventing the fruit from tipping out. 
Another way is by having a bag made of strong cotton or 
canvass with a long handle to put over the shoulders, leav- 
ing both hands free to work, and when the bag is full you 
take the fruit out and transfer it to a box ready for hauling 
to the packing house. But one is liable to be careless with 
this method, in dumping the fruit from the bag into the 
box carelessly, so I would not advise owners to allow their 
hired men to use the bag. The basket is, I think, the best 
all-round method, and it saves handling the fruit too often. 

When the fruit is picked, keep it in the shade of the 
trees till the wagon comes around to haul it to the packing- 
bouse. Thes best wagon I have found for this purpose is 
the ordinary fruit truck without springs. The bed is low, 
resting on four small wheels with wide tires about three to 
four inches wide; the front wheels pass right under the bed 
in turning, thus is handy for both vineyard and orchard, 
being able to turn in very small compass. This truck is 
good only for orchard and vmeyird wAere f/te ground is 
mellow, on the rough roads it is liable to jolt the fruit into 
a pulp before you arrive at your destination. There are two 
or three more trucks of different make for this kind of 
work, which I think are all about as good as one another, 
each having its advantages and disadvantages, so it is best 
to leave this to the owner's discretion as no two men have 
the same ideas. 

The fruit has now arrived at the packing house. I think 
the best packing house I have seen is a plain board build- 
ing about 60x30 feet, according to the ranch's requirements, 
with a large door at each end to allow of a fruit truck pass- 
ing clear through, thus saving a lot of walking to pack the 
fruit, where it is wanted. One or two smaller doors on the 
sides are also handy. Now for plenty of ventilation, which 
is the great essential in this warm climate, especially for 
the fruit; have a continuous window clear around the build- 
ing, about four to six feet deep, but instead of glass have 
wire mosquito bar tacked on to keep most of the flies, etc., 
out, outside of which have shutters fastened from the upper 
edge on to the building with hinges. The shutters can be 
kept open just by using a small stick. When closed they 
give the building a solid appearance, one hardly being able 
to tell the presence of shutters. It is also desirable to have 
one large window in each gable covered with wire mosquito 
bar. This greatly adds to the ventilation. 

The inside of the packing house must be fitted up ac- 
cording to the owner's idea with benches, shelves, efc. A 
well near by is also a very essential item. 

Before packing the fruit, it ought to be graded. This 
saves the packers a lot of work, as it is always a golden 
rule to ship nothing but the best, in which lies the secret 
of success. Some have graders, of which there are several 
of different makes, each having its own peculiarity, but 
the owner, if he cannot afford to buy this machine, can 
grade very quickly by hand. Of course I speak of the 
small ranchers. Large ranchers have their graders, and, 
having so much fruit to handle, necessitates having one or 
more. Generally what is too ripe to pack you can either 
dry or can, thus preventing waste. 

The packing of the fruit is a simple enough operation 
when once learned. I think the best way for a fruit man 
who has just started is to visit one or two large packing 
houses, where he will pick up the idea much more readily 
than he could from mere reading. By such a visit he will 
find out the size of boxes, crates, etc., kind of paper and 
method of packing, nailing and marking preparatory to its 
being finally shipped. 

Any spring wagon will do to haul the fruit to the depot 
or elsewhere, from the small wagon we see most fre- 
quently up to the large fruit wagons mounted on heavy 
springs to prevent shaking the packed fruit more than 
necessary. On some of our roads one needs a good wagon. 
I have seen fruit hauled in ordinary wagons without springs 
to the depot or elsewhere, and on taking the boxes out you 
could hear the peaches, etc., rattling, the owners wonder- 
ing why they could not get anything for them on the fruit's 
arrival East; so one can see the folly of having anything 
but a good spring wagon, especially when they have a long 
distance to haul their fruit. 

Speaking of shipping and the best ways of doing so, is a 
matter of much discussion at the present time. First 
there are the commission men, to whom I would not ship a 
box of fruit if I could help it, for very often it will not be 
a profitable transaction; then there is the California Fruit 
Union, Earl & Co., Strong & Co., besides several others. 

The last two generally buy the fruit on the trees or vines, 
or pay so much per box for them packed, delivered at the 
depot. When they buy the fruit on the trees and vines 
they generally furnish their own packers, etc., the owner 
simply picking and hauling to the packing house. They 
have their agents distributed over the fruit sections, with 
whom the owners can arrive at favorable terms without 
going to their headquarters. 

In the California Fruit Union you buy a share, which is, 
I think, $1;, then you ship your fruit to their headquarters 
at Sacramento, where they take charge of it, shipping it 
East, where it is sold on the auction plan. The Union 
sends you particulars of the sale, together with what price 
your fruit brought. From this is deducted freight, cartage, 
commission, etc. I generally find, if you ship first-class 
fruit, you will generally have a good margin after all ex- 
penses are deducted. By this plan the small man stands 
on an equal footing with the large raiser; no matter where 
you are located or the number of boxes you have, you will 
have just the same facilities and consideration. The " C. 
F. U." is as near the poor man's friend as it is possible to 
get nowadays. 

To conclude, I sincerely hope ere many years have 
elapsed, that there will be an entirely new system for the 
shipping and selling of fruit, doing away with the middle- 
men, who seem at present to grow rich on the poor man's 
products, not forgetting also a still further reduction in the 
freight is needed badly; then fruit-raising will, notwith- 
standing its hard work and disadvantages, be a profitable 
occupation, and not as it is at present with most I have 
met, a bare living and hardly that in places. 

Felix Foreman. 

HluiT JIJaf^keting. 

An Old Galifornian Gives Advice. 

Among the papers recently read at a meeting of the 
Washington Horticultural Society was one by J. M. Hix- 
son, now of Seattle, but whom many readers will remem- 
ber as a commission merchant of this city. His remi- 
niscences of his Calffornia experience will be found read- 
able and his advice in many instances pertinent. We quote 
as follows : 

No matter what variety of fruit is marketed, great care 
should be taken. The time devoted to picking, assorting 
and packing will bring in a larger return than any other 
devoted to the crop. 

Fruit should be picked at just the right time; it should 
not be picked before it is fully matured, nor suffered to 
hang on the tree until overripe. Some kinds are better to 
eat when fully ripened on the tree; others should lay sev- 
eral days after gathering before eating. The cherry, 
peach, plum, nectarine, and in fact most all stone fruit, 
should be ripe before picking to have their full flavor. 
Some kinds of pears, and especially the Bartlett, are better 
by laying awhile after being taken from the tree. If a 
Bartlett pear hangs on the tree until fully ripe, it is coarse 
and grainy, and not so juicy and finely flavored as when it 
lays several days after picking. As soon as they have ob- 
tained their full size and show mothy spots, they should be 
picked. If they are to be shipped a distance, they should 
be wrapped in fruit paper, and they can he depended on to 
keep from 8 to 12 days, and come out in about the proper 
condition for eating. If intended for local market, wrap- 
ping may be dispensed with, but they should be shipped at 
once, and let your commission merchant put them on the 
market as they commence to color up. If it is an 
object to get some in market early, they can be picked 
before they are fully matured, and they will color up 
and be juicy, but not so finely flavored as if fully 
matured. One can determine when it is safe to pick 
by raising up the pear; if the stem and fruit bud part 
freely, they will color up; if the stems break, then they will 
rot in the place of coloring up. These characteristics of 
the Bartlett, which is the only pear used by the cannery, 
makes it a very desirable variety. 

The Gravenstein apple should be treated very much as 
the Bartlett pears. It is not particularly attractive when 
first picked; after laying awhile, it becomes very attractive 
in appearance, and has a very fine aroma. 

A heavy per cent is often lost to the grower in selling his 
own fruit, or intrusting the sale of the same to parties who 
are not familiar with the business. 

I have sold the Gravenstein apple in Chicago from Cali- 
fornia at $1. 50 per box — at the same time the apples com- 
ing in from Michigan in barrels would sell for $1.50 per 
barrel and it would take four boxes to make a barrel. 

Tender fruits, such as berries, cherries, peaches, in fact 
all stone fruits designed for shipping, should never be 
picked in the heat of the day. This country where the 
dawn of day is long before the sun is up to heat the fruit, is 
well adapted for shipping tender fruits. 


After the fruit reaches the packing house (or an impro- 
vised shed, if it is far to the packing house, as they should 
be in the shade soon after being picked), it should be care- 
fully assorted. All the No. i packed by itself and the No. 2 
by itself, and all that is overripe, bruised or defective 
should be utilized at home; or, if it is shipped, packed sep- 
arately and marked culls. If the distance to ship is not 
great, I would pack apples on the side. Take the cover 
off the box and lay the apples in rows, with the highest 
colored side down, packing the box all the way through. 
If four layers will fill the box, they are considered good- 
sized apples; if they do not fill the box full, and another 
row makes the box too full, put a smaller apple between 
the last layer, what is called breaking joints, then put a 
cleat on the end of the box and raise it so the cover can be 
nailed down, fitting snugly on the apples to prevent their 
moving in handling; then turn the box over and mark, so 
when they are opened the side which is down when packed 

will be the top. If it requires five layers to fill the box, 
proceed in the same way. Some varieties will take six 
tiers or layers to fill the box, and they will still rank as 
No. I of their kind. If the apples are to be shipped a dis- 
tance, or designed to be kept long in the box, pack then* 
on the end, putting the stem end down, so when the box 
is opened the stem end will be up. The variety and num- 
ber of tiers should always be marked on the box, so the 
seller will not have to open the box to find that out. The 
least opening that has to be done the better. No one who 
has not had experience in selling fruit has any idea of the 
effect of having to open the box. If a buyer sees the box 
has been opened, his first thought is, some one has looked 
at that box and rejected it, and of course he does not want 
what some one else has rejected. Buyers soon learn the 
brand and the manner of packing. If the fruit is assorted 
and packed honestly, it is sought after, and soon there is 
little occasion to open the boxes. The same care in 
handling, assorting and packing should be taken in all 
kinds of fruit. 

The party who wants a first-class article and is willing 
to pay for that, does not want a second class mixed in, and 
if he finds there is second grade mixed in, he will not seek 
that brand the second time. If he buys at all, he will want 
a reduction amounting to as much as the value of the 
second grade. Then why not leave it out and save the ex- 
pense of boxing and freight I do not want to be under- 
stood that all the fruit that is not No. i should be thrown 
away. There is often good sale for second grade. What 
I strenuously contend for is to have it so assorted that the 
party wanting the No. i does not have to take and pay for 
such as he does not want, and the party who can use what 
would be classed as second grade, on account of color or 
some other cause, would not have to pay an extra price be- 
cause there were a few high colored or fancy ones on top 
of the box. What I contend for is assorting your fruit into 
three classes, packing with care Nos. i and 2, and if the 
third grade cannot be utilized at home, and it will pay to 
ship, so mark it that the seller knows what it is and can 
price it accordingly. A good way to mark is by letters. A, 
B and C; No. i, mark A. If you have something extra 
good, better than the run of what you class No. i, mark it 
@ (a, with a circle); mark No. 2, B, and culls C, otherwise 
your No. 2 might be as good as some other No. I's, and 
by its being marked No. 2 would prevent its bringing as 
much as it should, as compared with the others' pack-mark 
No. I. 

In an experience of 30 years in the commission business, 
I have seen the effect of careful assorting and packing, as 
compared with careless and positive slovenliness on the 
other hand. I cannot refrain from dwelling on this sub- 
ject at the risk of being called cranky. If one can make 
from 10 to 15 per cent, with but a small loss of time, is it 
not worth the effort ? I can recall many instances in which 
shippers from adjoining orchards of the same class of fruit 
have made that much. I will name an instance : I drove 
into a cherry orchard near San Jose, California, and found 
the owner in quite a state of excitement, having just re- 
ceived his account ot sales of cherries from our house in 
San Francisco. His first greeting was " Mr. Hixon, I 
would like to know why it is you can get 10 cents per iiox 
more for my neighbor's cherries than you do for mine ?" I 
replied, I suppose it must be because they are better. 
" They are no better; you can see them hanging side by 
side. Mine are as good as his or any others. And yoti 
sell his for $1. 10 and mine for Si. The price is good and 
$1 would be satisfactory, but I do not like to have my fruit 
sold for less than my neighbor." I said I did not know 
how to manage, unless I knocked down and pocketed the 
ten cents extra I got on his neighbor's, as $1 was all the 
buyers would pay for his, and they would not do that as 
long as any of his neighbor's were to be had at $1. to. 

After a little more badinage on my part, I concluded it 
was time to pacify the old gentleman. I said, Mr. Conney, 
I think I can explain the matter satisfactorily. Mr. Hill 
packs two rows and then fills the box full, and when the 
boxes are opened they are smooth and show full from one 
end to the other. You pack but one layer, and when your 
boxes are opened, a corner has broken down and the 
stems show, and they are not attractive. " Well, well, I 
guess that does have something to do with it." After that 
Mr. Conney packed two rows, and got just as much for his 
cherries as Mr. Hill; and when I drove into Mr. Conney's 
orchard four years afterward, I had a pleasant greeting. 
A minute or two of time did the work, and a half-dozen or 
so extra cherries filled up the corners of the box, and it not 
only saved ten cents, but the old man's temper. And it is 
a very bad thing to get angry with your commission mer- 
chants about something that is your own fault. 

I will give an instance of the effect of neat packing of 
dried fruit : While I was in Chicago, among the large list 
of consignments of dried fruit from California. I received a 
lot of unbleached, sun-dried apricots from Dr. Chandler, 
of Suiter county. They were packed with such care and 
taste, I said to my brother : " You must take a box with 
you to show how they are packed. If you take a sample in 
the usual way they will not bring but little more than the 
ruling price for that class of fruit," which was about 12 
cents per pound. The broker took the box and showed 
the apricots in the box. It was not long until he returned, 
having sold the entire invoice to one of the largest handlers 
of dried fruit in the city (Sprague, Warner & Co.) for 16 
cents per pound. 

I could count hundreds of instances all along the line, 
not only to small dealers and consumers, but in large 
quantities to large dealers in the great fruit centers, the 
effect of careful packing. There is a perceptible difference 
between fruit packed with moderate care and that with 
which special pains has been taken. When a shipper is a 
don't-care kind of a fellow, who thinks it does not make 
much difference how fruit is packed, as he can't see why 
fruit packed is any better than when it is not packed, and 
argues if one man don't buy it another will, you will find 
he is apt to be in about the same mood when he meets his 
commission merchant as the old man who shipped the 
cherries was when I first drove into his place. 

Jdlt 2S, 1892. 

f ACiFie f^URAb f RESS. 


Raisin Growers and Packers Agree Upon a 

The committee and convention meetings which occupied 
the last three days of last week at Fresno were character- 
ized by many discussions, but there was agreement at the 
clo5e, provided the conditions can be complied with. 

The following named delegates from county raisin con- 
ventions were present : W. S. Potter and B. A. Bateman, 
Hanford; E. L. Hooper of Merced; L. S. Harmon of 
Rosedale, Kern county; H. Murdock of College City; W. 
N. Byron of Lemoore; E. Sanborn of Tulare; J. M.Hawley 
of San Diego; C. Wistanley of San Bernardino; W. N. 
Oothout, John S. Dore, D. T. Fowler, W. M. Vanwormer 
and Col. Trevelyan, of Fresno. 

The uackers represented at the meeting were : The 
Curtis Fruit Packing Company of Fresno; F. P. Devine of 
RiversiHe; Fresno Raisin Packing Company of Fresno; 
Grififin & Skelly of San Francisco and Fresno; Eugene 
Gould of Woodland and Malaga; Home Packing Company 
of Fresno; S. B. Holeton; Selma Packing Company; 
Kingsburg Packing Company; J. Lemoore of Lemoore; H. 
W. Bryan of Lemoore; Noble Bros, of Fresno; Producers' 
Raisin Company of Fresno; Traver Raisin Company; Wil- 
liams, Brown & Co.; A. D. Barling, Fresno; Easton Pack- 
ing Company; Logan Vineyard Company. 

The morning session was occupied in the discussion of 
a basis of action. 

Alexander Gordon reported that the raisin growers had 
now 23,000 acres, owned by 900 persons, represented in 
the organization and pledged to support those packers who 
would agree with the growers not to sell raisins at a price 
which would fail to give the grower a price per pound for 
his raisins in the sweat box to be agreed upon by the joint 

In order to test the power of the packers present to enter 
into such agreement, they were asked to see how many car- 
loads of raisins they packed during the past season. The 
list was made up, from which it appeared that they packed 
1359 carloads, each carload containing from 10 to 15 tons 
of raisins, making the total a very large proportion of the 
whole shipment of the State. 

The committee of raisin growers then withdrew for the 
purpose of allowing the packers, who had just arrived, to 
agree among themselves as to what proposition should be 
made to the growers. After the growers withdrew, they 
reassembled and resolved that it was the sense of the 
growers' committee that all raisin growers should receive 
five cents per pound for good raisins in the sweat box. 

When both parties came together again, the packers pro- 
posed that the packers and the growers should organize, 
and if 95 per cent of the packers and 95 per cent of the 
growers could agree upon the proposition, the packers 
should bind themselves not to sell any raisins for a price 
that would give less than ^'/i cents per pound in the sweat 
box to the growers, and that 95 per cent of the growers 
should agree to do business with those packers. 

The committee from the growers' convention refused to 
accept 4^ cents per pound, and expressed their willingness 
to enter into a five cent per pound combination. 

The following morning the discussion was renewed, 
and an agreement was reached upon the terms named by 
the packers. This action was reported to the convention 
on Saturday and was agreed to, thus constituting 4J cents 
per pound the minimum price for good raisins in the 
sweat box. 

Alexander Gordon said that the first thing to be done by 
the growers was to get the stipulated 95 per cent, so that 
the packers could then unite in their part of the contract. 

John S. Dore said that, in order to accomplish the 
work, it was necessary for the body to act together and be 
unanimous. If any one did not understand the matter, he 
should acquaint himself, and then let his presence be felt. 
Sympathy and earnestness is absolutely necessary to 

D. T. Fowler read a telegram from a convention of 
raisin growers at Riverside, in which the growers there ex- 
pressed themselves willing to enter the compact, if one is 

Discussion was had upon the organization of a State 

C. C. Agnew of Solano county, was added to the com- 
mittee. The committee was given the authority to add to 
their number any members they might consider necessary 
or proper. Alexander Gordon was elected treasurer of the 
State Association. 

Steps were taken looking to the establishing and main- 
taining a grade and standard of raisins, to be the same all 
over the State. 

PC HE Dairy. 

A Progressive Establishment Near Marysville. 

Frank S. Chapin writes the following interesting letter 
for the Record- Unioti: 

Six miles northeast of Marysville I passed the 3400-acre 
ranch of T. B. Hall of Sacramento, where he has started 
to breed up and work up a model dairy of Holstein cows. 
In several respects it is the best calculated for making good 
butter in hot weather, without ice, of any establishment 
that I ever saw, and its leading features are worthy of ex- 
tended notice and careful study by dairymen. The cream- 
ery and poultry business, as auxiliaries to fruit-growing, in 
the valleys just coming under irrigation, are such essential 
factors in the settlement of the State and development of 
its industries, that a successful dairy, where high-grade 
butter is made from alfalfa, in the very hottest weather, 
without ice, ought to be driven about the State on wheels 
as an object lesson, made a dairy-school, or used in some 
way to lift those thousands out of the depths of silurianism 

who claim that dairying doesn't pay and are able to prove 
by their own experience that nothing pays. 

R. H. Wells, the suoerintendent of the ranch, attends to 
the creamery personally, and informs me that they have 
had too little butter to supply their trade, and that their 
lowest price in Sacramento has been 27 cents, when best 
goods in San Francisco were quoted at 19. To-day the 
temperature of his butter-room was 70°, that of his churn- 
room 76°, and that outside 92°. Last week, when the tem- 
perature- rose to about 115' at some time every day, the 
temperature ir his butter-room rose only 6° during the day. 
The secrets of this success are 


It is of three rooms, one for the engine, one for the churn 
and a third for the butter. The engine-room is made to 
allow a free draft of air so as to prevent heating other 
rooms. It is about 16 feet square. The walls of the but- 
ter-room consist of a wall packed with eight inches of saw- 
dust and two inner walls of lumber, so carefully lined with 
paper as to make' two air-tight chambers. The ceiling is 
about the same, and he has an elaborate system of ventila- 
tion from the ceiling overhead. The churn-mom is much 
the same, except the sawdust wall. All the floors are of 
cement or artificial stone, and the doors are made like 
those of an ice-chest or refrigerator. Mr. Wells deserves 
great credit for having kept up a grade of butter to bring 
eight cents a pound above the market without having used 
any ice until to-day; but his success is not due to the build- 
ing alone. 


He watches the churn very carefully, and when the gran- 
ules of butter are about as large as pin heads, he stops the 
churn, draws oflf the buttermilk and rinses the butter in 
the coldest water he can get, until the clear rinsing water 
shows that the buttermilk has been removed. For his 
brine he uses about one pound of salt for every five pounds 
of butter in the churn, and water enough to float the butter 
easily. This salt makes the brine six degrees colder than 
the water was, and when the butter is in such fine grains, it 
will take up as much salt as is needed, from brine of this 
strength, in the course of an hour. As his well water is 
64°, the brine stands at 58°, and he takes the butter from 
the chum in very fine condition for working. Of this there 
is very little to be done, as the buttermilk has all been re- 
moved and the salt perfectly distributed already. 

It is well understood among butter makers that the less 
working the better, so long as buttermilk and moisture are 
removed and salt perfectly distributed. 

Mr. Wells uses a Sharpless cream separator, driven by 
a direct jet of steam, which troubled him some about heat- 
ing the cream, until an expert came from San Francisco to 
show him how it should be operated. Now he has no 
trouble on that account, and has invented a cooler over 
which the cream runs from the separator to the cream tank. 
It looks like a tin box, about six inches deep, with the top 
made out of a washboard. This is set so that the cream 
will run very slowly over the corrugated surface, while the 
pump drives a stream of water from the well through the 
box of the cooler. 

He never allows his cream cans or vat to be closed, and 
in this way any bitter taste that might arise from alfalfa or 
similar feed is dispelled while the cream is ripening. 


The barn is arranged so that the stalls can easily be kept 
clean and dry, and the silo and feed cutter are conveniently 
arranged. It is proposed to dairy with thoroughbred Hol- 
steins only. They will produce butter principally in the 
fall and winter, and will feed a ration of hay, ensilage and 
grain. Besides feed produced on the ranch, considerable 
bran will be used, and I suggested a slight addition of oil- 
cake to the ration. 

There is a device for watering the cows with a trough 
long enough for four to drink at once. This trough is hung 
by wires to a little car, at each end, running on a track 
overhead. The trough is supplied with water by a hose, 
and as soon as four cows have done drinking, it is run along 
to the next. When all have drank, the trough is run up by 
pulleys out of the way of the cows' horns and returned to 
its place at the head of the row. I think a similar device 
for distributing the feed, and especially for the ensilage, 
would be desirable. 

The creamery could be made cooler by porches on the 
east, south and west sides. A perforated pipe along the 
ridge of the roof, from which the pump could throw a spray 
sufficient to keep the roof damp, would help very much in 
keeping the room cool. 


All creamery men know the difficulty in tempering cream 
for the churn, or for the ripening process, by the use of ice, 
steam OJ hot water. I have seen many devices for cooling 
and airing milk by pumping air through the can. Suppose 
we attach the cylmder of a force pump to the wall of the 
butter-room and arrange to drive it from the engine. With 
the suction of this pump connect a T, from which one pipe 
shall draw air through a coil sunk in the well or in an un- 
derground vault, and the other from a coil heated in some 
way from the boiler. Connect the discharge of the pump 
with a hose terminating in a perforated tin tube. 

When you want to cool the cream, open the pipe leading 
to the cold-air chamber, throw (he perforated tube into the 
cream can, or tank, and in a twinkle you will have your 
cream thoroughly, Stirred, aired and reduced in tempera- 
ture. The same rule would apply for heating the cream 
when you opened the cock leading to the hot-air pipe. 

In this device it would be an important feature that the 
opening where the air entered either pipe should be where 
no odor tainted the atmosphere. In many places it might 
be well to have the pipes extend some distance above the 
roof. On the other hand, any objectionable flavor in the 
cream would be, in large measure, dispelled by driving 
pure air through in this way. 

These tubes could be introduced in the churn to temper 
the cream there, when necessary. If the operator was in 
a great hurry, he could give it a pretty high temperature 

until the butter was on the point of breaking, then reduce 
the temperature to a point where the grain would come 
firm and hard. 

By the addition of $500 in machinery and the help of a 
common laborer, Mr. Wells could handle the milk to make 
500 pounds of butter daily. 

If he was able to work on that scale and hold the pres- 
ent prices for his output, he could credit $40 per day for 
the extra advantages of buildings and machinery and his 
skill as an expert. That would pay the interest at ten per 
cent on $146,000 over average dairying. Mr. Hall is ex- 
perimenting on a safe plan, with the prospect of finally 
reaching that point where the increase of his herd will 

Yet the Silurians of the plains and the Micawbers of the 
mountains are commenting every day on the old " fool and 
his money soon parted " proverb. They are of the kind 
that won't go across the road to visit an experimental sta- 
tion, nor take an agricultural paper, because they don't be- 
lieve in book farming. They know that farming doesn't 
pay, because all other classes are combined against them. 
At the same time, they never think of using their brains in 
in a way to make farming pay,and willful ignorance is their 
greatest oppressor. In the meantime, they nurse their own 
misery, discourage others, retard the development of the 
country, and are stumbling blocks in the way of general 

Mr. Hall's money and Mr. Wells' skill have demonstrated 
that dairying can be carried on profitably in the very hot- 
test climate of the interior valleys of California. The ap- 
plication of these principles to cooperative dairying is what 
IS needed where families of limited means are settling small 
tracts of irrigated lands with a view of making fruit ranches. 
It almost always takes more than was expected to bring 
fruit trees into bearing and support the family in the mean- 

If instead of planting the whole 20 acres to fruit, 12 are 
thus planted, and the other eight put in alfalfa, so as to 
keep a dozen cows, a dozen brood sows and 200 hens, the 
farmer who gives it careful attention can expect to make a 
good living and pay interest on first cost of land while his 
trees are coming into bearing. To do this, the community 
must run a creamery embodying essentially the features 
described in Mr. Hall's establishment — building thoroughly 
protected against changes of temperature, pure air and 
water, well-planned ration, cream separator and modern 
appliances, expert creamery man. These will be followed 
by cash trade, home comforts and prosperous communities. 

(She Vij^ey^rd. 

An Early Experience with Long Cuttings. 

Wm. Pfeffer, the well-known Santa Clara grape grower, 
writes for the IVine and Spirit Review as follows; 

The reason why I have attempted in former articles, un- 
der this heading, to criticise some systems of training the 
vine in California, is because they have not given satisfac- 
tory results, and to be more convincing I will give my own 
experience and observations from the beginning to the 
present time, and to show how easy it is to adopt faulty 
ways and the extreme difficulty in correcting them is the 
object of this writing. 

We cannot train the vine in a correct way if not planted 
in accordance with this view, and, consequently, vines 
planted or trained in an incorrect way cannot yield the 
highest perfect product, wine. Disregarding the fact that 
it is easy to grow grapes here for anybody, no matter where 
born and under what conditions brought up, I hold that the 
planting, pruning and training the vine are so closely allied 
one to another that no one of these factors can be disre- 
garded with impunity. 

My first lesson ingrowing grapes here was in digging out 
grape vines, and this happened to be in the year 1869, in 
the month of February, at Mrs. Yount's place, Yountville, 
Napa county, shortly after my arrival from the southern 
part of Illinois. When Mrs. Yount learned that I had a 
leaning toward grape culture, she set me to work digging 
out rooted grape-vine cuttings, with the intention to plant 
with these an addition to her already established vineyard 
of considerable size. These rooted cuttings had the butt 
ends about 24 inches below the surface and were planted 
many years before I had to dig them out. It was a hard 
job to get all of the original cutting to the surface without 
leaving the principal roots still in the soil torn away from 
where they started at the cutting. In Illinois I had bougtit 
and planted rooted vine cuttings which measured no more 
than six to eight inches and had generally been made from 
cuttings of two buds or joints, and I consequently uttered, 
in the presence of the good lady, my disapproval of the 
unique way of producing rooted grape-vine plants, but the 
lady reproached me by saying, "William, I don't want you 
to speak in a disrespectful way about Mr. Yount or the way 
he planted these cuttings." I need not say that I never 
forgot it, but bad precept caused me considerable annoy- 
ance and loss. 

In the following fall I started a two-acre vineyard in 
Santa Clara county, on the very same farm I have worked 
ever since, but the cuttings I planted then, after the prin- 
ciple "the deeper the better," failed to grow, and I had to 
plant and replant for five years, till these two acres showed 
no more empty gaps to be still replanted. When they ar- 
rived at bearing I found that nearly every other vine was 
of a different kind, and there was no other way of bringing 
order into this chaos than by grafting them all into a cer- 
tain kind. While digging around these vines preparatory 
to grafting, I learned that many vines resembled in shape a 
carrot, while some lost the butt end by rot. After this I 
did not bury the butt end of a cutting two feet below the 
surface — in fact, eight or ten inches deep gave me the best 

As to the distance apart of planting vines I, of course, 
was led to adopt what others did, and to-day I pride my- 


pACIFie F^URAlo f RESS. 

Jdlt 2S, 1892 

self in having the greatest variety in that line. Six feet 
apart in the row, and the rows from six to seven feet apart, 
bad been my first planting, but when the great grape-vine- 
planting boom broke out in the early eighties, and the 
driving of one horse was considered a poor man's business, 
I increased the distance to six by nine and seven by eight, 
and, as already recorded, to a small extent, twenty by 
twenty, a la chaintre. 

coarse head could be represented as up among the clouds, 
or with a distinct halo over it. 

The closing line of the inscription is a trifle too deep for 
our comprehension or comment. — Vision, in American 

(She [EfiEbD. 


Orange Insects in Tahiti. 

P.\PE.\Ri, Tahiti, June lo, 1892. 

To THE Editor:— At ditierent times I have called the 
attention of the people of California to the great danger 
arising, from the importation of Tahiti oranges without sub- 
jecting them to inspection and having them disinfected be- 
fore distribution. 

An orange tree cannot be introduced without a great out- 
cry, but vessels loaded with fruit from the same localities 
can discbarge their fruit without any trouble. If the mis- 
chief has not been already done, I request that the next 
cargo of Tahiti oranges received in San Francisco be in- 
spected, not for scale upon the fruit, but for a worm or grub 
within. During the latter part of May and first half of 
June the greater portion of the ripe oranges are stung by a 
beetle, the egg of which soon hatches and the grub passes 
into the fruit, and in a short time the fruit will fall to the 
ground. If the orange is stung by a number of beetles it 
will fall at once. 

One fine orange tree upon my place, which was just 
ripening its second lot of fruit, was attacked by this beetle 
and in three days time fully two-thirds of the oranges had 
fallen to the ground. 

1 failed to find the parent of the grub last season, but 
this season, having more time, found it and studied its 
work. Fruit having this grub has been sent to California 
for a number of years, but it may be that the grub leaves 
the fruit before the cargo reaches California. 

This same beetle attacks melon and squash vines and 
causes great destruction among them. It very closely re- 
sembles a beetle common upon the squash vines in Amer- 
ica. I will send specimens of this insect to California and 
then we can know a little more about its classification. 

In connection with this same matter I would like to call 
the attention of the authorises to the fruit introduced from 
the Sandwich Islands and from Mexico. The bananas 
should be carefully examined. 

We have two parasites which feed upon the woolly aphis, 
and during the past few months it has been difficult to find 
a specimen of the aphis. I can ascertain if the parasite — a 
ladybird — is near here or not. I did not discover it until 
the month of October, when I found it in abundance upon 
my beans, tomatoes and coffee plants, and in a very few 
weeks all signs of woolly aphis had disappeared from these 
plants. Ei.MO R. Meserve. 

[We shall be glad to see specimens of the insects to 
which Mr. Meserve refers. We believe that cargoes of 
fruit arriving at this port are inspected by the officials o 
the State Board of Horticulture. The above communica- 
tion may be a warning to all concerned. — Ed. Press.] 

Kerosene Emnlsion for Lice. 

Prof. A. J. Cook, of the Michigan Agricultural College, 
speaking of a bulletin issued last year advising the use of 
the kerosene emulsion to kill lice on cattle, horses and 
hogs, and ticks on sheep, says : 

We had then only used it on cattle lice. We have since 
used it on horses, hogs and sheep, and are fully persuaded 
that it ranks first in effectiveness and cheapness as a spe- 
cific in all such cases. The many letters that we have re- 
ceived the past summer relating to the emulsion, the more 
timely date and the exceeding importance of the matter, 
make us repeat with emphasis the advice we then gave. 
Lice and ticks are very common in nearly, if not all, parts 
the flocks and herds of the States. They claim no mean 
per cent of the strength and vitality of our animals. Well- 
fed animals are not always sleek and fine. The cause is 
not infrequently found in the tormenting, blood sucking 
louse. Tobacco decoction, crude petroleum and the 
various commercial dips are less efficient, not so whole- 
some and more costly. 

Kerosene emulsion not only kills all the lice, but also 
nits or eggs, and if the stable be well sprinkled with the 
emulsion at the same time the animals are treated, the ap- 
plication will need to be repeated only at rare intervals. 
Again, brushing the animals thoroughly with soap wash 
seems to cleanse the skin and make the coat more bright 
and glossy. Without any ques'ion, the kerosene emulsion 
barrel should find a place in every stockman's barn. 

The soft soap emulsion is best for this. The more liquid 
nature makes it easy of manipulation in cold weather, and 
the large quantity of soap is very cleansing and wholesome. 
To apply, we use a common brush in case of cattle, horses 
or hogs, and in case of sheep, dip the animal right into the 
warm diluted emulsion. The cost of material for an aver- 
age cow is about three cents, and the time required for 
treatment less than five minutes. 

Cooking the Lime, Salt and Sulphur Wash.— P. 
B. Armstrong of Lodi has a set of kettles and arches on 
the second floor of an outbuilding that has a capacity for 
cooking liquid enough for 14,000 trees daily. It is a great 
convenience to have it thus elevated, as he can draw it off 
into the spraying tanks without delay. Harry P. Stabler 
of Yuba City has a steam boiler and two 3oo-gallon tanks 
for cooking the liquid. By running the steam pipe into the 
tanks while cooking the wash, he keeps up such an agita- 
tion that the liquid is thoroughly mixed, and by steaming 
it two hours or more it becomes thoroughly cooked and 
mixed in a way to secure desired results when applied. 
Mr. Stabler finds that some take so little care in cooking 
the wash that it has no more effect than whitewash. Next 
year his tanks will be mounted on a staging, so that he will 
combine the advantages of his plan and Mr. Armstrong's. 
Frank S. Chapin in Record-Union. 

Hambletonian's Monument. 

Several years ago a project was started to raise by sub- 
scription sufficient money to erect an appropriate monu- 
ment over the grave of Rysdyk's Hambletonian. From 
time to time the project was revived by one journal and 
then another, advocated for a short time and then dropped, 
until early this season, when a few large subscriptions 
placed the matter on a substantial basis, and an order was 
given to the Syenite Granite Company, of which William 
Russell Allen is president, to place at Chester, Orange 
county, N. Y., over the grave of this famous horse, a sub- 
stantial red granite monument, similar to the one erected 
by this firm at Stony Ford for Green Mountain Maid. 

As almost every breeder and owner of trotting and road 
horses have descendants of Hambletonian, which are his 
most valuable and best; while every American takes more 
or less pride in the fact that the American trotter so far 
surpasses in speed the best of all other countries, and near- 
ly all holding the fastest re-'ords have, since the days of 
Dexter, been close descendants of his famous sire, the pub- 
lic generally are, to a greater or less extent, actually inter- 
ested in the erection of this monument, to the cost of which 
a large number have directly contributed, and will take 
pride in whatever is really in good taste pertaining to it. 

There has been considerable discussion as to the most 
appropriate spot for erecting such an elaborate memorial. 
John H. Wallace proposed and presented the strongest ar- 
guments he possibly could in favor of Central Park as the 
best location, but the recent hostility, so plainly manifested 
by such a prominent element, against providing for our 
typical American production a driveway corresponding to 
the " Equestrian Road," which for several years has been 
kept in the best possible condition for the exclusive use of 
the very limited class of bang-tailed horses, ridden chiefly 
with English saddles and mounted by awkward riders, a 
hostility which, aided by the misrepresentations of the Sun 
and other prominent daily papers, finally brought about 
the repeal of the driveway bill by the same legislature 
which had passed it, has demonstrated very clearly that 
Central Park would have been the least appropriate place 
which could possibly have been selected. 

The most fitting site, the most suitable material, and a 
firm interested in furnishing the best possible work, are 
those finally decided upon, and the only reasonable criti- 
cism to be made is relative to a small portion of the in- 
scription, which is to be: 



Born May 5, 1849. 
Died March 27, 1876. 
His Nobility was the Act of Inherent Power. 
On the plain marble slab originally erected over his 
grave was the inscription, " Hambletonian, foaled May 5, 
1849; died March 27, 1876," and we have not yet ascer- 
tained who is responsible for having changed the correct 
word " foaled " to the more sentimental "born." Occa- 
sionally a catalogue has been received, usually the produc- 
tion of some novice not overburdened with brains, where 
the colts and fillies, though not, as a rule, sufficiently well 
bred to bring, under the hammer, ordinary draught 'horse 
price, are all entered as having been " born," though none 
of them have yet mentioned anything about midwives, 
nursing bottles, safety pins or Mrs. Winslow's soothing 

The first monumental example of that line of inscriptions 
was relative to Green Mountain Maid, which is carried to 
a greater extreme, including "In Remembrance of the 
Great Mother of Trotters, Born 1862, Died 1888, at Stony 
Ford, the Birthplace of all Her Children." As Mr. Back- 
man paid for erecting that monument with his own money, 
he had, of course, a perfect right to use any inscription he 
chose, and it may have been appropriate in that connection 
to refer to Stony Ford " children," of which the world never 
before heard, though quite familiar with the history of the 
horse Electioneer, the gelding Guy (2:ioJ^) and the filly 
Elaine, which held at one time the world's fastest three 
and four-year-old records, and subsequently produced the 
champion yearling trotter, Norlaine. 

With Hambletonian, however, thousands are interested 
who prefer a statement of facts in good plain English to 
any sickly sentimentalism. Furthermore, if any personifi- 
cation was necessary in this case, it should have been in- 
troduced at the other end, for while Hambletonian was 
foaled an ordinary, plain, every-day, nonstandard colt, 
which with his dam brought only $125, not more than $25 
of which could have been reckoned for the colt, as the dam 
was certainly worth at least $100, honors were showered 
thick upon him near the close of his career, so that it 
would certainly be far more appropriate to start off with 
the time he was " foaled," and then wind up with " passed 
away," "climbed the golden stair," or something of that 

Taking into account that his soles had been previously 
removed, on the recommendation of a prominent authority 
on horses' feet, so that the old Hero in his last days could 
hardly walk or even stand, the picture of him, emaciated as 
he then appeared, with his sprung knees and hollow back, 
a-climbing the golden stair, would certainly be beautiful and 
picturesque in the extreme, and might perhaps be appro 
priately illustrated on his elaborate monument. His rather 

Opening the Season at the Ghino Beet Sugarie. 

Especially as the recent report of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture may by inference convey the impression that 
California does not produce good sugar beets, we take 
pleasure in republishing from the Chino Champion an 
account of the opening of the season's run at the large beet 
sugar factory at that place: 

On Monday morning, July 11, work on harvesting this 
season's crop of beets was commenced, and at 8:30 a. m. 
the first load was delivered to the factory. This was about 
five weeks earlier in the season than work was commenced 
last season, and the perfect organization and improved 
methods will make it possible to put beets in much more 

Mr. Gird alone has been using during this week ten 
plows for losening the beets in the rows, allowing them to 
be easily lifted from the soil by the toppers, who pull them, 
trim the tops with a large knife and throw the beets into 
baskets especially made for the purpose, from which they 
are emptied into the wagons. This week there have been 
about 90 toppers at work, and next week this force will be 
increased to about 130 to 140. Mr. Gird has 15 four-horse 
wagons hauling to the factory. Besides this, quite a num- 
ber of other farmers have commenced to haul their own 
beets. Yesterday there were delivered to the factory 221 
tons. Next week, when the routine work is well estab- 
lished, from 300 to 350 tons will be delivered per day. 

It is a noticeable fact that the beets, even from the upper 
and dryer lands (which are being harvested first), are of a 
good size and uniform, clean and smooth — as fine a lot of 
beets as any one could wish to look upon. The sugar per- 
centages are very satisfactory — better than many expected. 
We append a few of the results of the analyses made at the 
factory, and upon which the price paid for beets will be 

Sugar. Purity 

Asa Kimble 16.9 81.5 

Frank Niebel 17.4 82.8 

F. L. Prouty 15 5 84.5 

J. W. Welte 14 7 80 3 

J. H. Palmer 15.2 8S.3 

F. A. Williams 15.9 81.9 

Samuel Hayward 19.7 81 

Martin Karcher .% 15.6 84 

R. Gird 17 09 81 

Bittle & Johnson 16.7 84.6 

F. A. Williams 15.7 80 3 

R. Gird 19.4 84.6 

Fred Schlueter 16 2 82.9 

Samuel Hayward 17.8 81 

R. Gird 18.8 87.2 

Frank Niebel 17.4 82.8 

R. Gird 19.3 85 

Asa Kimble 15 9 81.5 

Samuel Hayward 16.7 83 

R. Gird 15.2 84.7 

R. Gird 19.8 87.8 

R. Gird 17 7 84.6 

These figures are taken at random from the books of the 
chemist, and are fair samples of the entire number of tests 
made at the factory. They were not selected for high 
figures only. Each one of these tests is an average from 
three or four loads. The manner of testing is to take sam- 
ples from each of three or four loads of a farmer's beets as 
they are delivered. These samples are then mixed, and a 
sample of the mixture is taken for analyses. This makes 
as fair a test of the entire crop as can be arrived at. In 
contrast with these analyses it is interesting to note the 
results attained in Germany, the birthplace of the industry, 
and where for years it was thought that beets had been 
brought to their highest perfection. We quote from H. 
Pohlmann, superintendent of the sugar factory here, and 
who spent many years as analytical chemist for German 
factories. In the Champion of July 3; 1891, he says: "The 
highest per cent of sugar in the beet ever experienced by 
me in Germany has been 14 per cent, and the average ran 
from 12 to 12}2 per cent." 


A visit to the sugar factory now reveals a scene of the 
greatest activity. The full complement of men will soon 
be at work, and then will commence what now promises to 
be a magnificent campaign. Early on Wednesday morn- 
ing the last syrup which remained from last year's cam- 
paign was worked through the centrifugals, and since then 
a force of men has been busy cleaning the tanks, floors, 
etc., so as to have everything in good condition for the long 
campaign to follow. The output of sugar from the stand- 
ing syrups was 517,375 pounds, or 258 tons. The govern- 
ment regulations require that when work is commenced on 
beets for the season the factory be entirely free and clear 
of all syrups or substances from which sugar can be made, 
so that no beets could be worked up until the syrup tanks 
were all empty of last year's product. 

Only one of the five 1200-hnrse power boilers has been 
used in working up the syrups. The fireman tells us that 
the machinery is so greatly improved and in such perfect 
condition that not more than one-half as much steam as 
was required last year is necessary this. 

There are three driveways over the beet sheds this year — 
one for unloading with shovels, one for the large dump 
beet wagons, and one for the wagons with nets — so as to 
insure the most expeditious unloading. Chas. E. Lawrence 
has charge of the unloading business. Mr. Gird has put 
in a unique arrangement for unloading the wagons with 
nets by water power. It is simply a water wheel connected 
with a windlass. Over this windlass pass the ropes, to one 
end of which are attached the hooks for raising the net and 
load from the wagon. It does the work which was done 
by horse power last year. 

Jolt 23, 1892. 

pACIFie i^URAio f RES8. 


Once on a time — perhaps 'twas when 
Haroun Alraschid ruled — two men 
Greeted each other at the gate 
Of Bagdad, famed throughout the State. 

" Oh, friend," the first exclaimed, " now, say 
Why gleam your eyes so bright to-day. 
While mine are filled with tears, that run 
To lose themselves my beard among?" 

" Know, then, I have a friend most dear 
In Kandahar this many a year, 
Who now has come my lot to share, 
My thoughts, my bouse, my work, my fare ! '' 

" Ah ! " cried the first, ''my friend'has gone. 
Whose face I've daily looked upon. 
Forever from my sight he's passed 
Across Arabia's desert vast I " 
Just then they heard the muezzin's call, 

" Come, come to prayer 1" from turret tall; 
And each, with closed ears and bowed head, 

" Allah il Allah I Kismet 1" said. 
Then parted; one with flying feet. 
His thoughts on intercourse most sweet; 
The other, slow, with stifled groan. 
To muse upon his friend, alone. 

When some ten years had passed away 
The two men met again, one day. 
The solitary man seemed glad; 
The other downcast, tired and sad. 

" Oh, friend," the first one cried, " I fear 

You've lost the one you held so dear ! 

What else could change your joy to mar 

In him, who came from Kandahar ? " 
" Alas I " the other cried, "we still 

Abide together and fulfill 

The treadmill round of daily life; 

There is no bickering nor strife. 

All's courteous, civil, decent — yet 

I feel, deep down, a keen regret; 

He shares my house, my work, my fare, 

But in my thoughts he doesn't share ! 

You're glad to-day — your friend's returned 

From o'er the desert? " " Nay. I yearned 

To see him; but I might not see; 

Yet well I knew his love for me 

And would not shame that love.- I tried 

To live as though he stood beside 

To warn, to comfort and to bless; 

So grows our friendship more, not less." 

The other answered with a sigh. 

Just then, from out a turret high. 

The muezzin's voice rose clear and loud: 
" Come, come to prayer ! " Each head was bowed 

And as the sun set, round and red, 
" Allah il Allah I Kismet 1" said. 

Oh, heed the moral well, I pray I 
A friend may go and friendship stay, 
Or come and friendship fly away. 
" Allah il Allah I Kismet ! '' say. 
— Arthur Chamberlain, in Boston Commonwealth 

A Visit to Miss Hetty. 

Written for the Rural Press by Augusta E. Towner. 

It is the iniddle of July. 

A tall, slender woman, in a stylish costume 
of Bedford cord, and holding a jointed para 
sol in her daintily gloved hand, may be seen 
leaving the yard of a highly ornate cottage 
on the main street of a Southern California 
town. Hesitatingly, she glances up and 
down the street as if trying to get her bear 
ings as to points of the compass. Then, 
murmuring, " Really, this must be west," 
she turns to the left. Perceiving a thick 
growth of pepper trees over the sidewalk, 
she shuts her parasol, and, walking on, 
glances critically about her. 

It is her first summer in California. Na 
turally fastidious, hypercritical, she, like 
many another Easterner, notes and magni 
fies blemishes in her environment, she 
would, " in the States," pass unnoticed. Her 
animadversions are miscellaneous and con- 

During most of the month of June, the 
lingering fogs and cool winds, after the taste 
of heat and sunny skies in May, caused her 
to sneer at "this boasted California climate. 
She dubbed it " X — ," the unknown quantity, 
when the oldest inhabitant told her it was 
every year different, so one could not sa ely 
prophesy. And she laughed with disagree 
able incredulity when told that the winter of 
'9 1 -'92 was the coldest seen in 17 years 
" I've heard that talk in the Bermudas,' 
she said. Even the ruin of the orange crop 
by freezes, unprecedented before, did not 
convince her that the " oldest inhabitant " 
wasn't up to prevaricating excuses. 

When the contented resident, from the 
same part of " the Slates ' as herself, ex 
pressed friendliness for the fogs, saying that 
they gave a welcome night irrigation while 
the fruit was swelling, she viewed her good 
nature distrustfully, as a specimen of the 
dolce-far-niente influence of the climate. 

She could not, or would not, understand 
why, when it was so warm in the sun, one 
often needs a wrap in the shade; nor why 
at 80° to 90° and over, she did not swelter 
as in the East. She almost resented her 
comfort as a design of the climate to trick 
her senses. And when, no matter how high 
the mercury climbed by day, she could cud 

die under her blankets at night and sleep, 
cool and restful, she admitted the fact and 
tendered her meed of praise, grudgingly. 

But the dust! No matter how she had 
borne dust in the East, alternating with 
wind, California's dusty roads she anathema- 
tized unceasingly. And when the amiable 
Californian asked, " Did she really expect 
heaven, and streets paved with gold ? ' she 
dubbed the country unenterprising. 

By-and-by, she is beyond the limits where 
the streets are sprinkled, and it is here she 
must turn down a cross road. Holding up 
her skirts and shaking a foot at every step, 
she tiptoes across, looking like a hen with 
St. Vitus dance. 

But to day, even she has no heart to fret 
at the dust. The influence of the climate is 
upon her. The heat, so deliciously tempered 
by the coast breeze, charms her. So does 
the appearance of plenty and thrift every- 
where, the lovely gardens around the cot- 
tages, the glimpses of cultivated fields. 

Once she mistook the restful air of the in- 
habitants for laziness. Now she has seen 
how they "hustle" during a fruit season, and 
she reads steady, contended industry on the 
faces of the passers-by. She realizes this 
easy air is the result of living on a fruitful 
soil, where every season has its crop, which 
an equable climate takes its time to mature — 
where there is no long winter's freeze, and a 
hot, short summer in which to prepare for 
that winter. 

Yes, and her fastidious soul has really 
condescended to enthuse over the present 
crop — apricots. She thinks it the loveliest, 
the most esthetic of fruits. Having seen 
specimens of apricot preparations, and hear- 
ing of others, she has determined to secure 
as substantial memories of the season as her 
culinary skill can prepare, to take with her 
back to the bleak New England coast. 

The object of her walk is to find a person 
she has often heard quoted, and get some 
recipes and instruction as to preserving 
apricots. " I have never met her. Ridicu- 
lously informed," she says to herself. But 
she walks on, nevertheless. The influence 
of the climate is upon her, a feeling of ami- 
able restfulness, of happy-go-luckiness pene- 
trating even her " N. P. — " ridden soul. 

Presently she hesitates before a small, un- 
pretentious cottage, with a wonderfully pretty 
garden on one sids and a green square of 
closely shaven lawn in front, whereon, from 
a whirly spray, falls a sparkling shower of 
mimic rain. She views the scene with satis- 
faction. A smile spreads over her face as 
she sniffs the cool, moist air, laden with 
sweet scents. And when, from around the 
corner of the house, a something, brownish- 
yellow and fat and downy, comes waddling 
on webbed feet and begins nibbling the 
green grass with its flat bill, about the cor 
ners of her mouth appear long-lost dimples, 
and she murmurs: 

"Yes, this must be Miss Hetty's, and that 
is her pet gosling Mrs. Bailey told me 

Then, walking with an approving air over 
the neatly kept gravel walk, she knocks at 
the front door of the little cottage. 

The door is opened by a plump little 
woman in a fresh print gown, whose dark 
hair streaked with gray is smoothly banded 
back and whose round, dark eyes meet her 
visitor's with a peculiar child-like directness, 
while a welcoming smile wrinkles her tanned 
and ruddy cheeks. This plump little body 
extended a hand to her visitor, leaning for 
ward as she does so with a cordial air which 
seemed to say, " Walk right in, please." 

" Dear me," thought the tall, prim woman 
as she involuntarily accepted the warm 
hand-clasp, "she does not know me from 
Adam, and I — why, I forgot to ask her name 
I have only heard her called Miss Hetty 
How ridiculous ! I cannot call her so, a 
stranger," and she is tempted to turn and 
walk back the way she came; but before 
she hardly knows it she is seated in a rock 
ing-chair, her hat is off and a fan handed 
her, while the bright-faced woman with the 
child-like eyes has been saying : " Walk 
right in, Mrs. Adams, and sit down. It's 
warm, too warm to keep your hat on. Here, 
take this fan and I'll get you a glass of lem- 
onade. I've just made a pitcherful." 

And Mrs. Adams, wondering how the 
little woman knows her name, sips her lem 
onade gratefully, and her sprightly hostess 
prattles on : " Mattie was in last evening 
Said she thought y> u'd be in to-day to see 
about ways of cooking apricots. I've seen 
you in church several times. Our Episconal 
congregation is not so large but that we 
notice newcomers. Some one told me your 
name. (" She takes it for granted I kno 
her," thought the visitor). Isn't that breeze 
nice ? My home is so fixed east and west 
catches sea and land breezes. Never suffer 
from the heat if thermometer's in the hun 
dreds. Set my spray going, too; watch 
ing the drops makes me cool all over. Im 
agination works easier that way, don't it, 

than when one tries to get warm on it, like 
Col. Sellar's candle in his stove? Ha ! ha! 
ha ! And it's such nice weather for drying 
cots, too, isn't it? With a fog now and 
then nights to moisten up the dried ones. 
I'm so glad for the fruit drier; and when 
you are rested wouldn't you like to come 
right into my kitchen and see some of my 
marmalade and jelly out of 'cots? Made 
my jelly all up first; preserves and marma- 
lade now. And oh ! don't you want some 
more lemonade, and will you excuse me a 
minute? I've some 'cots on my gasoline 
stove now. My kichen's cool, too, and 
smell of fruit is so nice." 

Miss Hetty flutters away, and Mrs. 
Adams, smiling amusedly to herself, thinks : 
" I feel just as I did when I was a little 
girl and went calling on one of my play- 

By and by Mrs. Adams is ushered into 
the neat kitchen with a porch on the south 
side, dark and cool, covered with Australian 
pea vine, and one on the north inclosed 
with wire netting, while tall pepper trees 
shaded the west windows through which 
came the ocean breeze. Here she was 
seated in an old-fashioned " Boston " rocker, 
comfortable with cushion and head-rest; 
here she was shown various forms of apri- 
cots preserved, and personally observed the 
bottling of several quarts, and here she 
posed over cook books, printed and written, 
asked many questions, was told many things 
she did not know enough to ask about, and 
enjoyed such a long free-and-easy chat as 
she had not had she could not remember 

At last Mr. Adams tears herself away, 
but she takes with her a roll of manuscript, 
notes and recipes, some in Miss Hetty's 
round, copy-book hand, but most of it in 
Mrs. Adam's aristocratic chirography, point- 
ed, slanting, the letters looking as though 
out in a high wind, or else running a mad 
race, trying to get to the right hand side of 
the page iirst. 

As Mrs. Adams reached her own door 
again, she laughed softly to herself, saying : 

" Why, I do not know her name yet. If 
I have not been calling her Miss Hetty all 
the time? Mercy, what is there about that 
little woman bewitches one so?' 

And little Miss Hetty, as she stands in 
her kitchen blanching kernels for a jar of 
apricot marmalade, nods her head as she 
says to herself : 

" My !i wouldn't she be horrified if she 
knew I came from ' Bosting ' too." 

■ Tom Was a Wise Man. 

Senator Stanford has taken lately to exer- 
cising by walking up and down the block on 
Connecticut avenue, writes Kate Field. On 
one of the last walks he took before sailing 
for Europe, he met a poor man whom he 
had helped freely on former occasions. The 
Senator stopped Tom and inquired how he 
was getting along. 

" Pretty well, Mr. Stanford," replied Tom, 
"but it is mighty hard work; we just man 
age to keep out of the poorhouse." 

" How many children have you got now, 

"Ten, sir, I think," said Tom. 

" I tell you what, Tom," responded the 
Senator, "you give me one of the ten to 
bring up and I'll give you a railroad in ex 
change." Tom looked delighted for a min 
ute, then scratched his head with a puzzled 

" Well," prompted the Senator, " what do 
you say to that ? " 

Tom looked embarrassed, then stammered 
out: "Well, now, I don't want to be dis- 
obliging, Mr. Stanford, but while you might 
know what to do with a baby, I was thinking 
that I wouldn't know what to do with a rail- 
road wh£n I got it." 

The Senator thought Tom was one of the 
wisest men he had met for some time. 

Whittier's Color Blindness. — John 
G. Whittier is color blind, and Lucy Lar 
com, the poet, relates the following anecdote 
illustrating his infirmity: Driving with Mr. 
Whittier a few years ago, she saw red col 
umbine growing by the roadside, and asked 
the poet to gather some for her. Mr. Whit 
tier at once left the carriage, fumbled around 
among the grass and columbine, and, with 
his hands on the flowers, called out in de 
spair, " Where are they? Where are they ?" 
"In your hand," said Miss Larcom, who 
had forgotten the poet's color blindness, 
Green and red were alike to him. Except 
in form, Mr. Whittier saw no difference be- 
tween the green grass and the red colum 

— First visitor (to museum) — "Did you 
see that man dining on carpet tacks and 
nails and things Second visitor — "Yes 
How I envied him!" "Envied him ?" "Just 
think how he must enjoy shad." 

The Spectre Wedding. 

Mr. Martin Dupont was a Justice of the 
Peace in the little town of Marlburg. He 
had been elected to ofifice at the close of the 
war of 1812, and had acted in his present 
capacity for nearly nine years. Men of Mr. 
Dupont's type were very common in those 
days, and even now one does not have to 
search far to find one of these self-compla- 
cent, pompous gentlemen, who delight in 
winning admiration from their associates, 
who always have at their tongue's end a 
great many stories in which they played the 
leading part, but who are, nevertheless, very 
superstitious, so much so, indeed, that a 
glimpse of the moon over the left shoulder, 
or a howling dog, has the power to make 
them melancholy for a week. 

Having failed to secure for himself as 
large a share of the world's goods as he had 
wished, Mr. Dupont was fully resolved that 
his two children, Henry and Margaret, 
should not be lacking in wealth. As for his 
son, he very wisely concluded that a good 
education, added to his natural abilities, 
would secure for him a place in the world; 
and already Henry was showing the wisdom 
of the plan, and by his rapid advancement 
in business was more than fulfilling his 
father's expectations. It had always been 
Mr. Dupont's desire that his daughter 
should marry some rich man, but Margaret 
had fallen in love, very foolishly, according 
to her father's idea, with the principal of the 
Marlburg High School. 

Charles forster had several times pleaded 
his suit in vain before Mr. Dupont. There 
was no fault in the young man, Mr. D. 
rather grudgingly admitted, except that all 
he had to depend upon was his salary, but 
still no man should presume to become his 
son-in-law who had not money enough to 
support his daughter in better style than 
that in which she was then living. He liked 
the school teacher very well as a friend, but 
as a son-in-law — that was quite another 

Nevertheless Charles and Margaret did 
not despair of their cause, although Mr. 
Dupont was seemingly immovable. The 
thought of an elopement was banished by 
them both as being dishonorable, and as no 
other plan seemed practicable, they very 
wisely resolved to wait until some kind fate 
should come to their aid. This, then, was 
the condition of affairs when our story be- 

Mr. Dupont's duties as Justice of the 
Peace did not confine his law practice to 
to Marlburg, but very frequently he was 
called away to attend various lawsuits in 
neighboring towns and hamlets, and it so 
happened that at this particular time he was 
engaged in a case of some considerable im- 
portance in an adjoining town. On account 
of the nearness of the place, it was Mr. 
Dupont's custom to drive his own horse 
back and forth and to spend his nights at 

One night, on account of an unusual press 
of business, he was obliged to remain be- 
yond his ordinary time of leaving, and after 
the work was completed he yielded to the 
urgent invitation of his client to chat for a few 
moments. As they puffed away at the choice 
Havanas, they began telling each other of 
various exciting adventures and wonderful 
experiences. Time slipped away so rapidly 
that it was after 10 o'clock before Mr. 
Dupont suddenly remembered that a seven- 
mile drive lay between him and his home. 
Hastily bidding his friend good-by, he 
started for the hotel stable to get his horse. 

The weather had changed while the two 
gentlemen had been chatting, and now the 
ominous stillness and the cloudy sky ad- 
monished Mr. Dupont that, if he wished to 
get home before the rain began to fall, he 
must hasten. Hastily throwing a quarter to 
the sleepy hostler, he sprang into his buggy 
and set out on his homeward way. 

The road was a lonely one; houses were 
few and far between, and a few miles out of 
Marlburg some lonely woods lined the road 
on either side, and adjoining the woods was 
a graveyard. As Mr. Dupont drove on into 
the darkness he began to become nervous, 
the wierd stories ihat he had just been hear- 
ing kept flashing through his mind, a great 
many wrong deeds of his life came before 
him, magnified by the darkness and soli- 
tude, and among other things he began to 
wonder if he was doing just right in refusing 
his consent to his daughter's marriage. In 
this frame of mind he approached the woods; 
involuntarily he tried to quicken his horse's 
pace, but the darkness and the low mur- 
murings of thunder seemed to have affected 
the horse too, and the sagacious brute tried 
constantly to slaken his pace. How lonely 
it seemed there — no houses, no living being, 
nothing but the dead in the graveyard be- 
yond. Suddenly the horse stopped and 


f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS, 

Jolt Si, 1892 

snorted. Mr. Dupont saw two white figures 
suddenly dart into the road; one stood be 
side his horse, and the other beckoned him 
to descend from his wagon. His hair rose 
and his tongue seemed glued to his mouth 
The silence was terrible. If those white be- 
ings would only speak; but no sound came 
from them. At last in desperation he stam 
mered out: 

" Who are you, and what do you mean by 
stopping me here in this way ? (jj;^:,, 

" We are spirits of the departed dead," a 
sepulchral voice replied, "and we have need 
of your services; descend from your vehicle, 
do as we bid you, and on the word of 
ghost you shall not be harmed." 

The terrified lawyer descended and stood 
by the speaker's side, while the other ghost 
tied his horse to a tree and joined them. 

" Yield yourself entirely to us and you 
shall be safe," said the spokesman. " You 
must needs walk far and must allow us to 
blindfold your eyes, in order that you may 
not discover before your time the way to 
the land of the shades. No more words 
must be spoken. Obey." 

Mr. Dupont was so terrified that he could 
not speak, and in silence allowed a cloth to 
be bound over his eyes; then, escorted by 
his ghostly companions, he began to walk. 
It seemed to him that he would never be 
allowed to stop; seconds seemed ages; every 
attempt of his to speak was checked by im- 
patient groans of his guides. At last, after 
walking half around the earth, as it seemed 
to him, he realized that he was being piloted 
up some steps, and by the feeling of warmth 
he knew that he had left the open air. 

" The justice of the peace may be seated," 
said the ghost who had done all the talking. 

Mr. Dupont sat down and the cloth was 
quickly removed from his eyes, revealing to 
his astonished gaze the interior of a room 
dimly lighted by wa.\ candles. Every side 
was hung with black curtains, and on four 
black-covered stools facing him sat four 
white-robed spectres, while beside him stood 
another dressed like his companions. Be- 
fore he had time to more than wonder at his 
surroundings, the spokesman began: 

'■ Mr. Dupont, we have a solemn duty for 
you to perform. You are a justice of the 
peace in the world of the living, and a man 
dear to us on account of your noble life; 
therefore are you here. We have in these 
abodes of the dead two young shades re- 
cently come from the other world. Each of 
these died of a broken heart because a stern 
parent forbade them to marry. What do 
you think, sir, of such a parent as that ?" 

Mr. Dupont wiggled about uneasily in his 
chair, and at last he said: " I think, good 
shade, it was very wrong of him." 

" We knew you would," resumed the ghost, 
"' because you are a kind man, and one who 
loves his children. Now do we understand 
you to say that if the poor girl had been 
your child it would never have happened ? " 

" Surely it never would," replied the fright- 
ened Mr. Dupont. 

" We have not misjudged you, then," re- 
plied the shade, while the other four ghosts 
nodded approvingly. " We have summoned 
you in order that you may unite them in 
wedlock, so that in this world at least you 
may be happy. Such a marriage as this is 
not common among us, so we brought you 
here, a good justice of the peace, rather 
than a minister, who might have been 
shocked at these proceedmgs. You can 
marry them just as well as a clergyman. 
Now, sir, will you oblige us by marrying 
these two shades? If you will consent vou 
may depart at once to your home. Will 
you ? " 

Marry the two shades.'' Of course he 
would; anything to get away from this terri- 
ble spot. And so, without the precaution 
of stipulating his fee, he stammered out: 

"_0h, yes, surely, anything you wish." 

No sooner had he given his consent than 
one of the black curtains was drawn aside 
and two other beings in white entered and 
stood before him. The other shades rose, 
and Mr. Dupont, not wishing to be the only 
one to keep his seat, rose too. The good 
justice had never married shades; he did 
not know quite how to proceed. They 
looked exactly alike; he did not know which 
was the bride and which the groom. He 
wished he were well out of it, and the only 
way to gain his wish was to proceed quickly 
with the ceremony, and so he began at once. 
In some way he managed to get through, 
although he could not have told afterward 
how it was done. He turned to the bride 
when he said: " Do you take this woman 
to be your wedded wife ? " and to the groom 
when he should have addressed the bride; 
but at length, much to his relief, the " I do" 
was said by each, and the justice finished 
with the " I pronounce you man and wife." 

But all was not yet over. No sooner had 
the words left his lips than one of the beings 
before him threw aside his ghostly robe, and 

re, in a beautiful wedding gown, stood — 

his daughter, Margaret. Mr. Dupont started 
to spe ik, but he only gasped, for around 
him stood the other ghosts; they too had 
thrown aside their robes and stood revealed. 
Could he believe his eyes .•' Yes, there was 
no mistake, he had married his daughter to 
Charles Foster, in the presence of his wife, 
his son, and three family friends; and the 
justice knew enough of law to realize that 
the ceremony was binding. The black cur- 
tains, too, were torn down, and there they 
all stood in his own parlor. 

There was no help for it, consequently 
Mr. Dupont submitted, and someway alt his 
friends thought that he was very glad that 
the joke was played upon him; at any rate, 
in later days, as he trotted his grandchildren 
on his knees, he never tired of telling over 
and over again into their wondering ears the 
tale of the spectre wedding. — Frank D. 
Blodgett in the Amherst Literary Monthly. 

'Y'OUNG HoisKS- QobUM^J. 



Shedding His 

Thackeray's Hearty Meal. 

This pleasant story is told of Thackeray 
by a woman at whose house he visited. Af- 
ter having told a lot of delightful stories, Mr. 
Thackeray remarked that he must leave, he 
was so terribly hungry. We told him that 
we could give him a very good dinner. 
" There is nothing, my dears, you can give 
me," he said with a funny sigh, " for I can 
only eat the chop of a rhinoceros or a slice 
of an elephant." " Yes, I tan," exclaimed 
Dot, the three-year-old daughter of the 
house. She disappeared into a big cup- 
board, and soon emerged with a look of tri- 
umph on her fat little face, holding in her 
hands a wooden rhinoceros and an elephant 
from her toy Noah's ark. Hutting the two 
animals on a plate, she handed them with 
great gravity to Mr. Thackeray. The great 
man laughed and rubbed his hands with 
glee, and then, taking the child in his 
arms, kissed her, remarking: " Ah, little 
rogue, you already know the value of a 
kiss I '' Then he asked for a knife and fork, 
smacked his lips and pretended to devour 
the elephant and rhinoceros. 


— There is always room on top — especially 
for the largest strawberries in the box. 

— Young Authoress (reading MS. aloud) 
— " But perhaps I weary you ?" Enthusiastic 
friend — "O, no; I long to hear the end of 
your story." 

— Scads — "You say he left you no money?" 
Baggs — "No. You see he lost his health 
getting wealthy, and then he lost his wealth 
trying to get healthy." 

— Tommy — "Paw, when a man commits 
political suicide does he shoot his head oflri*" 
Mr. Figg — "No; merely his mouth ?" 

— New Wife — "To-morrow is your birth- 
day, darling, and I am going to stop at the 
jeweler's and buy you a present." Her 
Hubby — "Get something cheap, pet. I 
haven't paid him for my Christmas present 

— " What is a propaganda ? " inquired the 
teacher. The boy looked at the ceiling, 
wrinkled his forehead, wrestled with the 
question .a minute or two, and answered 
bravely that he guessed it was the brother of 
a proper goose. 

—Consumptive: " Yes, the doctor says 
I won't live six months if I stay here. Is 
your section of Florida healthy?" Florida 
Man: "Healthy? Half the people down 
there want to sell out and come North " 
"Eh? Why?" "Tired of life." 

— Her Idea of It.— Maudie's papa is 
night-editor on a newspaper — a fact which 
Maudie apparently hasn't learned; for, when 
some one asked her a few days ago what 
her father did for a living, she replied: " I 
div it up. I dess he's a burglar, 'tause he's 
out all night." 

— A: " Why have you thrashed your son 
so unmercifully ?■' Peasant: " Because he 
dreamed last night that he won 500 marks 
in the lottery and then went and spent every 
cent of it on a bicycle." 

Written for the Rubaj. Prkss by Isabei. Dari-ing. 

I beard a softly-cooing tone 
And happy, smothered laughter. 

And then a sob, and pitying words, 
So gently followed after. 

To where, just through the door ajar, 
Curled close within the corner, 

Was b'.ue-eyed Mabel all alone. 
Like little Jacky Horner. 

" Poor 'ittle bug ! " she said and sighed. 
Who stole you' head, I wonder? 
Did Kittie bite it off, or Dod 
Bang-slioot it wiz a funder ? 

" Oh, Oh ! what lots of long, long legs ! 
One, five, two-forty, maybe ! " 
And when I softly knelt beside 
The loving, wondering baby, 

She spread her chubby hand and cried. 
With trembling lips and tears of sorrow, 
" His bead is losled, mamma, see I 
Do make him one to-morrow ! 

" Get what? What's mi'scope? O I know, 
The spec'le wiz 'e footies. 
I see it now, and wee bit eyes. 
Such shiny, teenty beauties ! 

" What makes his legs so squirmy. Why 
They're all in loops and scoUups ! 
He tumbles all across my hand. 
Like Robby goes ker-wollups ! 

" He's pus 'in' off his panties, see I 
He didn't say ' Please 'scuse me.' 
His head's so "ittle he don't know 
It's nice to say ' Please 'scuse me.' " 

She gazed from where the shell-like form 
Still seemed with motion quaking 

To where its newer counterpart 
His toilet be was making. 

And then in wondering tones she asked, 

" O was he just a-bornin' ? 
He's one, he's two ! or did he die, 

And is it Gabri'l's mornin' ? " 

The Pope's Wit.— A Vatican corre- 
spondent relates the following story of the 
days of Pio Nono: A great French lady, 
having obtained an audience, threw herself 
at the Pope's feet and fervently thanked him 
for having restored her to health. " But 
how have I done it?" inquired the Pope. " I 
procured a stocking that belonged to your 
holiness,' she replied. " One of my stock- 
ings?" "Yes, I put the talisman on my 
diseased foot, and it has been completely 
cured." " Madame," replied the Pope, a 
little maliciously, " fortune has been very 
kind to you. You need only put on one of 
my stockings and your foot is healed, while 
I put on both my stockings every morn- 
ing and I can hardly walk." 

In the Changing Monsoons. 

We were upon an American trader, bound 
for Manilla. The Yellow sea is true to its 
name, being colored from the mud of the 
great Si river. It is open to every wind 
that blows, and to every current that 
and is always uneasy. 

The season was the worst of all the year, 
for it was just at the changing monsoons 
The captain was a daring Yankee skipper, 
and, with every inch of sail which the 
schooner could carry, he drove her like the 
gale itself over the angry Yellow sea. 

Just before daylight the men on the port 
side were thrown unceremoniously out of 
their bunks. There was a rush for the deck 
The wind had shifted without warning. The 
schooner had suddenly keeled. Men were 
cutting away the mainmast, for she was 
capsizing. Her bows were well under water 
before the strain was relieved, and she 
emerged, slowly, from the sea that had al- 
most engulfed her. 

She was a sorry-looking sight as she fell 
off before the gale, though the whole trans 
formation was the work of less than ten 
minutes. What we saw, too, was far from 
the worst. 

The captain's face was grave as he stood 
by the man at the wheel, watching the prow 
swinging a hundred feet to the lee at a sweep, 
then setting down into the dragging, seeth 
ing foam, as though it had no energy to rise 

The mate came aft and the captain said: 
" Man both the pumps and have the extra 
pumps ready. Set the carpenter at work if 
he can. Get the tarpaulins out and report." 
But he did not take his eyes from the prow. 

There was something in that weather- 
beaten man that fascinated me, in spite of 
the storm, as he stood there, with fixed eyes 
and folded arms, solely responsible for the 
lives and cargo about him, master of a leak- 
ing and disabled vessel in the midst of a ter- 
rible gale. All was hurry and confusion 
about him, but he did not heed it. There 
was no shadow of cowardide. He was calm- 
ly calculating the frail chances of life against 
the overwhelming probabilities of death. 

The mate reported that the leak was out 
of reach and that the water was coming in 
nearly 800 strokes an hour. 

" The capacity of the pumps is a thousand 
stokes," replied the captain. " Keep them 
hard at it." 

All day long the sailors worked at the 
pumps. The captain was everywhere, re- 
lieving an exhausted sailor, working at the 
ropes, watching the horizon for a sail, exam- 
ining the water in the hold, always the same I 
calm, quiet, bronzed face, without a trace o( S, 

anxiety even, except in his Yankee-blue eyes. 
The water rose and rose in spite of the 
tarpaulins and in spite of the pumps. The 
leaks were increasing and the gale did not 

All night long the work went on, and at 
daylight it was the worst of all. Old, 
bronzed sailors were fairly white, strong 
men lay utterly exhausted upon the deck, 
rolling as the vessel labored in the heavy 
seas. Even the schooner seemed to have 
given up the struggle. She drove her bows 
sullenly into the waves, with no efJort to rise 
above them. Only the captain was un- 

When it was fully light, the captain, naked 
to the waist, appeared among the men at 
the pumps. " Bovs," said he, " the water is 
gaining on us. If the gale lets up we may 
hold her till daylight to-morrow. If it keeps 
on we shall go down with the sun. We are 
a hundred miles from the shore, making 
four miles an hour. There are two boats 
left. Those who wish can take them now." 

There was silence for a moment. Even 
the gale whipping through the rigging 
seemed to wait and listen as one poor, hag- 
gard fellow who had fallen upon a coil of 
rope staggered to his deserted post, exclaim- 

" To the pumps, men! For life and the 
captain! Who dares desert the ship ?" 

That was enough. The pumps worked 
away as they had not for 12 hours. The 
wind abated more and more. The tarpau- 
lins caught, and two hours later came the 
cheering news that we were gaining on the 
water. Still, for more than 20 hours we 

I have seen the ship that carried me on 
fire, 1 have been cast upon the rocks at mid- 
night in a hurricane at the foot of the Red 
sea, but I would rather go through both 
again than repeat those two days and nights 
upon the Yellow sea. 

Not a sail appeared, but we sighted land 
at last, reached the harbor, and ran the 
schooner aground. 

As boats started with the ropes for shore, 
and the sailors burst into a cry of joy, the 
Yankee skipper, who had kept hope and 
strength in us all, pressed his hand over his 
eyes tor an instant, and then fell senseless to 
the deck.— Lieut.-Col. Thorndike, in July 

Dick's Afterthought. — A certain 
celebrated Southern judge, who was not a 
believer in revealed truth, was in the habit 
of twitting his body servant on rel'gious 
matters. " Dick," he said one day, " you 
say the devil besets you; now I want to 
know why he lets a sinner like me oflf free .''" 
Dick could not tell why, but the next day 
he went duck-shooting with his master. The 
first time the judge fired into the flock he 
killed two or three and wounded as many 
more. At once the hunter threw down his 
gun, and with sticks and stones tried to 
make sure of his wounded game, but paid no 
attention to the dead ones floating down the 
stream. " Massa," called Dick, " it jist 
come to my mind why de devil troubles me 
so much, sah, an' lets you 'lone. You like 
de dead duck; he done got you safe, sah. I 
s de wounded duck; I is tryin' to get away, 
an' he feared I gwine to do it. If you wuz 
to flutter a little, sah, and mek' out you 
gwine git 'way, I spec' he mek a big splash 
arter you, same he do arter me, sah." 


Absolutely Pure. 

A cream of tartar baking powder. High- 
est of all In leavening strength. — LaUsi V. 
GovtmmtU Food Rtfiort, 

Jolt 28, 1802 

f ACIFie f^URAb f RESS, 


jJgricultural X^otes, 


Thkrmalito Feuit Items. — Oroville Register : 
The fruit trees at Thermalito this season are 
doing better than ever before. The new or- 
chards are being taken excellent care of and 
the ground is in fine condition. The orange 
trees are exceptionally large and thrifty and 
they are thoroughly cultivated. This fact 
noticeable and patent to all, that whenever the 
land has been well cultivated the trees have 
thriven marvelously. On the other hand, 
whenever poor and stunted trees are found the 
ground shows that it has not been kept in 
good condition. We never saw the whole 
colony looking better than it does now. On 
every hand improvements are going ahead, 
land is being prepared for winter, when a large 
additional acreage will be planted. We learn 
that a 60-acre olive grove will be planted next 
winter on land east of Chas. Retson's residence 
This is higher toward Table Mountain than 
any land yet planted in the vicinity. Messrs 
Fogg, Harkness, Martin and others are inter- 
ested in this big grove. Mr. Stanton will put 
out 17 acres of oranges this coming winter, and 
many other improvements are contemplated 
There will be a good orange crop at Thermalito 
this fall and winter. 


Grain Without Ikeigation. — Bakersfield 
Californian: Between this valley proper and 
mountains which encompass it upon three 
sides, there are elevated mesas which until re 
cently have been considered comparatively 
worthless, as irrigation by the present sy^^em 
of canals is out of the question. But of late, 
led perhaps by the remarkably good results in 
the similar-lying lands around the mountain 
valleys of Tehachapi, different parties have 
been sowing grain, and it seems reasonably as 
sured that good crops can be obtained for prob- 
ably four seasons out of five. It is generally 
conceded that the best way is to summer- 
fallow, then, in the fall, cross plow. It will not 
do to scratch the ground, the plowing must be 
deep — ten inches will be three times as pro 
ductive as three inches. And it is also advisa- 
ble to sow the grain with a drill rather than 
broadcast, as by that means it roots deeper un- 
der the ground and is better projected when 
first sprouting if a few hot days should come. 
This season, Pogson & Bailey have 330 acres in 
section 34, which they cut for hay, and are 
now regretting it, because, had it been har- 
vested it would have yielded at least 13 sacks 
of grain to the acre. J. G. Stahl has 30 acres, 
and .T. F. Morris 45 acres, outside of the Tejou 
fence, that would have yielded handsomely if 
harvested, and has cut form one and a half to 
three tons to the acre. Within the boundaries 
of the Tejon rancbo, 1350 acres were sown in 
grain. It is being cut and stacked under con- 
tract, by the Oldershaw brothers of Antelope, 
and will probably average two tons of grain- 
hay to the acre. Had this been harvested, it 
would have returned a splendid yield of grain. 
The lesson of these results is, there are now 
tens of thousands of acres of idle land able to 
yield a handsome revenue under cultivation 
without irrigation, which the owners, if wise 
should no longer neglect. 

Faeming on the Weed Patch. — Grangeville 
Cor. Visalia Delta: George Mashmayer reports 
things flourishing in the Weed Patch. His 
father, William Mashmayer, will clear $20,000 
over and above expenses this year on his grain. 
It is going 16 sacks to the acre. They own 
their own combination harvester. But little 
water is required for irrigating purposes, and 
what is needed they furnish with a steam pump. 
They have 80 acres set to fruit, which is two 
years old and in a thrifty condition. Mr. 
Mashmayer has a section and George has a 
quarter section, all fenced rabbit tight. He was 
on his way to San Francisco to purchase an- 
other quarter section adjoining his present 
holdings. Mr. M. will be remembered as the 
owner of the place now known as the Del 
Monte vineyard, opposite George Reaves' place. 
George M. also stated that two years since lund 
in the vicinity of the Weed Patch was selling 
at $3 to $5 per acre, but now it is $25 to $30 per 
acre. Although George thinks the Weed Patch 
is a dandy, he does not hesitate to say that the 
Lucerne country is far the best. 

Los AriReles. 

Pomona Apeicot Crop.— Cor. L. A. Express : 
The latest and best reports of the apricot crop 
in Pomona this season are that the yield will 
run over 1000 tons. 

Artesian Wells. — L. A. Farmer: Los An- 
geles county has 627 artesian wells, the second 
largest of any county in the State. Orange 
county leads with 649. The average depth of 
the artesian wells of this county is 187 feet, the 
shallowest being 20 feet and the deepest 600 feet 
deep. These spoutera cost an average of $394 
each, and flow at an average rate of 192 gallons 
per minute. The ordinary flow from one of 
these underground streams would therefore 
cover one acre about ten inches deep every 24 


Fine Wheat. — Grass Valley Telegraph: Mr. 
Peaslee, who has a farm about 16 miles south- 
erly from Grass \ alley, brings us a sample of 
wheat grown on his place this year. The wheat 
is the White Australian. The stalks are fully 
five feet long and the heads are large with full 
and plump white grain. Mr. Peaslee has just 
cut eight acres of this wheat, and it will give 
over 35 bushels to the acre. The wheat patch 
was beautiful to look upon before it was cut, 
the heads all being on a level. Mr. Peaslee 
holds that a man reaps what he sows, and that 
when he plants good seed he will get good re- 
sults. He says our foothills, with proper plant- 

ing and cultivation, can beat the valley sections 
in the way of raising grain. Mr. Peaslee's 
barley this year is as fine as his wheat, and it 
is the same thing with all his crops. 


Dried Apricot Crop. — Orange News: The 
output of dried apricots from Orange county 
this year will be at least 300 tons. The fiuit is 
in good demand, and offers of ten cenis per 
pound have been freely made. The bulk of the 
crop has already been sold at that price, bu 
many are holding for an advance with good 
prospects of receiving it. Ten cents is a fair 
price, and the chances are that those who sell 
now will do as well as those who hold. 


A Mountain Creamery. — F. S. Chapin in 
Sacramento Record- Union: At Sierraville, A. S. 
Nichols has gathered a dairy of nearly a hun- 
dred grade Durham cows. He has a nice 
creamery, with De Laval separator and modern 
appliances, and sells no buiter less than 25 
cents per pound. He has a hill range for dry 
cows and beef cattle a few miles from the home 
dairy and carries on quite a butcher business, 
as a man needs to do who is buying cows for 
dairy purposes. He bought three high-priced 
sires because they were Hoists ins, and has 
reached a point in bis dairy education where 
he is in the market for a bull representing a 
long line of ancestors noted for prepotency in 
the direction of butter. He is well pleased 
with the beef qualities of the breed, but wants 
a stock that will produce butter as well. His 
grade calves look almost as fine as a lot of 
thoroughbreds, but it is partly owing to his ex- 
cellent system of feeding the warm milk di- 
rectly from th separator in such a way that 
each calf gets his share in a clean pan. He has 
a row of 40 stanchions, with gates leading to 
two outside pens and a third to the calf pasture. 
For the first week or two, the calves are kept in 
Ihe kindergarten on milk as it comes from the 
cow. Here they are taught to drink. Then 
they are promoted to a place in the pasture. 
When feeding time comes, 40 calves are turned 
at once from the pens to the stanchions. Each 
has his share of milk in a clean pan that was 
scalded since last feeding. No one can disturb 
his neighbor. The older calves are getting a 
little oilcake every day, and many of them are 
now fit for veal. Mr. Nichols intends to keep 
on testing, selecting and breeding cows, until 
he gets 100 that reach his high standard, pro- 
ducing not less than 300 pounds of butter per 
year. He is almost equally interested in swine, 
and is a good customer for the best Berkshire 
breeders. He killed, for the Fourth, a grade 
Berkshire that was 90 days old and dressed 68 
pounds. The mothers produce seven to eight 
at a litter, and the whole crowd will average 
one pound live weight for each day of their 
age. A large share of this remarkable result is 
due to their being fed on plenty of milk as it 
comes warm from the separator. 

San Bernardino. 

Highland Fruit and Honey Notes. — Cor 
Times-Index : The apri'-ot crop is of very in- 
significant proportions this season, hardly war- 
ranting the expense of picking. The peach 
crop, however, is a very large one, and the 
quality of the fruit promises to be exceptional 
ly fine. Dried fruit buyers, of whom there are 
a number in the field at present, are offering 9 
to 9i cents per pound for dried apricots, and at 
these figures have managed to pick up an occa- 
sional small lot. Our advice to deciduous fruit 
growers is to hold their products for higher 
prices, which will assuredly rule later on in the 
season, as both domestic aiid Eastern markets 
are completely depleted of dried and canned 
fruits of all descriptions, and will, on account 
of shortage in Eastern fruit crops, necessarily 
be compelled to purchase extensively of our 
products. Similar conditions are prevalent in 
the honey market, and our apiarists would be 
exceedingly foolish to dispose of their crops 
early in the season at 5 cents per pound, which 
several buyers are now offering for extracted. 
We are pleased to note, however, that the 
apiarists are not inclined to accept the above 
price, and are holding for 6 cents per pound, 
which they will undoubtedly obtain. 

San Diego. 

An Enemy op the Red Spidkb Discoveeed. 
San Diegan: Horticultural Commissioner Jones 
reports a new discovery in the form of a natural 
enemy to the destructive red spider. The red 
spider has become one of the most destructive 
foes to horticultural interests, and especially on 
the uplands near the coast. It has been par- 
ticularly troublesome at Chula Vista, and all 
treatment has failed to permanently eradicate 
it. Commissioner Jones observed lately, how- 
ever, that in an orchard previously aflected, the 
spider was disappearing without special treat- 
ment. He looked for a cause, and finally found 
it in a short-winged fly. Commissioner Jones 
will have specimens of this fly on exhibition, 
and will report further results. 

Santa Barbara. 

Feuit Crop. — S. B. Independent : At the 
monthly meeting of the Santa Barbara County 
Horticultural Society, Mr. Knapp of Carpin- 
teria reported apricots abundant, but not up to 
the usual standard of quality; peaches were 
said to be fine; pears early, with good prospect; 
walnuts, heavy crop and doing well. Mr. 
Stevens reported on Montecito. He said there 
was a large cron of apricots, but bein^ under 
size there was no sale for them, while Mr. 
Knapp stated that at Carpinteria apricots were 
bringing from ten to fifteen dollars per ton, 
delivered at the depot; that 20 boxes of 50 
pounds each was a good day's work for a pick- 
er; 50 boxes are hauled per load to the station, 
thence shipped to Newhall to be dried in the 
sun. Mr. Holden of Goleta reported a fair crop 
of fruit in his vicinity. Walnuts were looking 
well; apricots small. (It seems a great pity we 

have ho factory here for the manufacture of 
jam and jelly, when fruits are ofif size and abun- 
dant. It would present a desirable addition to 
our resources and give much needed employ 
ment to women and children.) Owing to the 
unfavorable season, so Mr. Holden stated, but 
little planting of orchards had been done. Mr. 
Stevens said ihat 2500 lemon trees were about 
being planted in his imme'liate upighborhood 
besides the smaller groves that had been 

Santa Clara. 

Cream of Tartar Works.— S. J. Mercury: 
A new industry, and one of great importance 
to the county, too, has been established on 
Bush street, near the narrow gauge depot. The 
California Cream of Tartar Works, of which G. 
De Latour is manager, were opened in San Jose 
last summer and $10,000 were expended in the 
erection of a building and plant on the present 
site of the factory. The cream of tartar is made 
from the pomace from the wineries, which be 
fore the establishment was a total loss, but for 
which Mr. De Latour piys $1.50 per ton, and 
he uses all there is to be had in the county. 
The pomace is first boiled in tanks on the up- 
per floor and then carried by a large crane and 
lowered into a press on the second floor. Here 
the liquor is pressed out and run into large 
copper tanks, where it is crystallized by cooling. 
There is very little machinery to be operated 
Mr. De Latour says he proposes to spend $7000 
in improvements before the season opens this 

Fruit Notes. — Los Gatos Cor. San Jose Mer- 
cury: The fruit-gathering season may be con- 
sidered fairly commenced. Early peaches are 
coming in quHe plentifully, though some weeks 
will elapse before the varieties sought by the 
packing compnnies will be in condition. Apri- 
cots of all varieties are beginning to show the 
golden hue, which means that every orchardist 
must have a full team for picking in a short 
time. As usual, the Moorpark is not a full 
crop. The size, however, is all that can be ex- 
pected. Other varieties are not quite up to the 
average size. Conflicting reports as to abun- 
dance or scarcity occur, depending upon 
whether a buyer or seller is interviewed. Aver- 
aging the reports, a fair crop may be expected. 
The prices certainly have an upward tendency. 
It is now known that the dried fruit of last 
eason has been pretty much cleaned up or 
consumed, leaving but a small margin until the 
new fruit gets into market, and there is a gen- 
eral tendency to hold for good prices or dry on 
the farms. 

Wine Notes. — Los Gatos Cor. San Jose Mer- 
cury: According to the best accounts, the wine 
interests are looking better than for some years 
back. The Saratoga and Los Gatos Winery as 
well as the Los Gatos winery, has worked off 
nearly all its last year's stock to good advan- 
tage — a fact thus proved by the prices of stock